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BULLETIN 



flliiioiS State If Hboriitisr 



NATURAL HISTORY 



URBANA, ILLINOIS. 



VOLUME IIL 



contributioxs to a knowledge of the natural 
History of Illinois. 

1887-1895. 



PEORIA, ILL. 

.). W FRANKS i SONS, PRINTERS AND BINDERS. 
1896 



COx\TENTS 



I'ACE. 

Article I.— Notes on Some Illinois Miciogasters, with Descriptions of 

New Species. By Clarence M. Weed. August, IssT 1 

Article II.— Jassida? of Illinois. Part I. By Charles W. Wcjodwortu. 

(3 Plates.) October, 1S87 y 

Article III.— On the Parasites of the Lesser Apple Leaf-roller, Tema 

minuta (Robs.). By Clarence M. Weed. October, 18S7 :iy 

Article IV.— On the AnatDmy and Histology of a New Earthworm (Dip- 
locardi communis, gen. et sp. nov.). Ry H. (iARMAN. (5 
Plates.) August, 18H8 47 

Article V.— A Descriptive Catalogue of the PhalangiiniL' of Illinois. By 

Clarence ]\I. Weed. (8 Figures.) January, ISW 7<.< 

Article VI. — A Partial Bibliograpiiy of the PhalaiigUnaeof North Anier. 

ica. By Clarence M. Weed. January, isno <(W 

Article VII. On an American Earthworm of the Family Phreoryctida-. 

By S. A. Forbes. (8 Piate.s.) September, 18U0 107 

Article VIII.— An American Terrestrial Leec)L By S. A. Forbes. Sej)- 

tember, 1S90 ll'.* 

Article IX.— A Preliminary Report on the Animals of the Mississip|ii 
Bottoms near Quincy, Illinois, in August, isss. Part 1. By 11. 
G arman. September, 1S9() 123 

Article X.— Nctcs on Illinois Reptilesand Amphibians, iucUuling sev- 
eral Specimens not before recorded from the Northern States 
By H. Garman. September, 18!tO IS.-j 

Article XI. Descriptions of New Cynipida' in the Collection of the 

Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. By C. P. (Jillette. • 
(1 Plate.) April, 1891 UM 

Article XII.— Sixth Contribution to a Knowledge of the Life History of 
certain Little-known Apliididai By Clarence M. Weed. May, 
iHUi :?<i7 

Article XIII. A Synopsis of the Reptilesand Ampliibians of llliiidi-^ 

By H. Garman. (7 Plates.) October, l>s'.t2 J I "^ 

Article XIV.- Bibliograpliical and Synonymical CatiHogue of the !»'- 
scribed Membracidie of North Aim^rica. Hy K. W. (;(jdini;. Jan- 
nary, ISiM :<i«i 

Article XV.- Synopsis of the Subfamilies and Genera of the North 
AuM'rican Cercopida\ vvitii a Bibliographical and Synonymical 
Catalogue of tlie Described Species of North America. By K. W . 
GoDlNfi. June, 1895 I^^^' 



BULLETIN 

OF THE 

ILLINOIS STATE LABORATORY 

OF 

Natural History. 

VOLUME III. 

Akticle I. — Notes on Some Illinois Microg asters: with De- 
scriptio7is of New Species. By Clarence M. Weed, M. Sc. 

[In working over the material by which the interesting 
group of Mierogasters is represented in the collections of the 
Laboratory, so much of interest was found that it was thought 
worth while to record at this time some of the more important 
facts. The writer desires to express his thanks to Prof. S. A. 
Forbes for permission to study the collections and use the 
notes, as well as for many other favors; to Dr. C. V. Riley, who 
has very kindly verified the determinations; and to Dr. A. S. 
Packard, Prof. H. Garman, and Mr. Chas. W. Woodworth for 
favors received.] 

MiCROPLiTis CERATOMi^, Riley. 

This species was bred by Dr. Riley from Ceratomia quad- 
ricornis^ in Missouri.* During the summer of 1885, from a 
larva of the sphinx just mentioned, confined in a breeding cage 
at Champaign, there emerged eighty-four of the Microplitis 
grubs, which spun parallel, leathery, ribbed cocoons upon the 
back of their host. The cocoons were formed in two longitud- 
inal series, one on each side of the dorso-median line of the 
larva, which were connected with a posterior transverse series. 
On the 25th of May, 1886, the adults began to emerge, and con- 
tinued to issue until June 5. They agree with Riley's descrip- 
tion (1. c), except that they are larger, the majority of them 
being 3 mm. long, and some even reaching 3.5 mra. The 

*Notes on North American Mierogasters, Trans. St. Louis Acad. 
Sci., Vol. IV., p. 303 [8]. 



2 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

depth of coloring of the costa and stigma varies considerably 
in the same lot of specimens, in the majority of them being of 
the normal piceous, but in occasional specimens becoming 
lighter. From another lot of Ceratomia larvie, there were ob- 
tained August 1 of the same season, similar cocoons, the adults 
from which began to emerge August 12, and all had issued 
within a few days thereafter. Dr. Riley mentions (1. c.) hav- 
ing bred this large variety from inasses of cocoons spun regu- 
ularly side by side, as were our specimens, but having no rib« 
as ours have. 

MiCROPLITIS MAMESTR^, Sp. n. 

Under this name I describe a well-marked species bred 
from the larvae of Mamestra picta, at Normal, in 1884, In a 
breeding cage containing a large lot of Mamestra larvae there 
were noticed July 2, two specimens, each having a peculiar 
ribbed cocoon fastened transversely between the anal prolegs. 
These cocoons were isolated, and August 23 there had emerged 
from them the two Microplitis females here described. 

Cocoon. — 5 mm. long, 2 mm. wide. Reddish brown, cylin- 
drical, with a pointed cap at each end, and about ten slightly 
oblique ribs running longitudinally. Tough and without loose 
threads. The cap forms a perfect circle, and in the specimens 
at hand one on each cocoon had been entirely separated by the 
insect before emerging. The corners are well developed, so 
that a longitudinal section, without the caps, would be of the 
form of a rectangular parallelogram. 

Described from two specimens found attached, singly, be- 
tween the anal prolegs of larvae of Mamestra pida, Harr. 

Imago, ?. — Length, 3 mm. Black; antennae, mandibles, 
and labrum, reddish brown; palpi, and legs, including whole of 
coxae, and more or less of the under side of abdomen, together 
with a portion of the margins of terga of first and second ab- 
dominal segments ferruginous; claws blackish. Wings hyaline; 
tegulae, with inner portions of costa and nervures, approaching 
ferruginous (being slightly more yellowish than legs), and outer 
portion testaceous. Inner half of stigma same color as inner 
portions of costa, nearly transparent; outer portions darker, 
clouded. Antennae not quite as long as body; joints 3-15, 



Some Illinois Microgasters. 3 

slightly constricted at middle, the terminal joint appearing 
flattened when seen from above, and enlarged at the middle and 
tapering to a point when seen from the side. Mesonotum 
confluently punctured. Metanotum coarsely reticulated, the 
posterior margin of the metascutum being raised, and the 
metascutellum having a prominent longitudinal median carina. 
Abdomen shorter than thorax; basal segment vertical, the ter- 
gum finely reticulated, with a median groove extending from 
anterior margin two thirds of its length, and a slight tubercle 
on middle of posterior margin; tergum of second and following 
segments smooth and shining, with sparse pubescence. Radial 
vein arising from middle of stigma, nearly forming a right 
angle with basal nervure of the quadrate areolet; a white spot 
on cubital vein at base of areolet, and a7iother on the vein clos- 
ing the areolet exteriorly, just before its juncture with the 
cubital vein. Side of stigma bordering first cubital cell very 
slightly swollen; that bordering radial cell straight. Apical 
nervures slender, but easily seen. 

Described from two females bred from Mamestra 2>icta, 
Harr. 

This species is very distinct from M. ceratomke^ Riley, and 
is easily distinguished from M. gortynce, Riley, by its larger size, 
quadrate areolet, red posterior coxae, etc. 

Apanteles congeegatus. Say. 

A long series of this abundant and variable species is to be 
found in the Laboratory collections. Adult specimens' have 
been taken with the sweep-net at Normal, McLean County, July 
1, 1882, and June 27, 1883; at Anna, Union County, September 
13, 1883; and at Urbana, Champaign County, June 15, 1885. 
Some were also collected in woods near Pekin, Tazewell County, 
August 14, 1883, and still others were found among some col- 
lections made by beating the foliage of Ampelopsis quinqiiefo- 
lia at Urbana, May 23, 1885. 

Large numbers of specimens of this Apanteles have also 
been bred at various times from the larvae of our two common 
species of tomato-worms, — Phlegethontius Carolina^ and P. 
celeus. Cocoons obtained from the former species were 
received from Swan wick. 111., Sept. 1, 1884, and within five days 



4 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

the flies had all emerged. Another lot was bred at Normal dur- 
ing the same season, the dates of emergence from the cocoons 
being almost the same as for those just mentioned. In 1879, 
another series whs bred from larvae of this sphinx in August. 
During August, 1882, and September, 1884, these parasites 
were also bred from P. celeus^ one lot being collected at 
Normal, and the other at Godfrey. The cocoons of all these 
specimens were of the usual white kind, with little loose silk. 

The variety of A. congregatus bred by Mr. Scudder front 
Pieris rapce., described by Dr. Packard* as Microgaster pieridis, 
and referred by Dr. Rileyf to the species mentioned (the variety 
name pieridivora being substituted for pieridis, because the 
latter was preoccupied), was frequently bred during the summer 
of 1886 from larvae of Pieris rapce, brought to the Laboratory 
because they showed signs of disease. Especial mention may 
be made of three lots of the parasites bred by Prof. Garman, 
the cocoons of one lot being of a lemon-yellow color; those of 
another being of about the same shade, excepting a slight green- 
ish tinge in some specimens; and those of the third being creamy 
white, with scarcely a trace of yellow. Yet there is no men- 
tionable difference in the adults of the different lots. There 
were, on an average, about thirty cocoons obtained from each 
Pieris larva. 

The Apanteles larvae of one set emerged from the skin of 
their host August 11, and came forth from the cocoons as adults 
August 29. Another lot formed cocoons September 2, and the 
adults were found dead in the breeding box September 22. 

On page 104 of the Twelfth Report of the State Entomo- 
logist of Illinois, Prof. Forbes has described an Apanteles bred 
from the larvae of Mesographe (Orohena) rimosalis, Guenee, 
under the name Apanteles orobenoe. A critical examination of 
a larger series of specimens than was then at hand, shows that 
this is but a variety of Apanteles congregatus, distinguished by 
the dark anterior and intermediate coxae and trochanters. In 
some specimens these parts of the front and middle legs are 
almost as light-colored as in the normal specimens from sphinx 

*Proc. Bost. See. Nat. Hist., Vol. XXI., p. 26. 
jAm. Nat., Yol. XVI., p. 680. 



Some Illinois Microgasters. 5 

larvae. Hence these insects should be known as A. cottgregdtus, 
Say, var. orobence, Forbes. 

Apanteles militaris, Walsh. 

This well-known species, as would be expected from a 
knowledge of its habits, was found in especial abundance dur- 
ing the years when the army worm was destructive. In 1882 
specimens were sent to the office by Mr. D. S. Harris, of Cuba, 
111., with the statement that he had bred them from the army 
worm, which was then very abundant in that vicinity. Bur- 
ring the same season, this notorious pest was destructively 
abundant in certain portions of McLean County, but its opera- 
tions were rapidly checked by A. niilifaris, which is the species 
referred to by Prof. Forbes on page 102 of his First Report (the 
twelfth of the series). Describing the history of a brood of 
worms observed in a certain field, he writes: "When first no- 
ticed, on the 24th of June, these worms were doing serious 
damage to a heavy growth of timothy on high ground, march- 
ing from one side of the lawn to the other. By the 3d of July, 
the season for the transformation to pupse had been reached, 
but apparently not over twenty-five per cent, of the worms suc- 
ceeded in effecting the change, the remainder dying in such 
numbers that the ground was reeking with a sickening stench. 
At the same time clusters of the cocoons of one of the common 
parasites of the army worm were found everywhere abundant 
on the surface of the ground, and in some cases on the dried 
remains of the army worm itself. Of seventy-six pupa? of the 
worm, collected in this field at this time, but one reached 
maturity." From cocoons collected in this field July 2, the 
adult Apanteles continued to emerge until July 20. 

The only specimens bred in 1886 were from a mass of 
thirty-nine white cocoons loosely fastened togther, parallel to 
each other, found on a leaf of Indian corn in the field, August 
2. The fliies emerged August 11. 

Apanteles ga.g(ecije, Riley. 

A single specimen (?) of this species was bred during May, 
1886, from a larva of Teras minnia^ Robinson (inaUvorana, 
Le B.; Cinderella^ Riley). The cocoon was attached to a leaf. 
It is thin and white, 6 mm. long and about one third as wide. 



6 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

Apanteles sakrothrip^, sp. n. 

On June 30, 1884, there was noticed in a breeding cage, 
at Normal, containing larvae of Sarrothripa lintneriana^ a dead 
larva in an imperfect cocoon, surrounded by cocoons of some 
hymenopterous parasite. A few days later there emerged from 
the latter six specimens of a well-marked Apanteles, for which 
I propose the above name. Unfortunately the cocoons were 
not saved, so that I am unable to describe them at this time.* 

Imago. — Length 2.5 mm. 5, ?. Black; palpi white; labrum 
and mandibles testaceous; antenuEB ferruginous; legs light red 
except posterior coxae, which are black. Wings hyaline; tegulae 
whitish; veins pale yellow except apical portion of costa which, 
with the stigma, is testaceous. Lateral membranous margins of 
terga of the three anterior segments, posterior portion of ter- 
gum of third segment, and sides and ventrum of abdomen, 
testaceous, lighter anteriorly. Dorsal portion of abdomen, ex- 
cept the two anterior terga, piceo- testaceous. Mesonotum 
shining, with distant, very shallow, punctures, many specimens 
having a slightly depressed area on the posterior portion of 
the mesoscutum, each side of the dorso- median line. Scutellum 
of nietathorax with punctures on its anterior portion, and 
finely reticulated posteriorly; without median carina. Tergum 
of first abdominal segment longer than wide, finely rugose, 
narrowing behind. Tergum of second segment also finely ru- 
gose, the wrinkles diverging obliquely from the anterior mar- 
gin: sides membranous. Terga of remaining segments smooth 
and shining. Ovipositor concealed. Radial vein arising 
slightly beyond the middle of the stigma. 

Described from six specimens (5 ?, 1 $) bred from a larva 
of Sarrothripa Untneriana. 

Much resembling A. congregatus and A. smerinthi, but 
easily distinguished from former by its shining mesonotum, and 
from latter by the rugose abdominal terga. 

Apanteles ornigis, sp. n. 

In the mines made by the larvas of the apple Ornix (0. 
geminatella, Pack. ) in apple leaves, at Normal, there were found 
March 21, 1886, many peculiar white, banded, cocoons of some 
hymenopterous parasite. Between April 27 and May 10 there 



Some Illinois Microgasters. 7 

emerged specimens of a new species of Apanteles, for which the 
ahove name is proposed. When the cocoons were collected, the 
Apanteles larvae had not yet changed to pupse. 

This seems to be a common parasite of the Ornix named, 
as it was very abundant in the Normal nursery; and I have^ 
found it almost everywhere in the State where its host has 
been observed. 

Cocoon. — Length, 3 mm. Width, 1 mm. Oblong cy- 
lindrical; smooth, white, with a darker appearing central band 
about .5 mm. wide. The darker appearance of this band is 
caused, not by any difference in the color of the silk, but because 
the cocoon is there very much thinner than at the ends. To 
each end is attached a cord of fine silken threads, which are 
also fastened to the sides of the leaf-mine, thus suspending the 
cocoon after the manner of a hammock. 

Imago. — Length 2 to 2.5 mm. 3, ?. Black; palpi white; 
labrum and mandibles piceo-testaceous. Legs of female 
light red except base of posterior coxse, apical half of posterior 
tibiae, and posterior tarsi, which are dusky. First pair of legs 
of male light red, except coxas and apical joint, which are black- 
ish; second pair with more or less black on coxae, femora, and 
tibiae; posterior pair fuscous, with proximal portions of femora 
and tibiae lighter, and coxae black. Sides and ventral portions 
of anterior segments of the abdomen with more or less testa- 
ceous coloring, especially in the males. Wings hyaline; tegu- 
lae piceous; veins testaceous; stigma darker. Antennae pice- 
ous; slightly longer than the body. Scutum of mesothorax 
with rather distant shallow punctures, shining; scutellum also 
shining, with a few very shallow punctures. Scutellum of me- 
tathorax large, quadrate, reticulated, without median carina. 
Terga of first two abdominal segments and base of tergum of 
third segment finely reticulate; remainder smooth and shining. 
Tergum of basal segment narrowing posteriorly, with mem- 
branous testaceous borders. Ovipositor one third as long as 
abdomen. Radial vein arising beyond the middle of the 
stigma. 

Described from twelve specimens (8 5, 4 ?), bred from 
Ornix geminatella, Pack. 



8 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

Apanteles crambi, sp. n. 

On the 13th of June, 1886, 1 found in a breeding cage con- 
taining larvEe of the root web worm, Crambus zeellus, Fernald, 
collected in the vicinity of Champaign, a Crambus cocoon con- 
taining a dead larva and several Microgaster cocoons. From 
the latter there emerged between June 19 and 22 several speci- 
mens of a well-marked species of Apanteles, for which the above 
name is proposed. Specimens exactly similar were bred during 
July from larvae of Crambus exsiccatus infesting lawns at 
Champaign. Doubtless this insect will aid materially in check- 
ing the ravages of these species of Crambus which are so dif- 
ficult to subdue by artificial means. 

Cocoon. — Length, 3 mm. White, thin, loosely fastened 
together within the cocoon of the host. 

Imago. — Length, 2 mm. 5, ?. Black; palpi white; man- 
dibles testaceous; ventrum of abdomen, together with the ter- 
gum of the third abdominal segment testaceous, lighter anteri- 
orly. Terga of segments posterior to third, piceo-testaceous. 
Legs light red, except claws of front and middle pair, and tips 
of femora, together with the tarsi of posterior pair, which are 
piceo-testaceous, and posterior coxge, which are black, tipped 
with red. Wings hyaline; tegulae and proximal portion 
of costa testaceous; stigma and apical portion of costa 
darker, nearly piceous; veins whitish. Antenna? piceous; 
those of female shorter than the body, of male slightly longer. 
Mesothorax closely punctured, shining. Scutellum of raeta- 
thorax reticulate. Terga of two first abdominal segments lon- 
gitudinally rugulose, remainder smooth and shining. Ovipositor 
concealed. Radius arises slightly beyond the middle of the 
stigma. 

Described from many specimens, bred from larva? of Cram- 
bus zeellus, Fernald, and C. exsiccatus^ Zeller.. 



Article IL — Jassidce of Illinois. Paet L* By Charles 

W. WOODWORTH. M. S. 



FAMILY JASSIDiE Stal. 

The insects included under the name Jassidye, form a 
large and well-defined,'natural group. They are readily distin- 
guishable from members of the allied families as follows: from 
Cicadidse by the possession of but two ocelli (or none) instead 
of three, as in the latter family; from Cercopida? by having 
broad transverse posterior coxae instead of conical 'ones, and 
having the posterior tibiee prismatic instead 'of round; and, 
lastly, from Membracidas by having the thorax only slightly 
convex and not strongly declivous. Aside from this there is a 
general resemblance between forms of the same family, so that 
they may be very readily distinguished at a glance; but the above 
characters are useful chiefly for 'doubtful cases, before the 
student becomes familiar with the various forms. 

By Linnseus, in his Sijsfema Natur<v^ this family together 
with the above enumerated related ones was first all included 
in the single genus Cicada, which was thus characterized: 

" Rostrum inflexed. Antennae setaceous. Wings 4, mem- 
branous, deflexed. Feet (generally) saltatorial." 

Later, GeofEroy proposed the name Tettigonia for those hav- 
ing but two ocelli, reserving Cicada for those having three ocelli 
situated on the vertex. Fabricius in his Entoniologia Systematica., 
1794, seems to have misunderstood Geoffroy, for he used Tetti- 
gonia for Cicada and applied the latter name to our] present 
group Jassidae, having separated from them^the Cercopida? and 
Membracidae as genera, giving them the names Cercopis and 

*The present article includes only the subfamily Tettigoninae. I 
hope soon' to .complete the>emaining part- 

I have, made use of 'the.' collections and library of the State Labora- 
tory of Natural History in preparing the present paper, and wish here 
to acknowledge the kind favors and encouragement received from the 
Director, Prof. S. A. Forbes. 



10 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

Membracis, so that, transposing the names Tettigonia and Ci- 
cada, we have a series of genera nearly equivalent to the fami- 
lies of later systematists. T say nearly, because a few aberrant 
forms of Jassids (such as Ledra) were included in the Mem- 
bracida?. A few other genera were established by Fabricius, 
in his later writings, by the dismemberment of these groups, 
and subsequent authors have added greatly to the list of genera, 
so that now as many as two hundred have been proposed, of 
which perhaps half may stand the test of time. 

STRUCTURE. 

As in all other true insects, the body is composed of a series 
of more or less irregular chitinous rings, called segments, dis- 
posed in three regions, the head, thorax, and abdomen. The 
head in this group is very variable in shape, but always some- 
what triangular when seen directly from before or from be- 
hind, the two large and often prominent eyes forming the up- 
per corners, and the beak arising from the much reflexed apex. 
The first of the three segments which comprise the thorax is 
very prominent above, but small and nearly covered by the in- 
flexion of the head beneath. The other segments are closely 
connected, and about equal above and below. The abdomen 
consists of seven or eight segments tapering backwards and 
provided near the tip with a rather large genital apparatus. 

Head. Returning now to the head, we can distinguish two 
surfaces besides the backside, which is concealed by the thorax: 
one above, the dorsal surface, more or less flat; and the other, 
called the face, often very convex, and including all that por- 
tion looking downward, forward, and to the sides. These 
planes are separated by a more or less distinct edge known as 
the front edge. 

Above the head, between the eyes, and generally surround- 
ing them, a large variable piece, not very distinctly marked off 
from the one in front, may be seen, which is known as the ver- 
tex (PI. I., Fig. 3). The separation from the piece before it, is 
quite distinct at the sides of the vertex, being by sutures (PI. 
I., Figs. 1, 2), but often not so at the middle, where it may 
not be visibly divided at all. 



Jassidce of Illinois. 11 

The vertex is sometimes inflexed over the front edge of 
the head, and sometimes does not reach it. 

In front of or below the vertex, and often not distinctly 
separable from it, the face extends as a long median piece upon 
the front, often presenting somewhat the shape of an inverted 
pear. The upper end varies in shape and position with the size 
and shape of the vertex. The clypeus is a piece attached to 
the lower end of the face. Tt varies much in shape, being round, 
square, expanded at base or at apex, or constricted at the mid- 
dle or near the base. On either side of the clypeus is a more 
or less elongate piece, the lora, which also covers a portion 
of the face; the inner margin is quite straight, and the outer, 
curved and sometimes constricted at its upper end. 

The remaining portion of the cheeks consists of broad ex- 
panded pieces, which may for convenience be divided into two 
parts, — one forming a somewhat elevated plane or ridge above 
the antennge and entirely in front of the eyes, and the other 
being on a lower plane than the rest of the front. The outer 
edge of this lower portion of the cheeks is variable, being some- 
times bent outward, sometimes inward, but always forming a 
thin sharp edge. 

The eyes are somewhat oval organs, situated at the upper 
posterior corners of the head. They are finely granulate. On 
the anterior edge, near the antennge, there is in some species, a 
considerable notch; otherwise the margin is entire. 

Of even more importance, from a systematic point of view, 
are the ocelli. These are small round organs often situated on 
low elevations. In position they are constant in their varia- 
tion, and therefore of the highest value for classification. Their 
normal position seems to be at the junction of the vertex, 
front, and cheeks. In the Tettigoninie they are on the middle 
of the vertex; in Acocephalini, just before the eyes, on the 
front edge of the head; in AUygus, audits allies, on the face, — 
etc. 

The antennifi of Jassidae (PI. I., Fig. 4) are almost uniformly 
setaceous; the basal joint is very large, rounded, about as wide as 
long; the second is much smaller, but still quite large, and of 
nearly the same shape; the third is as much smaller than thn 
second as the second is smaller than the first, being smallest at 



12 Winois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

base, and enlarging nearly to the tip, then decreasing. The suc- 
ceeding segments are short and decrease regularly in diameter. 
There are peculiar thickened curved hairs on the third, fourth, 
and fifth joints, A peculiar form of antenna is found in 
Idiocerus, having comparatively few joints, and the terminal 
three or four greatly enlarged into a club. 

The mouth parts consist of five pieces; a greatly enlarged 
labrum, forming a fleshy proboscis surrounding four slender 
lancet-like processes homologous with the mandibles and 
maxillae. 

Thorax. The most anterior segment of the thorax, the 
prothorax, consists of a large dorsal plate above — the pronotum 
or disk of the thorax. Beneath (PI. I., Fig. 5), the pleurites and 
sternum are small, except the episternum, which is often ex- 
panded into a broad plate which touches the episternum of the 
other side along the median line. The pronotum covers the edge 
of the head before and the base of the wings behind. It is 
square or hexagonal in shape, the corners being designated 
(beginning from before) as the anterior, posterior, and scu- 
tellar, — the latter, however, are sometimes wanting. 

The pleurites are well shown in the figure, and the sternum 
simply forms the bottom of a groove into which the beak is 
received. With regard to the two remaining segments little 
need be said. The dorsal surface is covered by the wings 
(elytra) to Avhich they give rise, with the exception of a large 
triangular portion called the scutellum. This piece appears to 
be composed of part of the dorsum of both segments. The 
portion covered by the wings is sometimes almost membranous, 
and is never as strong as tlie rest of the body wall. The pleuri- 
tes are on the sides; the epipleura? are large and distinct; and 
the episterna are small. The sterna are transverse and the 
coxae extremely large. 

A pair of legs arises from each thoracic segment (PL I., Fig. 
6). They are alike in general appearance, except that they in- 
crease greatly in size from before backwards and become propor- 
tionally more slender and spiny. Each leg consists of (1) a 
large rounded oval basal joint, the coxa, which is partly received 
in a hole in the thorax, the coxal cavity; (2) a small, some- 
what triangular joint, the trochanter; (3) the femur, a long, 



Jassidit" of Illinois. 18 

thick, and strong joint; (4) a slender, somewhat prismatic, 
and more or less spiny tibia; and (5) a three-jointed tarsus 
terminated by a pair of thick slightly curved claws. 

The anterior wings, or elytra, are long, rather slender 
organs, quite hard in texture, forming a shield to the deli- 
cate true wings. The inner basal triangular portion, called 
the clavuui or claval area, is separated from the rest of the 
wings by a bend or suture known as the claval suture. The 
venation of the anterior wings is of considerable value for 
classification. The veins arising from the base have been 
called sectors. The one on the margin is called the marginal 
vein. Transverse veins are those appearing towards the tip, and 
connecting sectors or their branches. The areas between the 
veins are known as basal and apical cells, and when more than 
one series exists beyond the basal cells, the additional ones are 
called the anteapical cells. The veins in the clavum are the 
claval veins. The hind wings have about six sectors, variously 
forked and united by a few cross-veins, and afford some of the 
best and most tangible generic characters. The marginal vein 
does not lie on the margin but parallel with it. It does not ex- 
tend all around the wings, therefore some of the posterior basal 
cells are open. 

Abdomen. The abdomen consists of five segments in the 
male and six in the female. They taper gradually towards the 
tip, where are the large genital organs. Figs. 7-9, Plate I., 
show the structure of the abdominal plates around the ovipositor. 

CLASSIFICATION. 

The classification of the Jassidae has undergone the usual 
amount of change and confusion and is still not satisfactorily 
settled; but most authorities agree in placing these insects in a 
series of quite well-defined groups. Primarily they arrange 
themselves naturally into two large groups or subfamilies. 
These subfamilies are characterized by the position of the 
ocelli. Not that these characters are necessarily of such fun- 
damental' importance that we may establish such high groups 
upon them, but because they seem correlated with other char- 
acters harder to express but none the less evident and essential. 
We will therefore divide this family as follows: 



14 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

Ocelli situated upon the disk of the vertex Tettigonln^. 

Ocelli situated on the front or near the front margin of the 
head jASSiNiE. 



SUBFAMILY TETTIGONIN^. 

Two very natural groups of genera can be distinguished 
as follows: 

Body broadly oval flat Tribe I. Gyponina. 

Body more or less cylindrical Tribe IT. Proconina. 

Tribe I. Prooonina StIl. 
Genus 1. Onoometopia StIl. 

Proconia Am. and Serv., Hist, des Hemip., p. 571 (1843). 
Oncometopia Stal, Hemip. Fabr. Part II., p. 62 (1869). 

Somewhat cylindrical, with head and anterior parts of the 
thorax bent downwards at an angle of about 15°, or more. 
Head with prominent eyes extending laterally beyond the sides 
of the head. A faint groove behind each ocellus. Ocelli sit- 
uated on feeble nodules, farther from each other than from the 
eyes. Vertex not attaining the front margin. Front very 
convex, with the usual striations extending over the front mar- 
gin on to the top of the head. Genae projecting outwards and 
forwards beyond the margin of the head. Clypeus convex and 
not entirely separate from the front, extending beyond the 
margin of the side of the head. Lore rather small but distinct. 
Pronotum with its sides inflexed, surface irregularly wrinkled 
by transverse striations formed of coarse punctures. Scutellum 
triangular, with a depressed transverse line about the middle. 
Beneath, the coxae are very large and the mesothoracicepi- 
sterna are large and flat. Elytra with the apical and anteapical 
cells remarkably uniform in size. The anterior sector is forked 
about the middle, and a third fork is given off towards 
the apex. A narrow apical membrane is present. Claval 
veins two, sometimes united by one or two cross-veins. 
First sector of the wing giving off a faint marginal fork, poste- 
rior fork connected with the anterior fork of the second sector 



Jassidce of Illinois. 15 

by a cross-vein. Posterior fork of the second sector likewise con- 
nected with the third simple sector. Fourth sector simple^ the 
fifth forked, and the sixth small and simple. The marginal 
vein turns abruptly to the margin after attaining the posterior 
fork of the fifth sector. Abdomen with six segments in the 
female, seven in the male. 

Two very dissimilar species in our fauna belong to this 
genus; O. undata Fabr., and 0. costalis Fabr. The former is 
long and slender; the head and thorax are much deflexed; the 
elytra have rather large apical cells; and the claval veins are 
united with one or more cross-veins ; while in the latter species the 
body is short and thick, with the head and thorax relatively 
but little deflexed, the apical cells in the elytra small, and the 
claval veins separate. 

These species are known in collections, and in most books, 
under the generic name Proconia, but Stal has shown (in 
Hemip. Fabr.) that Proconia Lep. & Serv. is not Proconia of 
Am. & Serv. He therefore uses Proconia as originally intended 
and divides Proconia Am. & Serv. into several genera, one of 
which is Oncometopia. 

O. undata Fabr. (PI. II., Figs. 10-14.) 

Cicada undata Fabr. Ent. Syst. IV., p. 32, 23 ; Fabr. Syst. Rhyng. 

p. 62, 5.— Coqueb. Illust. 1, p. 32, tab. 8, fig. 3.— Blanch. Hist. 

Nat. III., p. 192, 160. 
Cicada orbona Fabr. Ent. Syst. Sup., p. 520, 25-6 ; Fabr. Syst. Rhyng. 

p. 72, 50. 
Tettigonia undata Germ. Mag. d'Ent. Tome IV., p. 61, 6.— Sign., Ann. 

Soc. Ent. Fr. Tome II., p. 486, 225, PL 17, fig. 5. 
Proconia tmdata Walk., List of Homop., p. 783, 3. 
Proconia nigricans Walk., 1. c, p. 783, 8. 
Proconia tenebrosa Walk., List of Hemip., p. 787, 16. 
Proconia plagiata Walk., List of Homop., p, 788, 17. 
Oncometopia undata Stal, Hemip. Fabr., Part II., p. 62. 

Cylindrical, slate-blue or gray above, head, scutellum, and 
the under side reddish yellow. 

Length 12 mm. 

Head. Above marked with somewhat irregular black 
lines in the following manner: a line along the hind margin 
next the thorax; one around the front edge of the head; a pair 



16 tltinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

of lines going backward from this frontal line and uniting, thus 
forming a pear-shaped cell, from the hack edge of which two 
pairs of lines radiate; an elbowed line to the eyes; and another 
meeting the front margin at the fore end of the gente, 
forming an oval cell. There is often an additional line dividing 
this cell in halves. The peculiarities of the sculpturing consist 
in a shallow median longitudinal groove and a pair of shallower 
and wider ones extending from the ocelli to the hind margin. 
Beneath irregularly marked with black spots; a median line 
from the middle of the front edge to the middle of the front; 
an additional line often present, from the middle of the side of 
the front edge, parallel with the median line. Generally a 
faint line on the suture between the clypeus and the front. 
The lower margin of the eyes is distinctly concave. 

Thorax. Pronotum slaty blue or gray, anterior margin 
reddish yellow, more or less distinctly separated from the darker 
parts by a sinuous black line; punctures dark or black; base 
darker. Scutellum bright reddish yellow marked with black 
as follows: a transverse line on the depressed portion; a 
pair of longitudinal lines from the outer ends of this to the 
anterior margin; a short transverse line connecting the middle 
of these; and, lastly, a still shorter median line connecting the 
middle of the transverse lines. Besides this the front median 
area is irregularly spotted with black. Beneath, the thorax is 
marked with irregular dots and patches of black, variable in 
form, number, and position, so that all that can be said is that 
the pleurites of the mesothorax and metathorax are generally 
darkest. The coxal cavities are large. The elytra are slate- 
blue or gray with the tips hyaline, the apical cells quite large, 
and the claval veins connected by one or more transverse veins. 
The wings are smoky or hyaline. 

Abdomen. The abdomen is reddish yellow, all but the 
lateral edges of the first five dorsal segments and the bases of 
the sternal pieces, which are black. 

Not a very common insect, but may be found at almost any 
time in all parts of the State. It lives on the grape vine and 
is said to become so numerous sometimes as to be very 
injurious. 



Jassidfe of Illinois. 17 

O. costalis Fabr, 

Cercopis costalis Fabr., Syst. Rhyng., p. 96, 44. 

Cercopis lateralis Fabr., Ent. Syst. Sup., p. 524, 24-5.— Coqueb., Illust. 

1, p. 35, tab. 9, fig. 3. 
Cercopis marginella. Fabr., Syst. Rhyng., p 96, 44. 
Tettigonia lugens Walk., List Homop., p. 775, 108. 
Tettigonia pyrrhotelus Walk., 1. c, p. 775, 109. 
Tettigonia costalis Sign., Ann. Ent. Soc. Fr. Tome II. (1854), .359,210. 

Black marked with fine yellow spots and two longitudinal 
red lines on each elytron. 

Length 7 mm. 

Head. Above evenly marked with a very great number 
of very small yellow spots. The head is much smoother than 
in the previous species, there being no indication of a median 
groove and scarcely any behind the ocelli, which are nearer the 
hind margin than in that species, the yellow spots along the 
front margin forming a quite distinct line. Beneath, the sur- 
face has likewise the yellow spots, those on the front generally 
following the striations. Those on the cheeks are fewer and 
larger, and there are only two or three on the clypeus. 

Thorax. Pronotum with the sides less inflexed than in 
0. imdata, black, spotted with yellow like the head. Scutellum 
black, marked with yellowish lines, four on the anterior portion, 
one pair of which'is longitudinal, and the other oblique, lying 
on the edges of the scutellum. The posterior portion has three 
lines, an oblique one on either margin and a single longitudinal 
median one. Sometimes a transverse line is also present on the 
groove separating the two portions. Beneath, the pleurites 
have a prominent yellow stripe extending backwards from the 
posterior corner of the eyes. Below these, several irregular yel- 
low spots are found, larger than those marking the dorsum. 
Legs black, with the rows of spines on the femur and tibia? yel- 
low. Elytra black, marked with two broad red bands, one on 
the costa and one on the sutural edge of the clavum. The 
cells which are not covered by the red bands are generally mar- 
gined with yellow. The apical cells are small and the claval 
veins distinct. Wings as in 0. undata. 

Abdomen. Above black, margined on each side with a 
broad yellow stripe, the continuation of the stripes on the thorax. 



18 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

Beneath black, marked, as the head and thorax above, with line 
yellow spots. 

This species is not so widely and commonly distributed as 
the preceding, but often occurs in considerable numbers. 

Genus 2. Aulaoizes Am. & Serv. 

Aulacizes Am. & Serv., Hemip. p. 571 (1843). 

Size and general appearance of Oncometopia. Head with 
less prominent eyes, hardly wider than the thorax; ocelli situ- 
ated on a nodule which springs from a cavity on the vertex, 
nearer the eyes than to each other. Vertex flat, having, in ad- 
dition to the broad shallow pits in which the ocellar nodules rest, 
three deep, broad sulcations, one larger and median, and the other 
two situated one on either side between the eye and the ocellus. 
The front is but little reflexed over the front margin on to the 
top of the head. It is very convex below. The clypeus is slightly 
convex. The gulas extend forwards and outwards, being slightly 
arched and somewhat enlarged at the tip. The basal joints of 
the antennae are also peculiarly enlarged at the tip. Pronotum 
with its sides inflexed, surface irregularly wrinkled by trans- 
verse striations formed of coarse punctures. Scutellum smal- 
ler than usual, transversely striate, and not so distinctly sepa- 
rated into an anterior and posterior portion. Behind, it is pro- 
longed into a spinous process. Beneath, the coxas are very 
large, and the mesothoracic episterna are large and flat. The 
venation of the elytra is very variable. The figure shows one 
form. The cells are irregular both in size and position. There 
are two cells in the clavum. The wings are much more con- 
stant. The first sector gives off a marginal fork, and a cross-vein 
connects the posterior fork of the first sector with the anterior 
fork of the second. The second sector forks so near the tip 
that the cross-vein connecting its posterior fork to the tliird 
simple sector is extremely long. Fourth and fifth sectors 
forked. Marginal vein not attaining the margin till near the 
sixth simple sector. Abdomen with six segments in the fe- 
male, seven in the male. 

A single species represents this genus in our fauna. 



Jassidce of Illinois. 19 

A. irrorata Fabr. (PI. II., Figs. 15-18.) 

Cicada irrorata Fabr., Ent. Syst., IV., p. 33, 24 ; Fabr., Syst. Rhyng. 

p. 62, 6.— Coqueb., Illust. 1, p. 32, tab. 8, fig. 3.— Blanch. 

Hist. Nat. III., p. 192, 17. 
Tettigonia rvfiventris Walk., List Homop., p. 796, 12. 
Tettigonia irrorata Sign., Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., Tome III. (1852), p. 

59, 276. 

Size and general appearance of Oncometopia undata. 
Color yellowish brown to black, sprinkled with yellowish white. 

Length 12 mm. 

Head. Above nearly black, mottled with yellowish white 
and tinged in places with rose-red. End of gula, above, rosy. 
Eyes gray, ocelli brown. Beneath, face yellowish marked with 
red lines in the furrows, and with black irregular projections on 
the upper and lower edges. From the latter a conspicuous blunt 
hook-like line extends on each side, and anterior to these lines are 
eight small symmetrically arranged spots. Clypeus black above, 
with yellow on the sides. The cheeks are dusky yellow, hairy, 
with some black near the clypeus. Lore small, as in Oncome- 
topia, color black. 

Thorax. Pronotum nearly black, with yellow spots 
much finer and thicker than those on the head, the deflexed 
side-margins, however, with fewer and coarser spots. Scutel- 
lum small, triangular, basal portion black, middle portion yel- 
low, and extreme tip brown, shading into black on the terminal 
spine. Beneath yellow, dusky towards the middle, marked 
with a few black spots. Femur light yellow, basal end black, 
and apical third brownish yellow; tibiae and tarsi dark 
yellow tipped with black. Not so spiny as Oncometopia. 
Elytra reddish brown irrorate with minute yellow spots, tip 
hardly hyaline, marginal membrane distinct, venation variable. 
Wings transparent. 

Abdomen. Red above, yellowish beneath, with a broad 
median and a narrower sutural black line. Female ovipositor 
black with the sheaths red. The male differs in the still 
wider median black genital armature. 

This fine species is not au uncommon insect, and though 
easily mistaken for Oncometopia at a first glance is easily 
distinguishable. 



20 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

Genus 3. Tettigonia GEOFFii. 

Tettigonia GeoflFr., Hist, des Ins. I., p. 429. 

Body elongate, slender. Head rounded or triangular in 
front, not wider than the thorax, above generally flat, vertex 
not reaching the front margin. Front large, convex, striate as 
usual, the portion reflexed over the front edge only slightly, 
and sometimes not at all, striate. Clypeus large, generally 
convex. Ocelli nearer the eyes than to each other. Gen^e 
large, deflexed, tips projecting donv^^ards, and not forv^^ards and 
outwards as in the preceding genera. Pronotum hexagonal, 
with the scutellar angles often very obtuse and the outer side 
much rounded, deflexed at the sides. Scutellum triangular, 
divided by the usual transverse groove; surface quite smooth. 
Beneath, the coxa3 are very large and the mesothoracic epi- 
sternum is large and flat. Legs with the tibiae long, prismatic, 
and spinulose. Elytra with four different types of venation, 
with a small marginal membrane. Wings with the second 
sector having the two branches connected with the first and 
third simple sectors by short cross-veins. Fourth sector forked 
and fifth simple. Marginal vein apparently attaining the mar- 
gin immediately after joining the posterior fork of the fourth 
sector. 

This genus is one of large extent, possessing members both 
common and variable. Indeed it may be considered one of the 
dominant groups of insects. Many of our species belong to 
the genus Diedrocephala, but the characters which separate it 
from Tettigonia are not of generic importance, as European 
authors now agree. Nevertheless differences enough do exist 
to divide it into a number of well-marked subgenera and 
sections. 

One of the most striking of these is represented by a sin- 
gle species, T. tripunctata Fitch. The peculiarity of this species 
consists in the short vertex, the remarkably long front and 
clypeus, the absence of the anteapical cells in the elytra, and 
also in the forking of the first sector near the base, so that it 
appears like an additional sector. 

The second section is represented by T. bifida of Say, and 
is characterized by its very short, rounded vertex, the absence 



Jassidce of Illinois. 21 

of anteapical cells in the elytra, and the almost basal forking of 
the first sector. 

The remaining species group themselves into the two sub- 
genera Diedrocephala and Tettigonia as limited by Signoret, 
which are distinguishable by the more rounded vertex and front 
margin of Tettigonia and the more or less conical head of 
Diedrocephala. To Tettigonia belong T. siniilis, n. sp., T. hie- 
roglypJiica Say, and two varieties of the latter; and to Diedro- 
cephala, T. versuta Say, T. coccinea Forst., T. moUipes Say, and 
T. noveboracensisFitch. 

The relation of these species is well shown in the following 
diagram : 

versuta. 

coccinea. 

mollipes. 



H ^^ ■ ' ' . noveboracensii 

W 
H 
H 
CD "^^~~--,,^^ """ — .^,_^ ' ■'==:r-— - 'Viieroglyphica. 

Z ~-..^^ " — -~~_,,_^ \/~~~-- van a. 

?* ~~~- — \ var. b. 

bifida. 
tripunctata. 

The following synopsis will serve to distinguish our 
species : 

TETTIGONIA. 

Face not greatly elongate. 

Elytra with anteapical cells. 

Head more or less flat above, with the front margin 
distinct. Subgenus I. 

But one row of anteapical cells in elytra. Sect. I. 
Vertex with two longitudinal black lines. 

T. VERSUTA Say. 

Vertex not lineate T. cocciitea Say. 

Several rows of anteapical cells. Sect. II. 

Head long, with no black spots near the tip. 

T. MOLLIPES Say. 

Head shorter, with a pair of black spots near 

the tip T. NOVEBORACENSIS FiTOH. 

Head rounded at tip, with no distinct front margin. 




22 Illinois State Lnboratonj of Natural Histor;/. 

Subgenus II. 

Scutelluni with a median black portion. 

T. siMiLis, n. sp. 

Scutelluni with median portion red or yellow. 

Color reddish . . . T. hieroglyphica Say. 

Color slate-green var. «, 

Color nearly black var. ,5. 

Elytra without anteapical cells. Subgenus III. 

T. BIFIDA Say. 

Face greatly elongated, Subgenus IV. 

T. TRIPUNCTATA FiTCH. 

Subgenus I. 

Head conical, front margin distinct. (Teneral color green. 

Section T. 
Elytra with a row of apical and one of anteapical cells. 
T. versuta Say. 

Tettigonia versuta Say, Phila. Acad. Nat. Sci., Vol. 16, p. 311. 

Green lineate with red. Head above with black-bordered 
marginal and light yellowish green median lines. 

Length 8 mm. 

Head. Above reddish, marked with yellowish green, and 
with narrow black lines as follows: narrow a black line on the 
posterior margin and a larger one on the front edge; one on 
either side of the narrow longitudinal median light stripe; one 
margining the lateral light stripes; and, lastly, one transverse to 
this stripe, opposite the genge. The lateral light stripe sends a 
small lobe inwards towards the ocelli. Beneath yellowish green 
without markings, except faint dark lines on some of the stria- 
tions of the front. 

TJiorax. Pronotum bluish green, with a large median 
spot and a lateral line on each side, red, and with the extreme 
lateral and front edge lighter green. Scutellum orange, with 
the anterior and posterior extremities yellow, marked with five 
parallel black longitudinal lines on the anterior portion, the 
three inner of which are connected by a transverse line on the 



Jassidm of Tllinois. 23 

median impression. From this two lines extend back over the 
posterior portion. Beneath unicolorous yellowish green. Legs 
yellowish green with spurs at tip of tibise, and tarsal joints 
brown or black. Elytra dark bluish green with two broad red 
stripes separated by a blue line; tips and the costa near the 
tip, spotted brown. Wings dusky brown, veins deep brown. 

Abdomen. Beneath yellowish green. 

Not rare in southern Illinois in the middle and latter part 
of the summer. 

T. coccinea Forst. 

Cicada coccinea Forst., Nov. Species Insect., p. 96. 
Tettigonia 4- vittata Say, Journ. Acad. Phila., Vol. VI., p. 312, 3. 
Proconia 4- vittata Fitch, Cat. Ins. N. Y. State Cabinet, p. 55. 
Diedrocephala coccinea Uhler, List Hemip. West of Miss. R., p. 91. 

Green lineate with red. Head with black anterior border,, 
but unmarked above. 

Length 10 ram. 

Head. Above orange, eyes green, front margin promi- 
nently marked with a black band. The usual narrow black 
line running inwards from the gense is present. Beneath uni- 
form yellowish green, lateral edges of eyes dark. 

Thorax. Pronotum green, marked with a transverse red 
line near the front margin, from which project backwards and 
outwards a pair of heavier curved lines. A yellow scar on the 
anterior corners. Scutellum deep orange, apical spines lighter. 
Beneath green, pleurites margined with a deep black stripe 
above, which is the continuation of that on the margin of the 
head. Legs yellowish, spurs on tips of tibae, and tarsal joints, 
brown. Elytra bluish green, with two longitudinal stripes red, 
the outer one being the wider and having a green central por- 
tion; tips black. Wings nearly black. 

Abdomen red above, yellowish green beneath. 

Common throughout the State. It has the same general 
appearance as T. versuta but is quite distinct. 



24* Illinois State Laboratory of Natural Historij. 

Sectiok^II. 

Elytra with severalrows'of irregular cells at the tip. 

T. mollipes Say. (PI." TIT., Figs. 19-23.) 

TeUigonia mollipes Say, Journ. Acad. Phila., Vol. VI., p. 312, 4. 
Aulacizes mollipes Fitch, Cat. Ins. N. Y. State Cabinet, p. 56. 
Diedrocephala mollipes Uhler, List Hemip. West of Miss. R., p. 92. 

Bright green, head acutely conical. 

Length 12 mm. 

Head. Above light yellowish "green, marked with very 
narrow black lines: one line in a median shallow groove; a 
double-curved one on either side, extending from behind the 
ocelli inwards and forwards, nearly touching the median line; 
another on either side in the broad conspicuous groove sepa- 
rating the vertex from the reflexed portion of the front; and, 
finally, the usual bent one, extending inwards from the gena. 
Below, the face is brown, darkest near the npper and lateral 
margins. The striations of the front are darker, and the dark 
lines thus formed extend back on the cheeks. 

Thorax. Pronotum green, anterior and lateral margins 
concolorous with the head. Scutellum light green, transverse 
impression small, a white median longitudinal line being gen- 
erally present. Beneath browiiish green, the lateral edges of 
the pleurites with a black line which is the continuation of the 
darkened border of the head. Legs greenish, with spurs on fem- 
ora, tibiae, and tarsi brown or black. Elytra green unicolor- 
ous. Wings hyaline. 

Abdomen. Above black; sides yellow; beneath green. 

Our most common species, and widely distributed. The 
females difEer greatly from the males in the length of the head. 

T. noveboracensis Fitch. 

Aulacizes noveboracensis Fitch, Cat. Ins. N. Y. State Cabinet, p. 56. 

Green; form, size, and general appearance of T. moUipes.^ 
but with four^conspicuous black vspots on the front margin. 

Length|12Jmm. 

^wc^^shorter thanHn T. niollipes. Above'yellowish green, 
marked with black as follows: a largeblack^spot'on^the front 
margin on either side of the tip; another on the^ gena? above, 



Jassidw of Illinois. 25 

just before the eyes; the usual line from the anterior edge of 
the genae, which, however, is soon bent forward, proceeding 
along the junction of the rettexed portion and the front; and, 
lastly, a smaller line parallel with the latter on the vertex. Be- 
neath, the face is 3^ellowisli green, and the lower and anterior 
margins of the gena? are black. 

Thorax. Pronotuni green, anterior and lateral margins 
coucolorous with the head, a median line white. Scutellum 
light green, transverse impression small, with a white median 
longitudinal line. Beneath, yellowish green, sometimes with a 
few black spots on the pleurites. Legs yellow, with terminal 
spurs of tibiae and tarsal joints brown. Elytra unicolorous 
green. Wings hyaline. 

Abdomen. Above black; sides yellow; beneath green. 

Rather rare. From northern Illinois. 

Subgenus II. 

Vertex and frontal margin rounded. Markings on the ver- 
tex complex. 

T. similis, n. sp. 

Color light yellow, marked all over with fine brown lines 
and dots. 

Length 7 mm. 

Head. Above yellow, tinted with rosy, and marked with 
brown lines as follows: beginning at the base of the head, two 
parallel lines, close together, extend about half way to the front 
edge, then, making a regular curve, they pass backward and 
around the ocelli, making two or three angular bends, and then 
proceed directly forwards till they touch another paii- of 
black lines bordering the large striated portion of the reflexed 
front. Eyes black at the ends. Tip of the front margin with 
a single round median black spot. Beneath reddish yellow, 
with brown lines on the striai of the front. Cheeks with two 
reddish stripes extending from the ends of the eyes to the 
clypeus. 

Thorax. Pronotum irregularly spotted with brown, ex- 
cept four broad bands of lighter, — one pair almost on the mid- 
dle of the dorsum, and one pair lateral. Scutellum brownish, 
with three triangular black patches on the base, the middle one 



26 Illinois State Laboratonj of Natural History. 

of which extends to the transverse furrow which is marked 
with a narrow bhick line; from this two lines extend towards 
the tip. Beneath reddish yellow, with a narrow brown line 
laterally. Legs yellowish, terminal spurs on tibigi and tarsal 
joints brown. Elytra light yellow, finely marked with longitud- 
inal brown lines. Wings brown. 

Abdomen. Above black, with white lateral margins; be- 
neath yellowish green. 

Rare. Described from one specimen, taken at Blooming- 
ton in May, 1884. Quite similar in general structure to the 
succeeding species, but the vsimple sharply defined markings on 
the vertex, etc., seem to indicate true specific differences. 

T. hieroglyphica Say. (PI. III., Figs. 24-26.) 

Tettigouia hieroglyphica Say, Journ. Acad. Phila., Vol. VI., p. 313, 6. 

Color variable, generally reddish, sometimes slaty green, or 
even black, in varieties. Head and thorax with hieroglyphical 
black markings. 

Length 8 mm. 

Head. Above reddish, with variable black markings. 
These markings consist of a curved spot on the middle and 
base of the vertex, one between the ocelli and the eyes, one on 
the margin of the reflexed front, and a large median one on 
the tip of the vertex. These spots are variously connected by 
narrow lines, and other smaller spots may be present. Be- 
neath, with light spots on the middle of the front and adjoin- 
ing parts of the cheeks. Front generally marked with a black 
line around the striated part, striations brown or black. Cly- 
peus with a large black median spot. 

Thorax. Pronotum reddish, with numerous small black 
and white spots irregularly arranged. Scutellum v<iriably 
marked, a broad central longitudinal band generally lighter. 
Black triangular spots about the middle of the sides of the 
base. Often a median black line present. Transverse striation 
black. Beneath, reddish spotted with yellow, and with two 
black spots laterally. Legs yellowish, terminal spurs on tibiae 
and tarsal joints brown. Elytra reddish, often margined with 
white; sometimes also with many short longitudinal light lines. 



Jassidce of Illinois. 27 

Abdomen. Above black, with white lateral margins; 
beneath yellowish green. 

A very common and extremely variable species. The two 
following varieties are very noticeable: 

Var. a. 

This variety differs from T. liiero()lyphica., in being almost 
entirely slaty green, though possessing the same black 
markings. The median band of the scutellum is a beautiful 
bright yellow. The elytra have five black longitudinal lines. 
Body yellowish green beneath. 

Var. /S. 

This variety is deep black in color, apparently due to the 
blendings of the black lines in var. «. ; the specimens show a 
tendency to an obliteration of the slate-green markings and 
may become entirely black. The most persistent lines, which 
may indicate something of the original marking of the group, 
are a yellow line before the eyes, one on the cheeks nearest the 
base of the clypeus, and one just beneath the antenna?. The 
median band on the scutellum seems to become even brighter. 
There are also lines on the claval sutures of the elytra. 

These remarkable varieties would probably have been 
ranked as distinct species if connecting links were not often 
taken. 

Subgenus III. 

Head very short, elytra apparently with an additional sector 
and no anteapieal cells. 

T. bifida Say. 

Tetligonia bifida Say, .Journ. Acad. Phila., Vol. VI., p. 313, 5. 

Grreen; head and thorax transversely, and elytra longitud- 
inally, lineate with black. 

Length 6 mm. 

Head. Above yellow, with a broad black band in which 
are situated the ocelli, and a conspicuous black tip. Eyes 
brown. Beneath black, with two small yellow spots, one on 
either side of the tip of the front margin. Sides of the front 
and tip of the clypeus, brown. The gulfp are margined with 
yellow, and the antennae are yellow. 



28 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

Thor((X. Pronotuiii with the central part green, and, at 
the anterior and posterior margins, a double band of black and 
yellow, — the black being in front of the yellow. Scutellum 
small, black, margined with white. Beneath black, except the 
narrow pleurites of the prothorax, which are yellow. Legs 
yellowish, terminal spurs on tibiie and tarsal joints brown. 
Elytra green, veins black or brown. Wings subhyaline, veins 
brown. 

Abdomen black, anal segments yellow. 

This is a very beautiful and quite common insect. It 
seems to differ so much from all others of the genus that a 
subgenus must be made for it. It is well distributed over the 
State. 

Subgenus IV. 

Head above, short, face very much elongate. Elytra with- 
out anteapical cells. 

T. tripunctata Fitch. (PL III., Fig. 27.) 

T. tripunctata, Fitch. Cat. Ins. N. Y. State Cab., p. 53. 

Pale brownish yellow, lineate with brown. Head with 
three black spots above. 

Length 5 mm. 

Head. Above light brownish yellow, with a large black 
spot around both ocelli and one on the apex of the front mar- 
gin; the striations of the reflexed portion are brown. Eyes 
marked with a brown spot. Beneath light brownish yellow, 
with a pair of brown lines on each side of the front, bounding 
the striated portion and converging till they meet on the cly- 
peus. The cheeks are ornamented with two broad brown 
stripes. 

Thorax. Pronotum light brownish yellow, with two 
transverse brown lines. Scutellum small, yellowish, with a 
central pale brown spot. Beneath yellowish, side pieces often 
bordered with lighter. Legs yellowish, terminal spurs on the 
tibia3 and tarsal joints brown. Elytra brownish yellow, veins 
black or brown. Wings subhyaline, veins brown. 

Abdomen beneath, yellowish. 

Rare in southern Illinois. 



Jassidce of Illinois. 29 



Tribe II. Gyponina. 
Genus IV. Gypona. 

Gypona Germ., Mag. d'Ent. Tome IV., p. 73. 

Oval, flattened insects, about one cm. long by two or three 
mm. wide; generally green. 

Head about twice as wide as long; anterior margin strongly, 
and the posterior but slightly, curved. Eyes, as seen from 
above, large, triangular, situated on the outer corners. Ocelli 
on the vertex, often on short tubercles. Vertex often longi- 
tudinally furrowed. Thorax about two and a half times as 
wide as long; the anterior and posterior edges about equally 
curved; lateral edges composed of two nearly straight portions, 
united at about one third from base in an obtuse angle, — the 
outer angle. The sculpturing consists of a series of nearly 
parallel transverse striations, sometimes interrupted anteriorly 
by a large scar. Scutellum triangular, the top-shaped tip gen- 
erally marked off by a distinct suture. The whole scutellum is 
sculptured like the thorax, even to the large lateral anterior 
scars. Elytra with two veins on the clavum, the radial 
vein forked and the apical and anteapical cells variable 
according to the species. Wings hyaline. Abdomen with six 
segments in the male and five in the female. Beneath, the 
legs close together, increasing in size from before backwards. 

I have seen five species of this genus from Illinios, four 
new. Two others have been described from this State; one by 
Uhler, the description of which I append, and the other by 
Sahlberg, which I have not seen. 

The following table will serve to distinguish ]the five species 
that I know: 

Not red above. 

Elytra white or light yellow. 

Head and thorax light yellowish. 

Thorax 8-lineate with red G, 8-lineata. 

Thorax bipunctate with black . . G. bipunctulata. 
Head and thorax black G. nigra. 



30 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

Elytra black, except the outer edge, which is whitish. 

G, ALBIMARGINATA. 

Reddish all over the back G. bimaculata. 

The insects of this genus are remarkably uniform, but the 
species are distinctly marked. 

G. 8-lineata Say. 

G. 8-lineata Say. Jour. Acad. Phila., Vol. 17., p. 340. 

Green, with eight red or yellow lines on the thorax, which 
continue on the head and scutellum. Elytra with yellowish 
veins. 

Length 10 mm. 

Head. Above green, with the continuation of the red- 
dish lines as follows: a middle pair, close to the median furrow, 
continuing nearly to the apex; the next pair represented only 
by small yellowish spots; while the third follows along the 
edge of the eye and the anterior margin of the head, the 
outer pair not being present. Beneath, the color is lighter than 
above, unicolorous, the front and clypeus not separated by a 
distinct suture. 

Thorax. Pronotum very narrowly margined, disk finely 
striate, and with eight equal parallel reddish lines. Scutellum 
green, anterior portion with six reddish lines continued from 
the thorax, terminal portion transversely striate. Beneath, and 
legs, light green. Elytra uniform green, apical and anteapical 
cells irregular, numerous. 

Abdomen unicolorous green. 

The most common species of this genus. 

G. bipunctulata , n. sp. 

Green, unmarked, except by a black spot near the anterior 
edge of the prothorax on either side. 

Length 10 mm. 

Head shorter, and with slightly blunter anterior margin 
than in G. 8-lineata. Transverse striations visible on the front, 
and the lore distinct. 

TJiorax with the pronotum faintly transversely striate, 
with the usual scars, and also bipunctate with black. Scutel- 



Jassidw of IlUnois. 31 

lum with the usual scars and striatioiis behind. Legs and under 
surface lighter. Elytra with five apical and four anteapical 
cells. Wings hyaline. 

Abdomen unicolorous green. 

Not so common as the preceding species. 

G. nigra, n. sp. 

Black above; margin of the thorax and the elytra yellow- 
ish green; beneath green. 

Length 9 mm. 

Head. Above without median groove, the surface irreg- 
ularly striated, the striaj extending obliquely forward; color 
black; eyes, a narrow margin near them, a line extending for- 
wards and inwards from the ocelli, and a spot near the posterior 
margin of the head, behind them, yellowish green. Beneath 
green. 

Thorax. Pronotum black, with the lateral margins, and 
sometimes a spot on the anterior edge, green. Beside the usual 
lateral scar, there is a smaller additional one just behind it. 
Only the posterior portion of the disk striate. Scutellum black, 
with the corners yellowish green. Legs and under surface 
lighter. Elytra with five apical and four anteapical cells, color 
light yellowish green, semi-transparent. 

Abdomen black above and green below. 

G. albimarginata, n. sp. 

Scutellum and elytra black; head, thorax, and edge of 
elytra greenish yellow. Beneath greenish marked with black. 

Length 10 mm. 

Head. Above, with a scar on either side near the base; 
color pale greenish yellow with the median groove and scars 
brown. Beneath yellowish green, with brown patches in the 
prominent frontal striations and on the gense. 

Thorax. Pronotum pale yellowish green, with the pos- 
terior border brown. Scars four, as in G. nigra. Only the 
posterior half of the disk striate. Scutellum black, with two 
brownish spots on either side near the front margin, and also, 
sometimes, a broad, shallow median groove, brown. Posterior 



32 Illinois State Lahoratory of Natural History. 

part brown, with lateral edges yellowish white. Elytra black, 
outer margin with a very broad, and the inner margin with a 
very narrow, edge of light greenish yellow. Veins near the tip 
margined with brown. 

Abdomen. Beneath^yellowish, marked with dark brown 
or black; lateral pieces with a curved dash of brown, and the 
median pieces with the basal half or two thirds, black or brown. 

G. bimaculata, n. sp. 

Rosaceous, head and anterior portion of the thorax green- 
ish. Eyes, ocelli, and a small discal spot on elytra black. 

Length 10 mm. 

Head shorter than usual. Above, with the median groove 
represented by a black line, eyes and ocelli deep black, conspic- 
uous. Beneath paler green; the upper edge of the genae 
acute, black; antennae black. 

Thorax. Pronotum reddish, anterior part green and not 
striate. Scutellum finely and irregularly striate, reddish; pos- 
terior portion marked off by a narrow brown line and a coarsely 
granulated brown patch on either side, near the anterior cor- 
ners. Elytra rosaceous, with a small conspicuous black spot near 
the middle. Wings brown, veins black. 

Abdomen, beneath, green. 

A beautiful species, also rare. 

Gr. cinerea Uhler. 

G. cinerea Uhler, Bull. U. S. Geol. Surv., Vol. III., p. 460. 

I have not seen this species, but as it was described from 
Illinois I copy the original description: 

"Aspect of Philcenus, short, dark cinereous, more or less 
tinged with yellow. Head long-semilunate, angular at tip, and 
with the tip recurved, black; vertex flat, coarsely punctate 
with black, a little pubescent, impressed behind the apex gen- 
erally with a short, impressed, longitudinal line, and each side 
with a longer one, or with simply indentations in their places; 
face irregularly dotted with piceous, and with a few punctures 
on the sides, the front convex transversely, more prominent 
above, triangularly impressed at base, sometimes with traces 



Jassidoi of Illinois. 33 

of transverse brown lines; cheeks broad, the outer ones oblique, 
a little expanded, and broadly rounded, very slenderly tapering 
on the apical half. Antennae largely piceous, or banded with 
piceous. Pronotum transversely rugulose, pointed with fus- 
cous, a little punctate anteriorly and near the sides, a trans- 
verse series of short, indented lines behind the forward margin, 
and with a bald patch in the place of callosities; lateral margins 
oblique, slanting beneath the middle of the eyes, the edge nar- 
rowly recurved; propleurae dotted with fuscous, the raeso- and 
meta-pleurae pale, a little tinged with piceous on the disks. 
Legs pale brownish, or dull testaceous, dotted with fuscous; the 
coxse clouded with fuscous, and the femora and tibiae more or less 
piceous on the upper face, and the latter sometimes also on the 
under face; tarsal joints either black beneath or at the apex or 
with the last joint; nails and pulvilli piceous. Scutellum short, 
acute, minutely rugulose and punctate at base and in 
patches, minutely dotted with fuscous at remote, unequal in- 
tervals. Hemelytra very broad, and with the costal margin 
more arcuated in the female than in the male, and with the cells 
shorter and more irregular; the nervules thick, prominent, mar- 
gined each side, throughout, with fuscous, impressed punc- 
tures; the costal edge thickened, a little recurved, the submar- 
gin punctate with fuscous; apical cells longer and less oblique- 
sided in the female than in the male. Tergum more or less 
black, and the venter black basally, or with the disks only of 
the segments before the apex black, or with all the segments 
simply punctate with fuscous. The surface is generally in- 
vested with minute, prostrate, yellowish pubescence." 

Length to tip of hemelytra, 7-9 m.m. Width of prono- 
tum, 2.5-3 'mm. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES.* 



PLATE T. 



Fig. 
Fig. 


1.- 
2. 


Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 


3.- 
4.- 
5.- 
6.- 

7.- 


Fig. 
Fig. 


8.- 
9.- 



-Face of Allygxis irroratus Say. 
-Face of Agallia siccifolia Uhler. 
-Vertex of same. 

-Antenna of Oncometopia undata Fabr. 
-Thorax of Tetfigonia moUipes Say; ventral view. 
-Legs of Oncometopia tmdata. 

-Female generative organs of Onco^netopia undata; ven- 
tral view. 
-The same ; dorsal view. 
-The same ; lateral view. 

PLATE II. 

Fig. 10. — Head of Oncometopia undata ; dorsal view. 

Fig. 11. — The same; lateral view. 

Fig. 12. — The same ; ventral view. 

Fig. 13. — Elytra of Oncometopia undata. 

Fig. 14. — Wing of same. 

Fig. 15. — Head of Aulacizes hrorata Fabr.; lateral view. 

Fig. 16. — The same ; ventral view. 

Fig. 17. — Elytra of Aulacizes in-orata. 

Fig. 18. — Wing of same. 

PLATE III. 

Fig. 19. — Head and thorax of Tettigonia moUipes Say (female) ; 

dorsal view. 
Fig. 20. — Head of Tettigonia mollipeff (male) ; ventral view. 
Fig. 21. — The same ; lateral view. 
Fig. 22. — Elytra of Tettigonia moUipes. 
Fig. 23. — Wing of same. 
Fig. 24. — Head and thorax of Tettigonia hieroglyphica Say ; dorsal 

view. 
Fig. 25. — Head of same ; lateral view. 
Fig. 26. — Head of same ; ventral view. 
Fig. 27. — Elytra of Tettigonia tripunctata Fitch. 
'These figures are all original camera lucida drawings made by the author. 



PLATE I. 




Fig. 1. 




Fig. 5. 




Fig. 8. 





Fig. 2. 



r^ 



Fig. 3. 



Pig. 4. 




Fig. 6. 




Fig. 7. 



Fi(i. y. 



PLATE II. 





Fig. 12. 



Fig. 13. 




Fig. 11. 




Fjg. 10. 





Fig. 14. 




Fig. 16. 



Fig. 17. 





Fig. If). 



Fig. is. 



PLATE III. 




FIG. 19. 




Fig. 21. 




Fig. 20. 




FIG. 22. 




Fig. 24. 




Fig. 23. 




Fig. 26. 




Fig. 27. 




Fig. 25. 



*. 



Article III. — On the Parasites of the Lesser Apple Leaf- 
Boiler, Teras minuta (Robs.). By Clarence M. Weed. 



In a paper'to be published in the Report of the State Ento- 
mologist of Illinois for 1886, I have discussed ab length the 
literature and life-history of the Lesser Apple Leaf-Roller, 
originally described by Robinson as Tortrix minuta, and since 
re-described by Le Baron, Riley, Packard, and Zeller under the 
specific names of malivora^ia, Cinderella, vacciniivorana and 
variolana. I have there shown that** the life-history of the 
species when feeding upon apple is the same as when feeding 
upon cranberry. Dr. Riley having proved that in the latter 
case the species is dimorphic, — there being a yellow summer 
form ajid a gray winter form. The parasites described below 
were mostly bred at the Laboratory during 1886, though a few 
had been obtained during previous seasons. It is a little re- 
markable that although this leaf-roller has been so often in- 
jurious both upon apple and cranberry, and has frequently been 
treated of in entomological literature, there has heretofore been 
recorded but one species of parasite bred from it, (obtained 
from cranberry-feeding larvae). Yet from the frequently re- 
corded fluctuations in the numbers of the larvge upon apple, 
it seems probable that they have been subject to parasitic 
attack for many years. 

I desire to acknowledge my great obligations to Professor 
S. A. F«rbes, to whose liberal-minded policy of allowing his 
assistants personal credit for much of the work done by them, 
I am indebted for the opportunity of publishing the present 
paper; and to Dr. C. V. Riley, who has kindly determined the 
generic position of the species of Limneria, Cremastus, and 
Pimpla described below. 



40 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

LlMNEKIA ELEGANS, Sp. n. 

Cocoon. — Length 6 mm. White, thin, sub-cylindrical. 

Imago, ?. — Length, 4,5 mm. Black, somewhat shining; 
mandibles straw-yellow, tipped with brown; palpi, white; four 
anterior legs rufous, with coxse and trochanters whitish, and 
tips of tarsi dusky; posterior legs rufous, with coxae (except 
tips) and proximal portion of trochanters black, and tips of 
trochanters, together with apical portion of tarsi dusky; ven- 
trum of abdomen pale yellow anteriorly and darker posteriorly. 
Antennae a little more than half as long as body, piceous, ex- 
cept ventral surface of the two basal joints, which are yellow- 
ish. Tegulse whitish. Wings with nervures and stigma dull 
yellowish brown, former pale at base, and latter with a pale 
spot on proximal portion; areola entirely wanting. Scutum 
and scutellum of metathorax finely aciculate. Scutellum of 
metathorax very finely granulate; carinas only slightly devel- 
oped anteriorly, wanting posteriorly. First joint of abdomen 
smooth and shining, suddenly enlarging transversely about two 
thirds of the way back, the remaining segments having the 
appearance of being very finely squamulate. Ovipositor nearly 
half as long as abdomen. 

Described from two specimens. The only other American 
species that has been described under the genus Limneria, hav- 
ing no areola, is L. rufipes Prov. (Nat. Can., Vol. VL, p. 149), 
from which the present species differs in the color of the 
stigma, ventral surface of the abdomen, anterior coxae, etc. 

Limneria teratis, sp. n. 

Cocoon. — Length 7 mm. Thin, white, nearly cylindrical 
in form. 

Imago, ?. — Length, 6 mm.; alar expanse, 8 mm. Black; 
mouth parts honey-yellow; first pair of legs pale rufous; second 
pair of same color, except tarsi, which are whitish tipped with 
dusky; coxae and upper part of trochanters of third pair of legs 
black, femora pale rufous tipped with dusky, tibise whitish at 
base, then an imperfect dusky ring, then whitish again, and 



Apple-Leaf Roller. 41 

tipped with a broad dusky ring, tarsi dusky, with whitish rirtgs 
at the articulations; ventral surface of abdomen dull brown. 
Antennas piceous, setaceous, two thirds as long as body. 
Tegulae whitish. Wings subhyaline; nervures and stigma 
brownish black, the former pale at base, and the latter with a 
pale spot near where it arises; areolet petiolated. Scutum of 
mesothorax somewhat shining, finely granulate, with shallow 
punctures, and a faintly impressed longitudinal area on each 
side of the dorso-meson; very sparsely pubescent. Scutellum 
of mesothorax granulate, pubescent. Scutellum of meta- 
thorax graitulate; carinas prominent, so arranged as to en- 
close a sub-circular area on anterior dorso-lateral surfaces, a 
central pentagonal longitudinal area, the surface of which is 
transversely striate, and on each side of which there are two 
sub-triangular areas, with reticulated surfaces. Abdomen 
shining, with sparse, fine pubescence; first segment subcylin- 
drical, enlarged posteriorly. Ovipositor nearly as long as 
abdomen. 

Described from two specimens bred from Teras minuta in 
June. 

Differs from L. annulipes Cresson in the larger ovipositor, 
and in the thoracic sculpture; and from L. fugitiva (Say) in 
its smaller size and black posterior coxae. 

PiMPLA MINUTA, Sp. n. 

Itnago, $. — Length 5 mm. Black; tarsi, ventral surface 
of first two antennal joints, tegulee and small spot just in front, 
first four legs (except tarsal claws of posterior pair and apical 
tarsal joint of middle pair), with trochanters of posterior legs, 
and ventrum of abdomen (except two dusky quadrangular 
spots on each segment), clear white. Posterior edges of middle 
abdominal terga whitish. Coxae and femora of posterior legs 
pale rufous, latter tipped with black; posterior tibia white, with 
an imperfect dusky ring near base and a broad dusky ring at 
tip; first tarsal joint white tipped with black; second and third 
black, with white at base; the rest dusky throughout. Antennte 
two thirds as long as body, setaceous, nearly piceous, the first 
two joints white beneath, and the under surface of the third, 



42 Illinois State Lahoratorij of Natural History. 

fourth, and fifth lighter than the rest. Wings hyaline; nerv- 
ures and stigma brownish black, paler at base; areolet moderate, 
sessile, sub-rhomboidal. Scutum and scutellum of mesothorax 
pubescent, shining, with numerous shallow punctures; scutum 
with two oblique impressed lines arising anteriorly on each side 
of the middle and meeting on the upper surface. Scutellum of 
the metathorax canaliculate. First joint of abdomen shining, 
with a prominent ridge arising anteriorly on each side of the 
middle and running obliquely back; between these ridges in 
front the segment is excavated and the sides are also somewhat 
hollowed out. Remaining segments punctate, pubescent. 

Described from one specimen bred from Teras minuta in 
June. 

This is a well-marked species, easily distinguished from 
those previously described. 

Ceemastus fokbesi, sp. n. 

Cocoon. — Length 6 mm. Thin, whitish, sub-cylindrical. 

Imago, 9 — Length 7 mm. Black; eye orbits, mouth 
parts, ventrum of abdomen, and two anterior pairs of legs, 
honey-yellow; posterior legs approaching a chestnut color, 
with tips of tibiae dusky; tarsi dusky, especially at the tips; 
posterior margin of abdominal terga (except first) dusky yel- 
low. Antennge 5 mm. long, setaceous, ventral surface nearly 
tawny olive. Scutum of mesothorax punctate, with a faint 
impressed line starting a short distance each side of the middle 
of the anterior margin, and running slightly obliquely to the 
posterior margin, being united on the raedio-dorsal portion of 
the scutum by a broad, flattened, thickly punctured area. Scu- 
tellum of mesothorax punctate, having (in the specimen at 
hand) an indistinct, transverse, chestnut-colored band. Meta- 
thorax strongly sculptured; a well-developed longitudinal 
carina on each side of the dorso-meson, arising near the an- 
terior margin, and running to posterior margin, the two being 
connected anteriorly by a transverse carina; on the outside of 
each of these runs another longitudinal carina, the latter being 
connected with the former by transverse carinas, so as to en- 
close a quadrilateral area on the dorso-lateral angles of the 



Ajyple-Leaf Follcr. 43 

metathorax; another longitudinal carina on each side, below 
those last mentioned; a spot on the anterior margin each side 
of the dorso-meson shining, with scattered punctures; re- 
mainder of the dorsum transversely striate (between the 
carinae); sides punctate. Wings hyaline; tegulse straw-yellow; 
stigma of moderate size, dusky yellowish brown; veins straw- 
yellow at base, becoming dusky outwards. First abdominal 
segment shining, long, slender, slightly enlarged posteriorly; 
remaining segments pubescent. Ovipositor as long as ab- 
domen. 

Described from one specimen bred from Teras minuta, 
13th June, 1886. Dedicated to Professor S. A. Forbes. 

Clinocentrus americanus, sp. n. 

Cocoon. — Length 3 mm.; width 1 mm. Whitish, thin, 
without loose silk; usually formed within the cocoon of the 
host. 

Imago. — Length, $ 1.7 mm.; ? 2-2.1 mm. 3, ?. Reddish 
or yellowish brown, with a black head, dark brown or piceous 
antennae (except at the base), and more or less black on the 
dorsum of the thorax, especially at the margin, and the an- 
terior and posterior portions of the abdomen. Legs honey- 
yellow, with tips of tarsi dusky. Mandibles brownish, tipped 
with black; palpi whitish. Ovipositor whitish tipped with 
dusky. Antennae as long as body, basal joints testaceous. 
Wings subhy aline, tegulje and basal portion of veins testaceous; 
middle portion of costa dusky; stigma and remaining nervures 
dull brownish white. Mesoscutum with sparse pubescence, 
smooth, except for two impressed oblique lines which form a 
V-shaped marking, the base of the V being on the medio-pos- 
terior portion of the scutum, and the side of the V extending 
cephalo-laterad. Mesoscutellum smooth, sub-triangular. Scu- 
tellum of metathorax reticulate. Tergum of first abdominal 
segment with front slightly excavated; longitudinally rugose; 
terga of two following segments finely rugulose. Ovipositor 
exserted, nearly as long as abdomen. 

The male of this species is usually darker in color than 
the female and much more slender in form. 



44 Illinois State Lahomtorij of Natural IJisforij. 

Described from many specimens bred from Teras minuta 
in June. 

I propose the above specific name for this species, because 
it is, I believe, the first insect of the genus to be described in 
America, 

Apanteles cacceci^ Riley. 

As T have elsewhere noted*, a single specimen of this 
species w^as bred from Terns minuta during May, 1886. 

Macrocentrus delicatus Cresson. 

Professor Riley has recordedf the breeding of this species 
from the second brood of larvae of Teras feeding upon cran- 
berry in New^ Jersey. 

*Notes on some Illinois Microgasters. Bull 111. St. Lab. Nat. 
Hist., Vol.'III., Art. I., p. 5. 

fU. S. Dept. Agr., Div. Ent., Bull. 4, p. 25. 



Article IV. — On the Anatomy and Histology of a New Earth- 
worm {Diplocardia communis^ gen. et sp. nov.). By H. 

GrARMAK. 



Characters of the Geistus. 

Vasa deferentia opening to the exterior behind the cli- 
tellus by two apertures on the ventral side of somite 19. Two 
copulatory fossae extend from the middle of the ventral side of 
somite 18 to the middle of the ventral side of somite 20, each 
fossa with a pair of long, curved setee and an outlet of a pros- 
tate gland at its extremities. Internal apertures of the vasa 
deferentia two pairs; one pair in each of the somites 10 and 11. 
Seminal vesicles in somites 9, ?10, and ?11. Testes in somite 
12. Spermathecae in three pairs, one pair in each of the 
somites 7, 8, and 9. Ovaries flabelliforra, situated in somite 13. 
Internal apertures of oviducts in somite 13; external apertures 
in somite 14. Setae arranged in four double longitudinal series 
on the ventral side of the body, each somite bearing four pairs. 
(Esophagus very short, without calciferous glands. A muscular 
gizzard in somites 6 and 7. Typhlosole a very slight dorsal 
fold. Dorsal vessel double, consisting of two tubes fused only 
at the dissepiments. No subneural blood vessel present. 
Nephridia tubular, with the nephridiopores in line with the 
dorsal setse of the external pairs; internal aperture in the 
somite preceding that in which the gland lies. Brain small, 
transversely elongated, with slight median anterior and pos- 
terior excisions. Praestomium not completely dividing the in- 
tegument of the first somite. 

The genus is based upon a large cylindrical flesh-colored 
species which is common in the black soil of Illinois prairie- 
land. Its body is made up of from 123 to 165 somites, and 
reaches a length of a foot. The following account of its 
anatomy will furnish the means of distinguishing it from other 
species of the genus which may be discovered. 
\ 



48 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

The Form and Exterior. 

The body is, for the greater part of its length, perfectly 
cylindrical in shape, there being none of the flattening of the 
posterior ventral region observable in species of Lumbricus. It 
increases gradually in diameter from the pra3stomium to somite 
7, where it is thickest, then gradually diminishes to somite 11, 
posterior to which the diameter remains constant (not consid- 
ering the clitellus) until a short distance from the posterior 
extremity, where it abruptly descends, the decrease being con- 
fined to about six very short terminal somites. 

A few of the first somites are shorter than those which 
follow, but the maximum of length for these divisions of the 
body is reached at about somite 7; behind this somite is a grad- 
ual decrease in their length, so that at the middle of the length 
of the body somites are only half as long as the longest, and at 
the posterior extremity they are less than a third of the length 
of anterior somites. Impressed encircling lines divide the sur- 
face of the integument into numerous small false segments, 
and render the limits of the somites difiicult to distinguish un- 
til the disposition of these lines is known. Somite 1 is without 
encircling lines, and its surface is plicated longitudinally. 
Somite 2 shows the plication on its anterior half, and also lacks 
the lines. The surface of 3 is devoid of wrinkles, but shows a 
single very faint encircling line. Somite 4 shows a distinct 
nearly median line and a faint anterior one. Somite 5, like 
most of those following, is encircled by two lines dividing its 
integument into three false segments, of which the median is 
smallest. Towards the posterior end of the body the lines dis- 
appear, about a dozen short terminal somites lacking them, and 
a few preceding these having a single one. 

The mouth is a transverse slit, bounded below and at, the 
sides by a fleshy lip — the anterior edge of somite 1 — and above 
by the praestomium. The latter is of the usual shape, has a 
perfectly smooth surface, and by its narrowed posterior portion 
reaches the middle of the dorsal wall of somite 1. Wrinkles 
sometimes continue its lateral boundaries and give it an appear- 
ance of completely dividing the integument of the first somite. 
The vent is terminal and vertical in position; the integument 
about it is faintly plicated. 



Anatomtj and Histoloyij of a New Earthworm. 49 

The Set^. 

Four double longitudinal rows of setae with distances be- 
tween adjacent rows nearly equal, are disposed along the ventral 
face of the body. Each ordinary somite, therefore, bears eight 
setae in four pairs. In sections, the two inner pairs of setae are 
seen to be a little farther apart than each inner pair is from the 
outer pair of the same side. A line drawn through the middle 
of a somite at right angles to its vertical axis, would touch at its 
extremities the outermost seta of both outer pairs. The setae 
are thus confined to the ventral half of the body. Setae are 
lacking upon somite 1 and upon the three or four terminal 
posterior somites. They are of the usual form, but are rather 
slender. The distal extremity is bent a very little, and is ob- 
tusely pointed; the proximal end is bluntly rounded; the an- 
gulate swelling at the , proximate end of the distal third is 
inconspicuous. In place of the inner pairs of ordinary setae, on 
somites 18 and 20 are pairs of long uniformly curved copu- 
latory setae. On somite 19 the two inner pairs of setae are 
lacking. 

The Doksal Pokes. 

The first dorsal pore is situated between somites 10 and 11. 
These openings are elliptical in outline, and are transversely 
placed. They may be obliterated in alcoholic specimens by the 
contraction of surrounding tissues, but in worms killed in cor- 
rosive sublimate they can be readily studied. 

The Clitellus. 

The clitellus does not appear until the worms are nearly 
grown, when the somites which will eventually bear the glands 
assume a dull yellow color, but are not swollen beyond the 
common outline. In large examples collected during the 
month of May the clitellus is well developed. It is of a pale 
flesh color, projects beyond the common outline a little, and 
occupies the walls of somites 13 to 18 inclusive. Its surface 
often presents peculiar fissures, which appear as if made by 
passing the edge of a knife blade over it; the encircling rings 



50 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

are obliterated on the gland-bearing somites. In some cases 
the gland is developed only on the posterior part of the wall of 
somite 13, and it is generally less developed on this somite than 
on those which succeed it. It is not developed over a narrow 
median ventral area between the two inner rows of setse. The 
lateral edges of this area are sinuous, from ingrowths of the 
gland between each two pairs of setae. The area begins to 
widen towards the front on somite 14, and towards the rear 
on somite 17. 

The External Apertures of the Genital Organs. 

The external apertures of the three pairs of spermathecse 
show very clearly in examples killed in corrosive sublimate, at 
the anterior edges of somites 7, 8, and 9, opposite the inter- 
spaces between the setse of inner pairs on the same somites. 
The openings are upon minute transversely-placed prominences. 

The external apertures of the oviducts are two minute 
pores, very close together, within and a little in advance of 
the two inner pairs of setse on the ventral side of somite 14. 
In many examples the surrounding integument is a little ele- 
vated, producing a low transversely-elongated mound bearing 
the apertures at its summit. 

Two copulatory papillse are usually present on the posterior 
edges of somites 17 and 20, one opposite each inner pair of 
setse of these somites. In most cases these are the only 
papillse present; but in one example seen, there were besides 
the pair on somite 17, four pairs on somites 20, 21, 22, and 23, 
respectively. In still other examples a pair was found on each 
of somites 16, 17, 20, and 21. 

At about the middle of somite 18, at the points at which 
the pairs of copulatory seta3 appear, are the anterior ends of two 
shallow copulatory fossse shaped like parentheses, but with the 
convex sides towards each other. These grooves extend across 
somite 19 and terminate on somite 20, where also copulatory 
setse appear. No apertures of sexual organs can, by ordinary 
means, be perceived in this region; but on cutting out the body- 
wall and studying it with a microscope, the aperture of the 
duct of a prostate gland will be found in the two extremities 



Anatomy and Histology of a New Earthworm. 51 

of each fossa, one opening, thus, beside each pair of copulatory 
setse on somites 18 and 20. The vasa deferentia open on two 
very small papillae, one in each fossa near the middle of somite 
19. The vasa are in no way connected with the prostate 
glands. Between the fossge the body-wall is a little impressed, 
and forms here a shallow basin. 

The Dissepiments. 

No dissepiments are present, apparently, between the four 
most anterior somites. The first developed partition separates 
somites 5 and 6. It is much thinner than the five succeeding 
ones. The latter are greatly thickened from the unusual de- 
velopment within them of muscle fibers. These six anterior 
dissepiments, and to some extent those immediately following, 
project backwards from the line of attachment to the body- 
wall, so that anterior septa are received into succeeding ones, 
and the part of the alimentary' canal belonging in one somite 
may be carried back into another. Cross sections from this 
region are sometimes puzzling on account of this. Posteriorly 
the dissepiments grow thinner and more transparent from loss 
of their muscular character, and in the greater part of the body 
are reduced to delicate films. The aperture in each septum 
beneath the alimentary canal is circular in outline, and reaches 
from the ventral side of the canal to the body-wall. Through 
these apertures pass the ventral blood vessel and the ventral 
chain of nerve ganglia. 

The Alimentary Canal. 

The pharynx extends from the mouth to about the begin- 
ning of the fourth somite. It is of the usual character, con- 
sisting of a thin-walled sac with numerous bands of muscle 
extending from its outer surface backwards and outwards to 
the body-wall. When it is empty, its walls are extensively 
infolded, producing an irregular longitudinal plication of its 
inner surface. 

At the posterior end of the pharynx, the dorsal wall of the 
canal presents a narrow transverse inward fold. Behind the 
fold the caliber abruptly increases again with no change in the 



52 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

character of the walls. This region of the canal is the only 
part that can be considered an a3sophagus. The exterior is 
devoid of muscular bauds and the walls are thin and dis- 
teusible. There is no trace of calciferous glands. The oeso- 
phagus, if such it can be termed, is ordinarily crowded into a 
very narrow space and on casual observation may escape notice 
as a division of the canal. It may be doubled over the next 
division. 

Within somites 6 and 7 the walls of the canal become 
greatly thickened by a development of circularly arranged 
muscle, and form a powerful grinding apparatus, — the gizzard. 
Exteriorly this region is noticeable from its pearly lustre and 
unyielding walls. It really consists of two divisions, belong- 
ing in somites 5 and 6, respectively, but the backward ex- 
tension of the septa brings the anterior part within 6 and 
the posterior part within 7. The line of attachment to its 
wall of the septum between 5 and 6 indicates the line of 
separation of the two divisions. This separation is narrow 
but complete, the wall of the intervening region being thin, 
and lacking the circular muscle fibers. Longitudinal sec- 
tions of the gizzard show each part to consist of a zone of 
muscle which is thickest at its middle, and diminishes in thick- 
ness, somewhat, anteriorly and posteriorly. The anterior divi- 
sion of the gizzard is the larger; both divisions decrease a trifle 
in diameter from before backwards. 

The first division of the intestine is the most slender por- 
tion of the alimentary canal. It is cylindrical, with smooth 
and rather firm walls, with a gradually increasing development 
of chloragogue cells from before backwards, the posterior third 
becoming dark brown in color from the abundance of these 
cells. It extends from the gizzard to somite 17, terminating 
after passing through the partition between 16 and 17. The 
epithelial lining of this division of the intestine is closely cor- 
rugated. 

Within the posterior part of somite 17 the canal at once 
expands, loses the chloragogue cells, and becomes thin-walled. 
This forms the beginning of a second division of the intestine, 
the largest in caliber of all, extending through somites 18 and 
19 and terminating in somite 20, where begins the third divi- 
sion. 



Anatomy and Histology of a New Earthivorm. 53 

The third division of the intestine extends from somite" 20 
nearly to the posterior end of the body. It is similar to the 
preceding more inflated part, being thin-walled and sacculated, 
and is pretty uniform in diameter throughout. 

Towards the vent the canal again changes in character to 
form the rectum. Exteriorly there is little to distinguish this 
division from the intestine which precedes it, but cross sec- 
tions show a decided thickening of the wall, due to an increase 
of muscle tissue and to the great development of the lining 
epithelium. 

No intestinal coeca have been observed. 

The typhlosole might easily escape observation on casual 
study. It is represented by a low ridge projecting into the 
cavity of the intestine from the dorsal side and extending from 
somite 23 backwards. It begins to decrease in size behind 
somite 40, and soon becomes scarcely perceptible. 

The Vascular System. 

The vascular system of this genus differs from that of 
Lumbricus in being simpler, — the subneural vessel and the com- 
missural vessels putting the latter in communication with the 
dorsal vessel being here wanting. With certain of the post- 
clitellian group of genera, Diplocardia shows marks of closer 
relation with respect to these vessels. 

The dorsal vessel is distributed upon the pharynx in the 
usual manner. From the pharynx it extends backwards over 
the gizzard as a simple tube without branches until just before 
the dissepiment between somites 6 and 7, where very small lat- 
eral branches pass around the posterior part of the gizzard and 
enter the subintestinal vessel below. Immediately behind the 
dissepiment between somites 6 and 7, the dorsal vessel divides 
into two trunks, which again unite to pass through the dissepi- 
ment between somites 7 and 8. In somites 8 and 9 the same 
thing occurs, accompanied by an increase in the size of the 
dorsal vessel and its lateral branches. In somites 10, 11, and 
12 the lateral branches become greatly enlarged, equaling in 
diameter the dorsal vessel in these somites. All these "aortas" 
are loosely bound to the posterior septa of the somites in which 



54 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History^ 

they lie, by very thin mesenteries. They are not closely bound 
to the intestine, as sometimes represented in figures of other 
earthworms, but give abundant space within for the disten- 
sion of the intestine with food, and are therefore not them- 
selves liable to be disturbed by the operations of digestion. 
Posterior to somite 9, the divisions of the dorsal vessel are not 
widely separated as they are in. somites 7, 8, and 9; but the 
double character persists, and cross sections show that there 
are two completely sepai'ate tubes, at least at the middle of the 
somites, throughout the remainder of the body. Possibly in 
some cases the tubes do not unite to pass through the septa, 
since the channel between them may reach the septum and 
seem to continue the division through it. The dorsal vessel 
reaches its maximum diameter in somite 14. Anterior to 
this somite the vessel gradually decreases in size; posterior to 
it the vessel is for some distance about equal in size to the 
anterior division of the intestine, which it overlies and con- 
ceals. In somites 14-19 there is a sudden increase in the size 
of the vessel. Posterior to somite 19 the vessel is a little 
smaller, and continues quite uniform in diameter (with a very 
gradual decrease in size) to its termination at the posterior end 
of the body. In somite 13 the walls of the vessel show a few 
chloragogue cells when examined with a hand lens. Anterior 
to this somite the vessel is devoid of this gland. Posterior to 
somite 13 the vessel is thickly coated with the cells. 

No free lateral branches are given off from the dorsal ves- 
sel in somite 13, but in all the somites following, two slender, 
contorted lateral branches pass off, one on each side, just before 
the posterior septum, and, like the aortae, are bound to the dis- 
sepiment by a delicate mesentery. The pair in somite 14 
reach the body-wall between the outer and inner pairs of setae, 
and without branches pass into the integument. Those in 
succeeding somites divide into several branches just before 
reaching the body- wall, some of which doubtless collect the 
blood from the segmental organs and other structures, but 
most of them seem to emerge from the integument. In living 
worms the branches in adjacent somites may be seen to anas- 
tomose with each other and to ramify extensively in the body- 
wall. A vessel of unusual size collects blood from the clitellus 



Anatomy and Histohgij of a New Earthworm. 55 

and joins the lateral vessel of each side in somite 18. All 
these lateral branches are, like the posterior part of the dorsal 
vessel, thickly covered with the brown chloraojogue cells up to 
the point at which they pass into the body-wall. They are 
highly elastic, and after being stretched forward to their full 
extent during systole of the portion of the dorsal vessel to 
which they are attached, at once become contorted, or partly 
coiled, when the dorsal vessel again relaxes. The relatively 
thick chloragogue coating renders them conspicuous objects, 
although the blood vessel proper is generally very small. From 
first to last they are free from the alimentary canal. 

The minute gastric branches reach the dorsal vessel a 
little before the middle of each somite. A close capillary net- 
work may be seen in the walls of the intestine, which in some 
of the anterior somites assumes the form of longitudinal 
sinuses. 

The subintestinal blood vessel is slung by a mesentery 
from the ventral median line of the alimentary canal, and lies 
above the ventral nerve chain, passing along the dorsal side of 
the apertures in the dissepiments. By the dissepiments it is at 
regular intervals held near the ventral median line of the body, 
but in the cavities of the somites lies free in wide loops which 
extend from side to side. A pair of branches is given off before 
each dissepiment. It is smaller than the dorsal vessel, consists 
of a single tube, is non-contractile, and is not coated with 
chloragogue cells. 

The Gekltal Okgans. 

Three pairs of spermathecae are present in Diplocardia. 
They occur in somites 7, 8, and 9, increasing a little in size 
from before, are pyriform in shape, with corrugated outer sur- 
face when not distended with spermatozoa, and each sends a 
rather thick duct through the body-wall, near the anterior sep- 
tum, opening, as has already been noted, opposite the inner 
pairs of setae. Each sac is provided with a small reniform 
coecum, closely attached to one side at the point at which the 
duct leaves the receptacle. They are rather large, sometimes 
extending up along the sides well towards the dorsal vessel. 



56 Illinois State Lahoratoru of Natural History. 

The shape of the coecum varies occasionally, and may be cut 
up into irregular lobes. Quite frequently the receptacles are 
carried through the aperture in the lower part of a septum, 
and appear in a somite to which they do not belong. 

Attached to the anterior face of the dissepiment, between 
somites 9 and 10, is a large, white, irregularly-lobed mass on 
each side of the alimentary canal, — the seminal vesicles. No 
lobes or ducts from these vesicles, passing through the septum, 
have been found, and no means of communication between the 
vesicles and the other male genital organs have been noted. It 
is possible, however, that in some conditions of these organs 
such lobes or ducts may exist, or, possibly, such communication 
may be by means of pores through the dissepiment. In worms 
more than half grown somites 10 and 11 are always found 
loosely filled with spermatozoa. These loose masses may have 
an extremely delicate membranous covering and represent 
lobes of the seminal vesicles, but no trace of such membrane 
has been seen either in sections or by the ordinary means; and it 
seems safe to assume that these somites are used simply as res- 
ervoirs for the temporary storage of the male element. In 
somite 12, on each side of the intestine, is a large white mass 
consisting of numerous berry-like lobes, the whole attached by 
a small area to the posterior side of the dissepiment between 
somites 11 and 12. Often they embrace the intestine and meet 
above it. These have been regarded as the testes because an 
examination of their contents shows them to contain the sper- 
matozoa in various stages of development. No means of com- 
munication between these bodies and the somites in front of 
them has been observed, but doubtless the matured product is 
discharged through the septum to which the testes are 
attached. The spermatozoa are certainly not set free in the 
cavity of the somite in which the testes lie. 

The vasa deferentia receive the spermatozoa by two pairs 
of large flared openings, one each in somites 10 and 11. They 
lie upon the floor of the somites, within the nephridia, one on 
each side of the nerve ganglia. The vasa deferentia, passing 
from them, at once plunge into the integument and become 
embedded in the thick inner layer of muscle of the body-wall. 
The vasa uf each side soon meet, and thence continue side by 



Anatomy and Histology of a New Earthworm. 57 

side towards the outiet in somite 19, They lie just outside the 
outer seta of the inner pair, are perfectly cylindrical, a little 
contorted, and gradually approach the exterior, so that at the 
point at which the ducts of the first pair of prostate glands 
pass to the exterior, the vasa are at the middle of the muscular 
layer in which they are embedded. Just before turning out- 
wards to their outlet in somite 19, they unite, and thus open 
by a siDgle duct in the copulatory fossa, as already noted. 
From their position in the muscle layer, they cannot be traced 
by the methods of ordinary dissection, and it was only by cut- 
ting serial sections that they were finally traced to the external 
outlets. 

Four peculiar glands, doubtless the homologues of what 
have been named prostate glands in other genera of Oligo- 
chgeta, still remain to be described as a part of the male repro- 
ductive apparatus. In Diplocardia they have no direct con- 
nection with the vasa deferentia, but the products of both are 
discharged into the copulatory fossge, and thus the same re- 
sult is probably attained as would be by the passage of the vasa 
into the glands. Each gland opens by a separate duct at one 
end of a fossa. The glands are long, strap-shaped, orange- 
yellow bodies, floating for the greater part of their length free 
in the somatic fluid, so that they often pass by the apertures of 
the dissepiments into somites other than those in which they 
belong. They are abruptly bent where attached to the floor of 
the somites in which they open, and a large muscular duct 
arises near this end of the gland and penetrates the integu- 
ment to the exterior. Each duct is accompanied by a pair of 
long copulatory setae, occupying the place of the inner pairs in 
somites 18 and 20, 

Excepting the form of the ovaries, the female genital 
organs of this genus are not especially different from those of 
Lumbricus. The ovaries are attached to the posterior face of 
the septum, between somites 12 and 13, and thus lie in the 
latter division of the body. They consist of rather large 
fan-like sheets of tissue, narrowing to a thick pedicel by 
which they are fastened to the septum, and under the micro- 
scope are seen to be made up of numerous parallel series of 
ova, growing more and more mature towards the free edges of 



58 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

the sheets. The whole structure is folded upon itself in an 
irregular fashion, and its free edges may be very ragged from 
the tearing apart of the extremities of series of ova. 

• The oviducts may be found posterior to and opposite the 
ovaries in somite 13. Their free internal portions are trumpet- 
shaped structures having, when under the microscope, the 
appearance of a miniature calla lily. Behind the flared 
internal aperture the ducts are narrowed, and, passing through 
the dissepiment between somites 13 and 14, penetrate the 
body-wall in the anterior part of somite 14. 

The Nervous System. 

The cerebral nervous mass is very small as compared with 
that of Lumbricus and Allolobophora, and is correspondingly 
simple. It lies upon the pharynx, in somite 2, and is a slender, 
transversely elongated body, with a slight median anterior and 
and posterior impressed line of division between the two fused 
ganglia composing it. Its greatest diameter is less than a 
fourth of its length. As it lies in position it forms an arch, 
with the convex side posterior. Its surface is perfectly 
smooth, and no nerves arise from it except two large cords 
which supply the region about the mouth and arise one at each 
of its outer extremities. Numerous small white cords which 
are liable to be mistaken for nerves arise from its dorsal and 
ventral posterior surfaces, and extend posteriorly towards the 
skin, but their iridescence in sunlight shows them to be small 
bands of muscle. 

Strong commissures extend obliquely down the sides of the 
pharynx from the extremities of the brain to the sub- 
pharyngeal ganglia in somite 3. A little ventrad of the brain 
each commissure gives ofE from its anterior edge a large 
nerve which extends forwards along the pharynx, parallel with 
the nerve arising from the extremity of the brain. Two other 
small cords also arise from the anterior edge of each commis- 
sure; one near the ventral end of the dorsal third of its length, 
the other near the dorsal end of the ventral third. The com- 
missures gradually expand as they approach the first ventral 
nervous mass, their inner edges with the anterior edge of the 



Anatomy and Histology of a New Earthworm. 59 

mass forming a gothic arch. From the expanded ventral part 
of each commissure is given off a fourth small nerve. 

The first ventral nervous mass is depressed, and sub- 
triangular in shape. Three large nerves arise from each side, 
and soon meet in one large strand. Their ultimate distribution 
has not been followed out. The ganglia posterior to the first 
are elongated elliptical, depressed masses, with strongly convex 
dorsal surface, and with no outward trace of division into two 
masses. The portions of the chain between the masses are very- 
short, and show a slight median longitudinal impression as the 
only indication of a division into two cords. As the somites 
shorten towards the posterior end of the body, the nervous 
masses also become less elongated, and at the same time are 
brought closer together, the chain in the posterior part of the 
body being finally a succession of rounded swellings, with no 
interspaces. In the anterior somites each mass gives off from 
near its middle two large nerves on each side. They are directed 
forward and outward, and by large branches penetrate the 
body-wall. Other branches given off from them doubtless sup- 
ply the viscera. Near the anterior limit of each mass a small 
nerve passes outward and forward on each side to the anterior 
dissepiment of the somite in which the mass lies. Ganglia 
forming the posterior part of the chain give off only one pair 
of nerves. The posterior mass (possibly representing several 
fused pairs of ganglia) gives off three pairs of nerves. From 
its middle pass out the two ordinary nerves. Posterior to 
these the mass becomes narrowed and gives off two small 
nerves, which extend outward and backward. From its pos- 
terior extremity a third pair of large nerves diverge and 
extend backward toward the integument in the region of 
the vent. 

The Nephridia. 

A pair of tubular segmental organs, similar to those of 
Lumbricus, occurs in most of the somites of the body. The 
internal apertures of these organs are in line with the outer 
setae of the inner pairs, each aperture appearing in the somite 
preceding that in which its gland lies. The tube which 
passes through the septum from the aperture is small at 



60 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural llistonj. 

first, but rapidly increases in diameter, and passes outwards 
and upwards along the inside of the body-wall. Outside the 
outer pair of seta? the tube is abruptly bent and returns upon 
its course until within the outer setir; then turns outwards 
again and extends about half as far as in the first loop; returns 
again upon its course; and finally, as a slender tube, passes 
down within the raesentery which holds the gland to the 
body-wall, and reaches the latter in front of the dorsal seta of 
the outer pair. In specimens prepared according to Samper's 
"dry method," the nephridiopores show very clearly at the 
anterior edge of each somite, in line with the outer setae. 
There seem to be no pores in somites 1 and 2. 



All the specimens of Diplocardia thus far examined have 
shown the external apertures of the vasa deferentia on somite 
19, and hence behind the clitellus. If we follow M. Per- 
rier's classification rigidly, we must, therefore, place this genus 
in the group post-diteMiani. The position of the male pores 
so near the posterior limits of the gland would seem to indi- 
cate an intermediate position for the genus, and other features 
of its anatomy apparently confirm this impression by pointing 
to relations with genera in both the divisions intra-din^ ])ost- 
clitelliani. Thus, of the fourteen characters of the genus 
Microcha3ta, one of the ■intra-clitelliani, given by Mr. W, B. 
Benham,* five (2, 4, 6, 10, and 14) are, in essentials, common to 
the two genera, while as many more points of likeness could 
be selected which as clearly indicate a relation of the genera. 
M. Perrier's genus Anteus, another of the intra-cUtelUani, also 
bears some resemblance to Diplocardia. In both, the nephridio- 
pores are in a line with the dorsal seta of the outer pair; the 
anterior septa are thick and muscular; the setae are disposed in 
four double, longitudinal rows, and the gizzard is anterior in 
position. Recognizing M. Perrier's divisions as good, we may 
consider these resem blances to indicate an inferior position for 
our genus. The lower forms of a group often combine in 
themselves characters distributed in a number of higher forms, 
and this we may suppose to be the case with Diplocardia. At 

* Quart. Jour. Micr. Sci., N. Ser., No. CII., 1886, p. 201. 



Anatomy and Histology of a New Earthworm. 61 

any rate its double heart, simple nervous system, the absence 
of a subneural blood vessel, together with its sluggish habit, 
mark Diplocardia as of low rank, and give us additional reason 
for placing it in the lowest of the three recognized groups.* 

The two genera of post-clitelliani with which Diplocardia 
has most in common are Acanthodrilus and Digaster, belong- 
ing to Dr. Claus's family Acanthodrilid*. With Acantho- 
drilus the genus here described agrees in the position of the 
nephridiopore, in the possession of four groups of modified 
setae, in having four prostate glands, in the character and for- 
ward position of the gizzard, and in the character of the 
spermathecce. 

Of the three species upon which M. Perrier based the 
genus Acanthodrilus he says: " Leur caractere le plus saillant, 
celui qui frappe tout d'abord, c'est Texistence de quatre orifices 
genitaux males an lieu de deux. Par chacun de ces orifices, on 
voit sailler un faisceau de soies courbes, d'aspect nacre, tres- 
lougues et plus ou moins retractiles, sans Tetre toutef ois d'une 
maniere complete. Chacun de ses faisceaux constitue un veri- 
table penis." In Diplocardia there are only two external open- 
ings for the sperm ducts, and these are not upon the somites 
upon which the pairs of prostates open (18 and 20), but upon 
the intermediate somite (19). They do not pass into the pros- 
tates and discharge the sperm through the ducts of the latter, 
but can be traced from the somites in the anterior region of 
the body, where they open into the body cavity as two separate 
tubes, lying side by side in the inner muscle layer of the body- 
wall until just at the external aperture, where they unite in 
one tube. The apertures are not accompanied by seta3 of any 
kind, the inner pairs of setse being wanting on somite 19. 
At the apertures of the ducts from the prostate glands on 
somites 18 and 20 are long, gently and uniformly curved setae, 
one pf«V for each of these ducts. They occupy the position 
ordinarily occupied by inner pairs of setae, lie close together, 
are perfectly smooth, very slender, and are capable of complete 

* In some of its characters it approaches the aquatic OlUjoohata 
Umicohe. Eisen's Californian genus, Ocnerodrilus, is like it in the 
separation of the two vasa def erentia of each side until the external 
aperture is reached. Criodrilus approaches it in h.aving an incom- 
pletely double dorsal vessel. 



62 Illinois State Lahoratory of Ncdural History. 

retraction, no trace of them being commonly perceptible from 
without. These probably represent the modified setae of the 
prostate glands in Acanthodrilus, in which genus they are de- 
scribed as projecting fasicles of ornamented and more or less 
retractile sette. The muscular duct of the prostate, with its ac- 
companying setae, does not, therefore, as in Acanthodrilus, con- 
stitute '' un veritable penis," the secretion of the prostates being 
in Diplocardia discharged independently of that of the seminal 
vesicles. This complete separation of the two sets of glands 
calls for another arrangement by which the secretions may be 
mingled, and this we have in the copulatory fossse and the re- 
lations of the apertures of the various ducts to them. (See 
figure.) Another difference between the two genera is in the 
number of spermathecse: Diplocardia has three pairs, one each 
in somites 7, 8, and 9, while Acanthodrilus has two pairs, one 
each in somites 8 and 9, With regard to the subneural blood 
vessel of earthworms, Mr. W. B. Benham (loc. cit.) says, 
"There is a sub-neural trunk in all forms, except Perichaeta, 
Pleurochffita, Pontodrilus [and Microchaeta]." From this we 
must infer that Acanthodrilus possesses this trunk; but in 
Diplocardia it is wanting, as are also the supraneural vessels. 
In the imperfect oesophagus of Diplocardia we may perhaps 
find still another differerence. This division of the alimentary 
canal is represented in Mr. Beddard's figure of Acanthodrilus 
layardi as a slender tube rather longer than the pharynx. It 
is represented as longer than the pharynx also in M. Perrier's 
A. ungulatus. Finally, the two genera differ in the character 
of the dorsal vessel. Some species of Acanthodrilus have been 
described as having the dorsal trunk divided in a few of the an- 
terior somites, but in no description which I have seen has men- 
tion been made of a dorsal vessel made up of two tubes through- 
out its length, as in the case in the genus here described. Not- 
withstanding these differences, Diplocardia seems to the writer to 
be more closely related to Acanthodrilus than to Digaster. The 
position of the nephridiopores opposite the inner pairs of setae, 
and the two muscular gizzards in the latter genus, render it very 
distinct from either of the others, and makes a comparison with 
Diplocardia unnecessary. The species of Acanthodrilus have 
been obtained from the East India Islands, from Madagascar, 



Anatomy and Histology of a New Earthworm. 63 

and from South Africa. It is a matter of some interest, there- 
fore, to find in this part of the world a genus bearing marks of 
close relation. 

Thus far a single species has been seen. It is rather com- 
mon in Illinois, generally occurring in soil, although occasion- 
ally found associated with species of Allolobophora in the com- 
post heaps of gardeners. It is apparently not at home in the 
latter situation, and the large examples are almost always 
taken in damp soil, where they probably breed. It is sometimes 
common in lawns, and after protracted rains may be secured in 
considerable numbers along walks, where it has been belated 
during its nocturnal wanderings. Its burrows extend for some 
depth into the soil, and, like Lumbricus, it excavates, during 
droughts, a chamber at the bottom of its burrow, where it re- 
mains coiled up and perhaps inactive. Beyond this, little is 
known of its habits. 

With regard to its distribution outside the State nothing 
positive can be said at present, but the writer is disposed to 
believe that he has seen this or a similar worm in the Eastern 
States. Within the State it is generally distributed, and will 
probably be found to occur in other states in the Mississippi 
Valley. 

Notes on the Histologt. 

In the course of attempts to stain examples of Diplocardia 
for section cutting, a surprising difference between it and the 
genus Allolobophora becomes apparent. Allolobophora stains 
well in Grenacher's borax carmine preparation, the nuclei of all 
the tissues being brought out with the stain in a very satisfactory 
way. Diplocardia, on the contrary, does not stain well in this 
fluid, the result generally obtained with it being a diffuse color, 
with the nuclei of muscle and connective tissue poorl}' differ- 
entiated. The results were not due to any difference in the 
method of killing or preservation, for specimens of the two 
genera killed and preserved at the same time and in the same 
way gave this difference, and proved it to be due to something 
in the tissues themselves. Just what this something is we are 
not prepared to state, but the manner in which the tissues 



64 Illinois State Lahonttory of Natiind History^ 

respond to the stain would seem to indicate a difference in the 
chemical or physical properties of the tissues of the two genera, 
— a difference hardly compatible, the writer thinks, with any 
very close relation of the worms. 

The muscle fibers in the longitudinal layer of the body- 
wall are irregularly disposed (Figs. 13, 16, 17), and cross 
sections show nothing of the double series so characteristic of 
this layer in Lumbricus. With this exception there seems to 
be no essential difference between Diplocardia and Lumbricus 
with respect to the muscular system. The layers of the body- 
wall have about the same thickness relative to each other in 
both genera. Measurement of the body-wall beneath the 
nerve cord in the anterior part of the body of a Diplocardia of 
medium size gave a diameter of .40 mm., of which the cuticle 
and hypodermis together equaled .05 mm., the circular muscle 
layer .09 mm., and the longitudinal muscle layer .26 mm. In 
the greater part of the wall of the alimentary canal the mus- 
cular tissue is not very conspicuous. In the gizzard, of course, 
it is greatly in excess of other tissues. (See Fig. 10.) In the 
rectum, also, the muscular layers become prominent. Measure- 
ments of the anterior portion of the rectum gave a thickness 
of .05 mm. each for the epithelium and circular muscle layer, 
and about .02 mm. for the longitudinal layer. Near the vent 
there is a still further increase in all the tissues, measurement 
giving for the epithelium a diameter of .15 mm., for the cir- 
cular muscle layer .10 mm., and for the longitudinal layer 
.05 mm. Everywhere the muscle fibers are bound together by 
connective tissue, which, in the body-wall, forms, in places, 
layers of some thickness; but probably nothing comparable to 
the " bundles " of vertebrate muscle exists. 

Cross sections of muscles present a good deal of variation 
in the size and shape of fibers. Some of this is due to the^tate 
of contraction in which the fibers are fixed by reagents ; but 
there is still variation in size not to be accounted for in this 
way, and probably indicating a real difference in the size of 
fibers. Sections may be .008-012 mm. in longer diameter by 
,004 mm. in shorter diameter. The ribbon-shaped fibrils of 
which, the fibers are largely made up, are ranged in series ex- 
tending with the longer diameter of the fiber, giving to 



Anatomy mid Histology of a New Earthworm. 65 

sections the appearance of cross striation. In the small fibers 
they seem to form a single continuous series, the individual 
fibril being wider or narrower according to the part of the fiber 
it occupies. But in large fibers the fibrils reach across the 
shorter diameter only at the ends of the series, and medially 
form two series, one at each edge, with a central space between 
them, as if fibrils of a single series had been broken at the 
middle and the two series thus formed were slightly parted. 
Upon tearing apart the elements of stained fibers an inter- 
stitial granular protoplasm becomes apparent, adhering to the 
surfaces of fibrils in shreds and deeply-stained knots. 

Longitudinal vertical sections of the brain show the latter 
to be slightly depressed at the sides, where the sections are ellip- 
tical in contour. Medially the brain is less flattened. The 
fibrillar central tissue is surrounded everywhere, except 
anteriorly and along the ventral middle line, by numerous 
rather small unipolar nerve cells of the usual structure. 
Certain of the anterior cells, above and below, are larger than 
the others and occupy a depression in the fibrillar substance. 
The nervous tissue is invested and protected by fibrous con- 
nective tissue, the nuclei of which are scattered among the 
nerve cells and occur between the divisions of the fibrillar 
nervous matter. Outside this investing material is a moderately 
thick sheath, in which may be distinguished numerous blood 
vessels, connective tissue, and a highly refracting granular 
material, the nature of which has not been determined. Upon 
the posterior surfaces, dorsal and ventral, the bands of muscle 
referred to in another part of this paper can be seen, the larger 
bands consisting of about three fibers. Excepting these bands 
there seems to be no muscular tissue in the brain sheath. The 
sheath covering the dorsal side of the brain has a very sharply- 
defined inner boundary consisting of a membrane, apparently 
of homogeneous matter and probably a modified connective 
tissue. There is some appearance of such a membrane at the 
ventral side, but it is here much less distinct. The outer limits 
of the sheath are not well defined. The commissures between 
the cerebral and sub-cesophageal ganglia are enclosed in a thin 
sheath, in which may be seen the same refracting granules as 
are found in the brain sheath. No muscular tissue is present, 
apparently. 



66 Illinois State Lahorafonj of Natural Histonj. 

The sheath of the ventral nerve chain has a well-defined 
outer and inner limiting membrane of modified connective 
tissue, similar to that described for the cerebral ganglion. 
From the inner one, in some sections, fibers may be seen pass- 
ing in among the other tissues of the sheath, while occasional 
strands of connective tissue extend from it across the cord, at 
the sides of the median giant fiber, to the membrane of the 
opposite side of the cord. The sheath is not as thick on the 
first ventral mass as it becomes farther to the rear, and it lacks 
here the muscle fibers, most of its substance being made up of 
granular matter and of blood capillaries. The muscular tissue 
of the sheath appears between the first and second ganglia, and 
shows on ganglion 2 as a series of fibers next the inner 
enclosing membrane of the sheath, the sheath being still made 
up largely of the refracting granular material. Beneath the 
slender anterior division of the intestine the muscular tissue of 
the nerve cord becomes better developed, the fibers being large 
and not so closely confined to the inner membrane of the 
sheath. In the region of somites 19 and 20 the sheath is 
largely made up of muscle. ( Fig. 19, PI. IV. ) The fibers of 
this muscle have exactly the same structure as those in the 
body-wall, consisting of series of flattened fibrils, with central 
space and interstitial protoplasmic substance. The sheath 
becomes thinner again posteriorly and loses much of its mus- 
cular character, the fibers appearing, as in front, as a series 
along the inner membrane of the sheath. (Fig. 21, PI. IV.) 

It seems evident that the function of these muscles of the 
nerve sheath is to adjust the cord to the very great changes 
in the length of the body of the worm, and to accommodate 
it to the abrupt bending of the body from side to side which 
occurs during the creeping and burrowing operations of the 
living worm. A sudden change in length from a fqot to 
six inches requires that the nerve cord be, by some 
means, readily adjusted to so abrupt and pronounced a 
change without taking harm or having its office interfered 
with. The longitudinal muscle fibers of the sheath doubtless 
shorten the cord at such times and prevent its being thrown 
into folds. Sections of the cord from greatly shortened 
worms show an expanded condition, probably attributable to 



Anatoniij and Histology of a New Eai'thwonn. 67 

this action of the muscles. These sections may be circular in 
outline, while sections from woruis killed in an extended con- 
dition are transversely elliptical. 

Within the sheath of the ventral cord, connective tissue, 
giant fibers, nerve cells, and fibrillar nervous tissue are 
arranged as they are in Lumbricus and Allolobophora. The 
nerve cells occupy the lateral and ventral space within the 
sheath, and lie in little hollows in the connective tissue, with 
their contracted ends converging towards the points at which 
their fibers pass into the central nervous tissue. Most of the 
fibers from cells reach this tissue at the middle of the outside 
of the mass, and in sections are seen in a cluster about this 
region. Another set sends fibers into the inner ventral side of 
each half of the fibrillar tissue. (PL IV., Fig. 21.) The cells 
are thickly placed along the swellings, but become less abundant 
as the commissures are neared, and in the intervals between 
ganglia are completely lacking for a short distance. 

The central substance of the nerve chain is seen, in cross 
sections, as two lightly staining areas, chiefly granular or fibril- 
lar, apparently according to the reagents through which the 
tissue has been passed. At the center of the swellings this 
matter fuses across the middle line below the giant fibers. 
Elsewhere the substance of each side remains separate, with 
the intervening space occupied by fibrous connective tissue. 

The giant fibers are three in number, as in Lumbricus and 
Allolobophora, and occupy the same position relative to the 
other parts of the cord as in these genera. They do not appear 
in the suboesophageal ganglion, but in the interval between 
this and the succeeding mass the median fiber appears abruptly, 
while the two smaller lateral fibers appear some distance 
further to the rear. In the region of the eighth or ninth 
somite the lateral fibers become clearly visible, but are not yet 
half the diameter of the median fiber. At the extreme posterior 
end of the cord the giant fibers are lacking, but beneath the 
rectum the three are of equal size, the lateral fibers having 
gradually increased in diameter from before backward. The 
connective tissue completely invests the fibers which lie in the 
ganglia in a series just within the sheath of the cord and 
chiefly above the central nervous substance. They do not vary 



68 Illinois State Lahondonj of Natural History. 

with the cord in diameter, and to accomodate them to the 
diminished size of the cord between ganglia the median fiber 
is there brought down between the divisions of the central 
nervous matter. Unlike these structures in AUolobophora, the 
giant fibers are in this worm provided with a thick and well- 
defined connective tissue sheath (Plate IV., Fig. 19, a) which 
isolates them from the surrounding connective tissue. The 
axis of each fiber is hollow, and in the living worm is filled . 
with a semifluid matter which, in the sections of hardened 
tissue, is seen as a deeply staining granular residue, sometimes 
forming a film on the wall of the cavity, sometimes giving 
imperfect stellate transections, and, again, filling the whole 
space. The walls of the axial space are well-defined, and in 
many cross sections examined I have seen a ring of small discs 
about it, as if the wall were made up of small longitudinally 
disposed rods, the discs being their cross sections. Focusing on 
sections with high powers gives an appearance of fibers passing 
from this wall into the central space.* The fibers of the 
connective tissue sheath of the giant fibers seem to anastomose 
with those of the ordinary connective tissue of the nerve cord. 
The fibers of the sheath seem to join the "rods" imme- 
diately about the axial space. Nothing has been seen of the 
vertical septum mentioned by Dr. Leydig as dividing the cavity 
of the median fiber in Lumbricus, and no connection between 
the giant fibers and the nerve cells or central nervous tissue 
has been found. 

As to the function of the giant fibers I am disposed to 
accept Vejdovsky's view, that they are supporting structures 
instead of parts of the nervous apparatus proper. Whether or 
not they can be considered homologues of the notochord of 
vertebrates must, it seems to me, be left until more has been 
done with the embryology of invertebrates. They probably 
originate with the sheath and connective tissue of the cord, 
and thus independently of the essential nervous tissues.f 

* See Dr. Leydig's note on the giant fibers of earthworms. {Die 
riesigen Nervenroliren im Bauehmark der Ringelwurmer, Zool. 
AnZ; 1886, p. 591.) 

t Structures whicli resemble the giant fibers of earthworms are 
present in the ventral cord of Cambarus, and are said to occur also in 



Anatomij <nul Histology of a New Earthworm. 69 

The columnar epithelial cells with which the alimentary 
canal is lined are, in a large part of the canal, indurated and 
united at their inner ends, and in the middle division of the 
intestine are densely and strongly ciliated. 

Nothing of interest can be added to the published 
accounts of the hypodermis in related worms. Numerous 
gland cells of several forms occur with the more slender cells 
which make up the bulk of the layer. Toward the anterior and 
posterior extremities of the body the cells become gradually 
longer, and thus approach in character the epithelium of the 
stomodaeum and proctodseum. 

Sense organs in the form of small clusters of fusiform 
cells, bearing a close resemblance to the goblet-shaped organs 
of the skin of fishes and amphibians, are very abundant in the 
hypodermis about the ambulatory seta3. 

Within the wall of the alimentary canal are developed ex- 
tensive blood sinuses, the great extent of which was not sus- 
pected before the wall was studied by sections. In the 
large division of the intestine there is a considerable space 
between the intestinal epithelium and the circular muscle layer, 
which is filled with blood. Across this space stretch bands of 
connective tissue from the epithelium to the muscle layer. 
(PI. III., Fig. 14.) In the small anterior division of the 
intestine, also, we find an extensive system of lacunas in which 
the blood circulates, and is brought in contact with the lining 
epithelium of the canal. (PI. III., Fig. 15.) It is in these 
spaces, doubtless, that the blood receives the food material 
secreted from the contents of the intestine. 



other arthropods. As seen in the above-named genus they lack the 
connective tissue sheath so conspicuously developed in Diplocardia, 
and owing to the more perfectly disparate character of the cord there 
is no place for a median fiber. They appear to be simply longitudinal 
channels in the connective tissue, and represent, perhaps, the axial 
part of the libers of earthworms. These channels contain, in pre- 
served tissues, a residue in which, in addition to the minute granules 
such as occur in the fibers of Allolobophora, there are scattered cor- 
puscular bodies of larger size. 



70 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

The appended account of North American earth- 
worms has been drawn up largely from the works of Eisen, 
Rosa, and Uhde. Only the olicjochiia terricol<t> are given, and 
probably the list of these will prove far from complete when 
more attention has been given to collecting and studying our 
species. The Lumbricus americamis, Perrier {JRecherches 
pour servir Vhistoire des Lwyibriciens Tcrrestres, p. 44), which 
is said by its describer to represent in New York the L. terrestris 
of Europe, is probably one of the species of Allolobophora of the 
list given below. The description of L. apii^ Kinberg, from 
California, has not been seen. 

I wish here to acknowledge indebtedness to Prof. Forbes 
for his kindness and liberality in the matter of special papers 
on Oligochfeta, and to Messrs. McCluer and Weed, who have 
remembered me on several occasions with fine lots of living 
specimens. 



Anatomy and Histology of a New Earthworm. 71 



FAMILY LUMBRICIDiE. 

Genus Tetragonueus, Eisek. 

(Ofv. af K, Vet.-Akad. Forh., 1874, No. 2, p. 47.) 
Prostomium only partly dividing the buccal somite. Out- 
lets of vasa deferentia in somite 12. Intervals between the 
four double rows of setas about equal. Body cylindrical 
anteriorly ; quadrate in section posteriorly. 

Tetragonurus pupa, Eisen. 

T. pupa, Eisen, Ofv. af K. Vet.-Akad. Forh., 1874, No. 2, p. 47. 

Somites 40. Clitellum on somites 18-22. Tubercula pu- 
bertatis on somites 19, 20, and 21. Length, 25 mm. Niagara, 
Canada (Eisen). 

Geistus Allolobophora, Eisejs". 

(Ofv. af K. Vet.-Akad. Forh., 1873, No. 8, p. 46.) 
Prostomium not completely dividing the buccal somite. 
Outlets of vasa deferentia in somite 15. Setae in pairs or 
separated. 

Allolobophora bosckii, Eisen. 

Lumhricus puter, Eisen, Ofv. af K. Vet.-Akad. Forh., 1870, p. 959. 

Dendroh(sna hackii, Eisen, ib., 1873, No. 8, p. 53. 

Allolobophora hoecMi, Eosa, Lumbricidi del Piemonte, 1884, p. 48. 

Setse in four nearly equidistant rows, the dorsal interval 
a little the largest. Somites 80-95. Clitellum on somites 
29-33. Tubercula pubertatis on somites 31, 32, and 33. Length 
of living examples, 30-40 mm. Newfoundland (Eisen). 
Allolobophora riparia, HofEm. 

Lumhricus riparius, Hoffm., Arch. f. Naturg, 1843, p. 189. 
Allolobophora chlorotica, Rosa, Lumbricida del Piemonte, 1884, 
p. 34. 

Dorsal pores beginning between somites 3 and 4. Seta3 of 
pairs close together. Somites 80-100. Tubercula pubertatis 
on somites 31, 33, and 35. Clitellum on somites 29-37. Length 
50-80 mm. California (Eisen.) 



72 , Illinois State Laborafonj of Natural Ilistor;/. 

Allolohopliora foetida^ Savigny. 

Enterion fvetidum, Sav., Cuv., Hist., cles progr. des sc. nat., 1828, 

T. 4, p. 14. 
Lumhricus olidiis, Iloft'm., De verm. quib. ad gen. Lmnb,, 1842. 
Allolohopliora fietida, J^^isen, ( ifv. af. K. Vet.-Akad. FOrh., 1873, 

No. 8, p. 50. 
Dorsal pores beginning before somite 7. Setiu of pairs 
close together. Somites 85-105. Tubercula pubertatis on 
somites 28, 29, 30, and 31. Clitellum on somites 25,* 27-32. 
Length 80 mm. Champaign, 111., abundant. 

Allolohophora snhruhicimda, Eisen. 

A subrubicunda, Eisen, Ofv. af. K. Vet.-Akad. Fiah., 1873, No. 8, 
p. 51. 

Dorsal pores beginning before somite 7. Intervals be- 
tween setse 1, 2, 3, and 4, about equal. Somites about 
110. Tubercula pubertatis on somites 28, 29, and 30. Clitel- 
lum on somites 26-31. Length 90 mm. Niagara, Canada 
(Eisen). 

Allolohophora mucosa, Eisen. 

A. mucosa, Eisen, Ofv. af K. Vet.-Akad. Forh., 1873, No. 8, p. 47. 
Lumhricus communis, Hoffm, (in part), Arten d. Regenw., 1845. 

Dorsal pores beginning before somite 7. Setre of pairs 
close together. Somites 130. Tubercula pubertatis on somites 
29, 30, and 31. Clitellum on somites 25, 26-32. Length 50-70 
mm. when alive and moderately extended. Champaign, III., 
frequent. New England (Eisen). 

Allolohophora turgida, Eisen. 

A turgida, Eisen, Ofv. af K. Vet.-Akad. Forh., 1873, No. 8, 

p. 47. 
Lumhricus communis, Hoffm. (in part). 

Dorsal pores beginning between somites 8 and 9. Seta? of 
pairs close together. Somites 104-240. Tubercula pober- 
tatis on somites 31 and 33. Clitellum on somites 27, 28-34, 
sometimes 27, 28-35. Length 60-160 mm. Champaign, 111., 
abundant ; also received from North Carolina. New England 
and Canada (Eisen). 

*The numbers indicating the position of the clitellum are here 
used as in the descriptions of Eisen, the first number showing the 
degree to which the anterior portion of the clitellum may vary. 



Anatomy and Histology of a New Earthworm. 73 

Allolobophora tenuis^ Eisen. 
A. tenuis, Eisen, Ofv. af K. Yet.-Akad, Forh, 1874, No. 2, p. 44. 
Somites about 100. Clitellum on somites 25, 26-31. Tu- 
bercula pubertatis on somites 28 and 29. Length 50-60 mm. 
N. England, Canada, California (Eisen). 

Allolobophora titmida, Eisen. 
A. tumida, Eisen, Ofv. af K. Vet.-Akad. Forh., 1874, No. 2, p. 45. 
Somites about 40. Clitellum on somites 21-28. Tuber- 
cula pubertatis on somites 26 and 27. Length about 30 mm. 
N. England (Eisen). 

Allolobophora parva, Eisen. 

A. parva, Eisen, Ofv. af K. Vet.-Akad. Forh., 1874, No. 2, p. 46. 
Somites about 100. Clitellum on somites 23-29. Tuber- 
cula pubertatis on somites 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, and 29. Length 
about 40 mm. N. England (Eisen.) 

Allolobophora nordenskioldii, Eisen. 
A. nordenskioldii, Eisen, On the 01igoch?eta collected during 
the Swedish Arctic Expeditions in the years 1870, 1875, and 
1876, p. 6. 

Somites 80-125. Tubercula pubertatis on somites 28, 29, 
and 30. Length 80-150 mm. Closely allied to A. foetida. 
Obtained by Eisen in Siberia; credited to North America 
by Vejdovsky. 

Geistus Lumbkicus, Linne. 

(Linne, Syst. Nat., 1735.) 
Prostomium completely dividing the buccal somite. Out- 
lets of vasa deferentia in somite 15. Seta3 in pairs, four to 
each somite. 

LimibricHs herculeus, Savigny. 
Enterion herculeum, Sav.. Cuv., Hist, des progr. des sc. nat.,II., p. 

108. 1828. 
Ltimbricus terrestris, Linn6, 1767. 
Ltimbricus agricola, Hoffm., 1842. 

Somites 112-180. Clitellum on somites 32-37. Tubercula 
pubertatis on somites 33, 34, 35, 36. Length of living ex- 
amples 150-300 mm., varying in alcohol, according to Rosa, 
from 90-150 mm. New England (Eisen). 



74 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

Lumhricns ruhellus, Hoffm. 

Somites 95-150; bi- or triannulate. Clitellum on somites 
26, 27-31, 32. Tabercula pubertatis on somites 28, 29, 30, 31. 
Length 70-120 mm. Newfoundland (Eisen). 

Lnmhricus 2)iir2)ureus, Eisen. 

L. pnrpureus, Eisen, Ofv. af K. Vet.-Akad. Forh., 1870, No. 10, p. 
956. 

Somites 90, bi- or triannulate. Clitellum on somites 28-33. 
Tubercula pubertatis on somites 29, 30, 31, 32. Length of liv- 
ing worms 50-70 mm., of alcoholics 30-50 mm. Niagara, 
Canada (Eisen). 

FAMILY ACANTHODRILIDZE. 

This family is represented by the genus Diplocardia, which 
has been described in the first division of this paper. Hundreds 
were seen this spring in this locality, migrating during showers 
of rain. 

FAMILY PLUTELLID^. 

This family is represented by Plutellus heteroporus, de- 
scribed by Perrier, in 1873, from Pennsylvania. The following 
characters will serve to distinguish it from other worms: Setae, 
eight in each somite, equidistant. Sperm athecaB, a pair in each 
of somites 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9, each with a blind appendage. 
Entire nephridium in one somite, not extending through the 
anterior septum. External outlets of oviducts in somite 10, in 
line with inner setfe. External outlets of vasa deferentia in 
somite 18. Clitellum in somites 14, 15, 16 and 17. A " pros- 
tate gland" and penis present. Length 150 mm. 

FAMILY PERICH^TID^. 

A fine species of the genus Perichaetais becoming common 
in the hot-houses of the University, where it has probably been 
introduced with exotic plants. The numerous described species 
of this genus have been obtained chiefly from southeastern 
Asia, and, as far as I know, this is the first record of its occur- 
rence in North America. I have not seen all the published 



Amiioinij and Histology of a New Earthworm. 75 

descriptions, and can not, therefore, determine it as to species. 
The worm is noticeable among our forms from its active 
movements and extreme irritability. Body cylindrical, smooth, 
shining. Color, olive-brown, lighter below. Somites 110. 
Clitellum on somites 14, 15, and 16, constricted. External 
outlet of oviducts single, median, in a slight prominence on the 
ventral side of somite 14. Male outlets in two large ventro- 
lateral papillffi, one on each side of somite 18. Fovir pairs of 
sperm athecge a pair/opening at the anterior edge and ventral 
side of somites 6, 7, 8, and 9 respectively. Kings of seta? with 
a very slight median ventral hiatus, 48-55 in a ring, as counted 
in the anterior part of the body. Length 138-150 mm. 



76 Illinois State Lahoratory of Natural History. 

EXPLANATION OF THE FIGUEES. 

PLATE I. 

Fig. 1. — Longitudinal vertical section througli the anterior part 
of the body, a, Pharynx. 6, (lizzard, showing the two thick bands 
of transversely disposed muscle of which its walls are largely com- 
posed, c, Oesophagus. (I, Cerebral ganglion, e, Ventral nerve chain. 
/, Two of the thickened muscular septa. 

Fig. 2.— Anterior part of the alimentary canal, a, Pharynx, 
with radiating bands of muscle, h. Gizzard, c, CEsophagus. d. Swol- 
len beginning of intestine, e, " Prostate glands." 

Fig. 3. — Anterior part of the dorsal vessel and part of the genital 
organs, a, Dorsal vessel. 6, Two of the large "aortfe". c, One of 
the small contorted afferent blood vessels, d, Spermathecif. e, Sem- 
inal vesicle ( ?). /, Testicle, g, Ovary, h, Oviduct. 

PLATE II. 

Figs. 4-9. — Cross sections of the pharynx, showing the manner in 
which the dorsally situated tongue extends into the cavity of the 
pharynx, a, Pharynx, h, Nerve cord which supplies integument in 
region of prostomium. c. Tongue, appearing as a slight dorsal fold 
in Fig. 6, and becoming gradually larger and more muscular pos- 
teriorly, as in Fig. 9. d, Cerebral ganglion, e, Subpharyngeal 
ganglion. 

Fig. 10. — Cross section of the muscular gizzard. 

Fig. 11.— Dorsal view of the prostomium and the six anterior 
somites. 

Fig. 12. — Ventral view of somites 13-20, showing, the clitellum 
on somites 13-18. a, External aperture of the oviducts, h, One of 
the anterior copulatory papilliB. c, Copulatory setaj and aperture 
of " prostate gland ". d, External aperture of vasa deferentia. 
e, One of the posterior copulatory papilla?. 

PLATE III. 

Fig. 13. — Cross section through the intestine, a, Dorsal vessel. 
h, Intestine, c, Typhlosole. d, Subintestinal blood vessel, e, Ventral 
nerve chain. /, Sections of small contorted afferent blood vessel. 
g, Cuticle of integument. /*, Ilypodermis. i, Circular muscle layer. 
j, Longitudinal muscle layer. 

Fig. 14.— Part of the wall of the intestine greatly enlarged, a, 
Ciliated intestinal epithelium, b, Coagulated blood occupying sin- 
uses between epithelium and circular muscle layer (c) of intestine. 
d, Longitudinal muscles of intestine, e, Bands of tissue extending 
across sinuses from epithelium to circular muscle layer. /, Connective 
tissue layer. 



Analonnj and Histology of a New Earthworm. 77 

Fig. 15.— Cross section through oesophagus, a, Dorsal vessel. 6, 
(Esophagus, c, Blood spaces in walls of oesophagus, d, Chloragogue 
layer. 

Fig. 16. — Cross section of the body in the region of the rectum. 
a. Dorsal vessel. 6, Rectum, d, Subintestinal blood vessel, e, ven- 
tral nerve cord. 

PLATE IV. 

Fig. 17. — Section of the body- wall passing through the ducts of 
the anterior "prostate glands." a, Sections of the embedded vasa 
deferentia. &, Ducts of the "prostate glands" passing to the ex- 
terior, c, Portions of the copulatory seta?, d, Ventral nerve cord. 
e, Longitudinal muscle layer of body-wall. /, Circular muscle layer 
of body-wall, g, Hypodermis. 

Fig. 18. — a, Locomotor seta, b, Copulatory seta. 

Fig. 19. — Cross section of the ventral nerve cord of anterior part 
of body, from between ganglia, a, Sheath of large median giant 
fiber, h, One of lateral giant fibers, c, Greatly developed muscular 
sheath of cord, d, Fibrillar nervous tissue invested with connective 
tissue, e, Axial substance of median giant fiber here drawn to one 
side. 

Fig. 20. — Dorsal view of cerebral ganglion, a, IS'erve which sup- 
plies region of prostomium. 6, Commissure, e, Muscular bands 
arising from posterior side of ganglion. 

Fig. 21.— Cross section of ventral nerve cord from posterior part 
of body through ganglion, a, Median giant fiber, h, Lateral giant 
fiber, c, Sheath of cord, rf, Fibrillar nervous tissue, e. Unipolar nerve 
cells. /, Origin of lateral nerve. 

Fig. 22.— Enlarged section of typhlosole and dorsal vessel, show- 
ing small intestinal vessel entering dorsal vessel at h. a, Left division 
of dorsal vessel, c, Dorsal vessel of right side, without intestinal 
branch (due to section not being true), d, Typhlosole. 

PLATE V. 

Fig. 23.— Ovary. 

Fig. 24.— Oviduct. 

Fig. 25. — Section of an ovum from the ovary, a, Investing con- 
nective tissue membrane (probably lost or resorbed when the egg is 
set free), h, Nuclei of connective tissue membrane, c, Nucleus of 
ovum, d, Nucleolus. 

Fig. 26. — Spermatheca. a, Caecum. 6, Duct. 

Fig. 27.— Copulatory fossa greatly enlarged, a, Fossa, h, Vasa 
deferentia, which unite near the external aperture at c. d, Aperture 
of " prostate glands ". e, Copulatory setaj. 

Fig. 28.— " Prostate gland", a, Duct. 



PLATE I. 




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PLATE II. 



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Aeticle v. — A Descriptive Catalogue of the Fhalanr/iiiKt' of 
Illinois. By Clarence M. Weed, M. So. 

INTEODUCTION. 

The great majority of the American species of those fa- 
miliar creatures commonly known as ''harvest-men " or "dad- 
dy-long-legs" (not to be confounded with the crane-flies — 
Tipulida' — which go by by the latter name in Europe) belong 
to the subfamily PJialangiind' of the family Phalangi(Ja> of the 
suborder Opilonea and order Arthrogastra. Though abundant 
and widely distributed, these arachnids have as yet received 
comparatively little attention in this country. The first Ameri- 
can descriptions were published by Thomas Say in 1821 (Jour. 
Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., Vol. IT., pp. 65-68), when four species 
were characterized under the genus Phalangium. Besides 
the above the only descriptive paper that has appeared is that 
by Dr. Horatio C. Wood, Jr., entitled "On the Phalangese 
of the United States of America," which was published in 1868 
in the Communications of the Essex Institute (Vol. VI., pp. 
10-40). In 1885, Prof. L. M. Underwood published a list of 
the described species (Canadian Entomologist, Vol. XVI., pp. 
167-160), but added nothing to our knowledge of the group. 
Finally, in the "American Naturalist" for October, 1887 (Vol. 
XXL, p. 935), the present writer published a brief note calling 
attention to the proper generic position of several species 
hitherto retained in the old genus Phalangium. 

In the present paper I have followed, in a general way, the 
classification adopted by Simon in his admirable monograph 
Les Arachnides de France (Vol. VII.), and my characteriza- 
tions of genera are little more than translations from this 
author. For an elaborate discussion of the anatomy and rela- 
tions of the group, I must refer the reader to the above mono- 
graph and other general works on the subject. 

The Laboratory collections on which this paper is based, 
have largely been made within the last two years, and represent 



80 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

the phalangid fauna of the northern, central, and southern por- 
tions of Illinois. I have also received, through the kindness of 
my brother, Mr. Howard E. Weed, a fine series of certain species 
from Lansing, Michigan; and from Mr. T. V. Carter, a number 
of specimens collected at Jacksonville, 111. I am, further, under 
special obligations to Mr. Chas. W. Wood worth, who has 
verified my determinations of several of Wood's species by 
comparison with the types in the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology at Cambridge; and have to thank Professors Forbes 
and Garman and Mr. Chas. A. Hart for many favors. 

The Phalangiina3 are found abundantly from lyiidsummer 
until late in autumn in the fields and woods, especially about 
rocky ledges, and in the vicinity of barns and out-houses. They 
ordinarily hide during the day, but at twilight wander about 
in search of food. Until quite recently it has generally been 
supposed that they captured and ate living insects; but Dr. H. 
Henking, of Germany, has shown* that they prefer dead insects, 
and seldom, if ever, attack living ones. The females of most 
species deposit spherical white eggs in the ground in autumn, 
and the adults ordinarily do not survive the winter. One 
species (Liohunum (?) formosiini)^ however, seems to be an 
exception to this rule, as I have found the adults abundant 
during the early spring months. 

The harvest-men are easily collected and preserved in alco- 
hol for study or exhibition. As the genital organs are fre- 
quently of great value in determining species, it is well to pre- 
serve them exposed — a simple operation, requiring only that 
the abdomen of the living specimen be compressed between 
the thumb and finger, when these organs will be extruded, 
and if the specimen is immediately dropped into alcohol will 
ordinarily remain exposed. 

Champaign, III., Nov. 22, 1887. 

* Zeitschrift f iir Wissenschaftliche Zoologie, Vol. XL V., p. 87. 



The Fhnlan(jii)i(t' of Illinois. 81 



SUBFAMILY PHALANGIIN^. 

Arachnids having the body composed of a single piece 
with long slender legs. Teganients not coriaceous. Segments 
only indicated by striai, which are often obsolete. Five ventral 
segments. A single anal" piece. Two lateral pores easily seen. 
Stigmata visible. Maxillary lobe of palpns with two tubercles. 
Epistoma in the form of a triangular plate. 

The three genera that have been recognized in Illinois may 
be distinguished as follows : 
I. First joint of mandibles with a tooth on ventral surface 
near base. 

A. Maxillary lobes of second pair of feet, with a large 

base, impressed, straight and elongated, not at- 
tenuate, but rather a little enlarged from the base 
to the apex and very obtuse ; claw of palpus den- 
ticulate Liobimum. 

B. Maxillary lobes of second pair of feet forming elon- 

gated triangles, quite large at the base, then 
gradually retracted, not impressed, with anterior 
border straight ; claw of palpus not denticu- 
late , Oligolophus. 

II. First joint of mandibles without tooth Phalangiitin. 

LiOBUNUM, C. Koch, 1839. 

Teguments soft or subcoriaceous. Strife of the cephalo- 
thorax and of the three last abdominal segments very distinct ; 
those of the anterior segments scarcely or not at all distinct 
(especially in the 6). Anterior and lateral borders of the 
cephalothorax smooth. Eye eminence relatively small; smooth 
or, rarely, provided with small, slightly distinct, tubercles; 
widely separated from the cephalic border. Lateral pores 
small, oval, and marginal. Anal piece large, transverse-oval 
or semicircular, much wider than long, and much wider than 
the reflected borders of the eighth segment. Mandibles short, 
similar in the two sexes ; first joint furnished at the base below 
with an acute tooth. Palpi simple ; femur, patella, and tibia 



82 Illinois State Lahoratory of Natural History. 

without any process and without projecting angles ; maxillary 
lobe provided at the base with two strong, conical teeth. Max- 
illary lobe of the second pair of feet very long, nearly straight 
from the base, not attenuated, directed mesad nearly horizon- 
tally, and united on the ventro-meson to the lobe from the 
opposite side without forming a sensible angle; the two together 
lightly arched on the cephalic border, and forming an even 
curve. Sternal piece large, slightly contracted between the 
fourth pair of coxae, gradually enlarging and obtusely truncate 
cephalad. Feet very long and slender ; tibia of the second 
pair with a few false articulations. Palpal claw denticulate. 

The following synopsis will aid in distinguishing our Illi- 
nois species! 

1. L. dorsatiun. Dorsum grayish or reddish brown, with 
distinct central dark marking. Palpi long, reddish brown. 
Body of 5 5 mm. long; second legs 50 mm. Northward. 

2. L. vittatnm. Much like dorsatiim, but body is larger 
and legs are much longer. Body of 6 7 mm. long; second legs 
00 mm. 

3. L. nigropalpi. Dorsum reddish brown, with central 
marking subobsolete. Middle joints of palpi blackish. Body 
small; legs very long. Body of <? 4 mm. long; second legs 
100 mm. 

4. L. verrucosum. Dorsum reddish, with subobsolete 
central marking. Palpi brownish white. Body large, with legs 
comparatively short and thick. Body of S 6.5 mm. long; sec- 
ond legs 50 mm. 

5. L. elegans. Dorsum blackish on margins, brownish in 
middle, with a faint indication of a central marking. Palpi 
light brown. Very small, with long, slender legs. Body of S 
3.2 mm. long; second legs 38 ram. 

6. L. politiis. Dorsum and trochanters clear reddish 
brown, with scarcely an indication of a central marking. Body 
of c? 5 mm. long; second legs 51 mm. 

7. L. (?) calcar. Dorsum reddish brown, with faint cen- 
tral marking. Femur of palpus, with a robust spur-like pro- 
cess on its outer ventro-lateral surface. Body of 6 7.5 mm. 
long; second legs 40 mm. 



The Phalangiince of Illinois. 



83 



8. L.{?) formosum. Dorsum very smooth, blackish. Pa- 
tella of palpus with its inner distal lateral angle prolonged 
into a short apophysis, with a thin brush of hairs on its lateral 
surface. Body 5 mm. long; second legs 22 mm. 

L. dorsatum, (Say). 

Phalangimn dorsatum, Say, Jour. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., Vol. 

II., p. 66. 
Wood, Commun. Es ex Inst.. Vol. VI., p. 

18. 

$. Body 5 mm. long, 3.5 mm. wide. Palpi 7 mm. long. 
Legs: I., 27 mm.; II., 50 mm.; III., 27 mm.; IV., 36 mm. 




LlOBUNUM DORSATUM. $ 

Dorsum granulate, varying from a light grayish-brown to 
a deep reddish-brown, often of an intermediate, somewhat 
golden, tint. A well marked dark stripe begins at the eye emi- 
nence, expands for a short distance, then contracts until it 
reaches the cephalic portion of the abdomen, whence it runs 
with parallel sides a short distance, then very slightly expands un- 
til it reaches the caudal third of the abdomen, where it contracts 
and runs as a stripe to the anus. Cephalothorax with an irregular 
parallelogrammic dark V-shaped marking cephalad of the eye 



84 lUinoh State Laboratory of Natural History. 

eminence, sometimes obsolete, especially in older specimens. 
In some individuals there is so much black cephalad of the eye 
eminence that the central marking appears to begin on the 
cephalic margin of the cephalothorax. Eye eminence of about 
equal height, length, and breadth, sloping slightly backward, 
dark above, canaliculate, with a few (two to five or six) sub- 
obsolete acute blackish tubercles. Mandibles very light brown, 
tips of claws black; dorsal surface of second joint sparsely cov- 
ered with short spinous hairs. Palpi long, reddish brown, depth 
of color varying with the rest of the body. Femur with a row 
of short conical tubercles on its outer ventro-lateral surface, 
commencing near the base and running to the apical extremity, 
where there are about a dozen similar tubercles on the ventral 
surface; another short, slightly oblique series on the dorsal 
surface, beginning at the apical margin and extending distally 
about one fourth the length of the femur. Patella with a row 
of tubercles on its outer ventro-lateral surface, similar to those 
on the femur, and a few subobsolete ones on its dorsal and 
ventral surfaces. Tibia with two nearly parallel rows of tuber- 
cles, one on the ventral and the other on the outer ventro- 
lateral surface; a short row also on the distal portion of its 
inner ventro-lateral surface. Tarsus sparsely covered with stiff 
hairs, and furnished with a well pronounced row of dark 
tubercles on its inner ventro-lateral surface. Ventrum varies 
from whitish to dark reddish-brown, with well marked gran- 
ulations in older specimens. Coxas slightly tuberculate, each 
having a row of short tubercles on the cephalic margin. Legs 
varying from light grayish-brown to black, with darker annu- 
lations. Shaft of penis slender, distally bent nearly at right 
angles, and terminating in a very acute point. 

?. Body 5-7 mm. long, 3.5-4.5 mm. wide. Palpi 5 mm, 
long. 

Legs : L, 27-30 mm. ; H., 50-61 mm. ; IIL, 28-31 mm. ; 
IV., 40-44 mm. 

Differs from male as follows : 

Body much thicker and more rounded. Color generally 
darker with much less reddish. Legs brownish rather than 
black. Palpi very much more slender, shorter, and having the 



The Phalangiina' of Illinois. 85 

tubercles partially replaced by hairs. Apical portion o£ ovi- 
positor white, with no dark rings. 

Described from many specimens. Collected by the hun- 
dred in Champaign county at all times between the latter part 
of June and early in November. Also taken at various dates 
late in summer and throughout the fall in Edwards, Kankakee, 
Lake, La Salle, McLean, and Morgan counties, ia Illinois, and 
received from Lansing, Michigan. 

This is by far the commonest species throughout the 
northern portion of the State. It develops largely in the fields 
and woods, and, when full grown, apparently migrates to the 
vicinity of houses, barns, and out-buildings, where it sometimes 
congregates in great numbers. I have found the young ones 
very common in corn fields, among the leaves of the growing 
plants, where I suspect they live upon the numerous small 
insects drowned in the moisture contained in the bases of the 
unfolding leaves. They become mature in June. 

I was at first much puzzled over this species because of the 
great variation in the color of different specimens, and was 
inclined to separate the series then at hand into two species. 
Being able to find, however, no structural difference, and 
noticing that the deeply colored specimens were the only ones 
obtained late in autumn, and, also, that the light ones were only 
taken early in the season («. e., soon after they became adults), 
it occurred to me that the color might vary with the age of the 
individual. After examining hundreds of specimens collected 
at various times between July and November, I became con- 
vinced that such was the case, and the field observations of 
the present season have verified the conclusion. 

L. vittatum, (Say). 

I'luilanyiumvittatum, Say, Jour, riiil. Acad. Nat. Sci., Vol, II., 

p. 65. 

Wood, Commun. Essex Inst., Vol. VI., p. 

20. 

. 5. Body 7 mm. long, 4 mm. wide. Palpi 7 mm. long. 
Legs : I., 44 mm ; IF., 89 mm.; III., 45 mm.; IV., 64 mm. 

Dorsum reddish brown, with a central dark marking com- 
mencing at the eye eminence and extending caudad to the 



86 Illinois State Laboratori/ of Natural History. 

ultimate or penultimate segment, slightly contracting near 
cephalic margin of abdomen, then gradually expanding until 
about the beginning of the caudal third of the abdomen, where 
it again slightly contracts. Ventrum slightly paler than, 
dorsum ; both finely granulate and entirely glabrous. Eye 
eminence slightly wider than high, black above, canaliculate, 
with small black tubercles over the eye?. Mandibles light 
yellowish-brown, tips of claws black ; second joint with short, 
sparse hairs. Palpi long, reddish brown ; tarsal joints paler. 
Femur and patella curved, with two rows of rather blunt, dark 
tubercles on the outer ventro-lateral surface ; femur also having 
a few small subobsolete ones on its dorsal surface. Tibia with 
a similar row on its outer ventro-lateral surface, a short row 
on the distal portion of its inner ventro-lateral surface, and a 
short row on the proximal portion of its ventral surface. 
Tarsus pubescent, with a row of short, blunt, black tubercles 
on the inner ventro-lateral surface, extending from th^ 
base to near the apex. Legs light brown or black, patella 
generally black and tarsi brown, the other joints varying from 
one color to the other. Coxse reddish brown, minutely tuber- 
culate. Trochanters generally dark brown, with niinute scat- 
tered tubercles. Femora and patellae with fine spinose tu- 
bercles. Tibia3 with very short hairs. Shaft of penis slender, 
subcylindrical, not broadened distally, bent at an obtuse angle 
and terminating in a very acute point. 

?. Body 8-9 mm. long, 5-6 mm. wide. Palpi 5 mm. long. 
Legs : I., 42 mm.; II., 90 mm.; ILL, 43 mm.; IV., 61 mm. 

Besides its rounder body and much more robust appear- 
ance, it differs from the male as follows : 

Dorsum of a much darker shade of brown, with less of the 
reddish tint, and ventrum paler. Second joint of mandibles 
with fewer hairs. Palpi shorter, more slender, with the_ rows 
of tubercles on the tibia subobsolete, and that on the tarsus 
entirely wanting. Legs generally light brown, with black 
annulations at the articulations. Ovipositor white, with no 
color in the apical rings. 

Described from many specimens collected in Union Co., 111., 
September 25th, 1886. It has also been obtained in Johnson 
Co., 111., and at East Cairo, Ky, 



The Phalangiino' of Illinois. 87 

This species is very abundant on the rocky ledges of certain 
parts of southern Illinois, being, in fact, the commonest har- 
vest-man in the region, apparently replacing P. dorsatum. On 
the farm of Mr. Parker Earle, at Cobden, I obtained a long 
series of both sexes, the creatures being everywhere abundant 
about the rocky bluffs running across the place. 

Dr. Wood has shown that L. viftatiiin and L. dorsatum are 
very closely allied and difficult to separate. According to him, 
the former may be looked upon as the southern representative 
of the latter, of which he had never seen any specimens from 
farther south than Washington, D. C. After examining hun- 
dreds of specimens of dorsatum and dozens of vittatum, I am 
unable to find any constant structural character by which they 
may be separated, though the difference in the size of the body 
and length of legs is very marked. I have only collected the 
latter species late in the season when the individuals were 
fully colored, but from some alcoholics collected earlier, I judge 
that it undergoes the same color changes as dorsatum. 

L. nigropalpi, (Wood). 

Phalangium nigropalpi, Wood, 1. c, p. 22. 

5. Body 4 mm. long, 3 mm. wide. Palpi 4 mm. long. 
Legs: L, 49 mm.; IF., 99 mm.; III., 50 mm.; IV., 67 mm. 

Dorsum minutely tuberculate, reddish brown, with a 
subobsolete dark central marking, sometimes simply repre- 
sented by obscure dark blotches. Eye eminence at least as broad 
as high, black above, canaliculate, with small black tubercles on 
the carina. Mandibles light yellowish-brown, tips of claws 
black; second joint with sparse hairs. Palpi slender, light brown, 
distal portion of femur, and almost all of patella, black; femur, 
patella, and tibia with small scattered tubercles, and short hairs; 
tarsus pubescent, with a row of subobsolete, small, black tu- 
bercles on its inner ventro-lateral surface. Ventrum paler than 
dorsum, of a nearly uniform tint. Coxae minutely tuberculate, 
of same color as ventrum. Trochanters black. Legs very long, 
slender, black, with white annulations at distal extremities of 
femur and tibia, especially in the second and fourth pairs. 
Shaft of penis flattened, contracted near its distal extremity, 
•and bent upwards, terminating in an acute point. 



88 Illinois State Lithovatonj of Natural Hi.sforij. 

Described from many specimens collected at (^obden, Union 
Co., 111., 25th September, 1886. We have also specimens from 
Johnson county. 

The males of this species are much more numerous than 
the females. Out of a large number of specimens collected, I 
was surprised not to find a single female. Wood states that he 
found six times as many males as females. According to him, 
"The females are to be distinguished by their larger size, the 
brown color of their legs and palpi, as well as the darker and 
less uniform color of the dorsum, which also frequently loses 
almost all of the reddish tint." 

This species is chiefly remarkable for the enormous length 
of its legs. Though the body is very small, the legs are im- 
mensely developed. Like L. vittatum, this harvest-man fre- 
quents the rocky ledges of southern Illinois, where it is quite 
abundant. I have never taken it anywhere else. 

L. verrucosum, (Wood). 

Phalangium verrucosum, Wood, 1. c, p. 29. 

6. Body 6.5 mm. long, 4 mm. wide. Palpi 4.5 mm. Legs: 
^ I., 27 mm.; II., 50 mm.; IIL, 28 mm.; IV., 39 mm. 

Dorsum minutely tuberculate (almost appearing finely 
granulate), of a rich dark golden-brown color, somewhat 
darker in front, with a faint indication of a dark central mark- 
ing in some specimens. Eye eminence well pronounced, longer 
than high, black above, scarcely at all canaliculate, with two 
rows of small black tubercles, frecjuently subobsolete. Man- 
dibles light brown, tips of claws black ; second article with 
sparse dark hairs. Palpi slender, grayish or brownish in some 
specimens, with more or less black on basal joints. Femur 
with short, scattered hairs ; ventral surface beset with well- 
developed black tubercles. Patella curved, with short Jiairs 
and small black tubercles. Tibia and tarsus thickly beset 
with short hairs ; without tubercles, except a subobsolete row 
on the inner ventro-lateral surface of tarsus. Ventrum grayish 
brown, cephalic portion tuberculate. Legs dark brown or 
black. Trochanters tuberculate. Femora, patella?, and tibiae, 
with rows of small spines. Shaft of penis straight, except at 
tip, broad, flat ; about two thirds of the way from the base to 



The J'hahoigiitKr of Illinois. 89 

the apex expanding into an alate portion, which continues. for 
about one fifth the entire length of the shaft, then suddenly 
contracting into a rather robust, curved, canaliculate end, and 
terminating in an acute point; with two curved spinous hairs 
just behind the base of the jointed tip. 

Described from several specimens collected in Champaign 
Co., 111., 23d to 26th June, and 8th July, 1887. 

L. elegans, sp. n. 

S. Body 3.2 mm. long, 2.1 mm. wide. Palpi 2.1 mm. long. 
Legs: I., 19 mm.; IL, 38 mm.; IIL, 20 mm.; IV., 29 mm. 

Dorsum blackish at the margins, especially on the abdo- 
men, and light brownish in the middle, with a faint indica- 
tion of a central marking. Finely granulate, with numerous 
very small black tubercles scattered in patches over the surface, 
and a transverse row of larger whitish tubercles on each abdom- 
inal segment. Eye eminence prominent; light brown, darker 
above; canaliculate, with two rows of well developed tubercles, 
having whitish bases and black tips. Mandibles whitish, tips 
of claws black. Palpi slender, light brown. Femur, patella, 
and tibia, with distant, short, spinose tubercles. Tarsus with 
whitish hairs. Ventrum whitish brown, with a transverse row 
of tubercles on each abdominal segment, and the pectus and 
coxae closely tuberculate. Legs very slender, proximal portions 
light brown, distally darker. Femora furnished with minute 
blackish spines. 

Described from two specimens collected in Champaign Co., 
III., during the autumn of 1886. 

L. politus, sp. n. 

$. Body 5 mm., long, 2.8 mm. wide. Palpi 3.5 mm. long. 
Legs: I., 25 mm.; II., 51 mm.; III., 26 mm.; IV., 36 mm. 

Dorsum smooth, finely granulate; clear reddish brown, with 
no marking and only a faint indication (shown by a slightly 
dark shade) of the usual central marking. Eye eminence rather 
prominent, black above, canaliculate, with a regular curved 
series of small, acute, black spines over each eye. Mandibles 
whitish, with tips of claws black. Palpi slender, whitish, with 



90 Illinois State Laboratory of Naiural Ilistorij. 

femur and patella dusky; finely pubescent, with a subobsolete 
row of minute dark tubercles on the inner ventro-lateral sur- 
face of femur, and another row on the inner ventro-lateral sur- 
face of tarsus. Ventrum reddish brown. Coxa?, including the 
membranous distal lateral tips, reddish. Trochanters brownish 
red. Proximal portions of legs light brown, darker distally. 
Shaft of penis nearly straight, slender, flattened, canaliculate, 
distal portion very slightly expanded, then slightly contracted, 
and again expanded in a half spoon-shaped portion, and ter- 
minating in a small, acute point. 

Described from three specimens collected about a shed, 
Champaign Co., 111., 25th July and 9th August, 1887, 

L. (?) calcar, (Wood).' 

Phalangium calcar, Wood, I. c, p. 20. 

i.. Body 7.5 mm. long, 4.5 mm. wide. Legs : I., 21 
mm.; IT., 40 ram.; III., 22 mm.; IV., 32 ram. 

Dorsum reddish brown, minutely tuberculate, tubercles 
blackish, some specimens having a faint indication of a central 
marking, and scattered light-colored spots. Eye eminence of 
moderate size, of nearly equal height, length, and breadth ; 
black above ; scarcely at all canaliculate; with two rows of 
small acute tubercles. Mandibles brownish white, with obscure 
markings of a darker color, especially on the inner* dorso-lateral 
surface of the second joint, where they are arranged in the form 
of a series of irregular parallelograms ; dorsal surface of second 
joint sparsely clothed with stiff hairs ; tips of claws black. 
Palpi long, very robust ; reddish brown, lighter distally. 
Femur enlarging from base to apex, with a very robust spur- 
like process on its outer ventro-lateral surface near the distal 
extremity, the anterior edge of which is provided with a row of 
short, black tubercles ; dorsal surface of femur with numerous 
scattered, short, black tubercles ; and a few also on the prox- 
imal portion of the inner ventro-lateral surface; sparsely pro- 
vided with spinous hairs. Patella short, thick, so united with 
the femur as to form an arch, with sparse hairs and a few 
scattered tubercles on its dorsal and outer lateral surfaces. 
Tibia arched, densely clothed with long black hairs ; a patch 
of short black tubercles on the proximal portion of its ventral 



The Fhalangnnw of Illinois. 91 

surface, and a short row of similar tubercles on the apical 
portion of its inner ventro-lateral surface. Tarsal joint densely 
clothed with long black hairs, with a thick row of short black 
tubercles on its inner ventro-lateral surface, terminating in a 
short denticulate claw, Ventrum light reddish-brown. Coxae 
reddish, with a few short hairs ; two anterior pairs with a row 
of subobsolete tubercles on the cephalic border. Trochanters 
light brown, darker dorsally. Remaining joints of legs light 
brown with darker annuli ; femora, patellae, and tibiae, with 
rows of short spines. Shaft of penis very robust, flattened, 
distally contracted and curved, and terminating in a short, 
acute point. 

Described from four specimens collected in Champaign 
Co., 111., 23d June and 9th August; 1887, and at Cave-in- 
Rock, Hardin Co., 111., 27th July, 1883. 

So far as I know, the female of this rare form has never 
been taken. 

I refer this species, provisionally, to Liohminm^ although, 
on account of the spur-like process on the femur of the palpus, 
it does not strictly belong there. 

L. (?) formosum, (Wood). 

Fhalanginm formosum, Wood, 1. c, p. 30. 

5, ?. Body 4-6 ram. long, 2.5-3 mm. wide. Palpi 2.6 
mm. long. Legs: [., 10 mm.; 11., 22 mm.; III., 11 mm.; IV., 
16 mm. 

Dorsum remarkably smooth, mot- 
tled with gray and blackish brown ; 
wide a dark brown or black central 
marking commences on the cephalic 
margin and runs to the middle of 
the fifth abdominal segment, where 
it abruptly terminates ; it is expanded 
on the cephalothorax, contracted on 
the first abdominal segment, and / 
then again expanded. The entire hoimnum (?) formosum 
abdomen caudad of the middle of the fifth segment usually 
much lighter than the part cephalad. There is a peculiar 
oblique sinus caudad of each lateral pore. Eye eminence 




92 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

brownish, perfectly smooth, not at all canaliculate, almost 
hemispherical. Mandibles whitish, with the usual black tips 
to the claws ; second article with sparse blackish hairs on 
dorsal surface. Palpi rather slender, mottled, distally whitish; 
furnished with short blackish hairs. Patella with its inner 
distal lateral angle prolonged into a short apophysis, and 
having a rather thin brush of hairs on its inner lateral surface. 
Tarsal claw denticulate. Ventrum, including coxae, grayish 
brown, cephalic portion with short dark hairs. Trochanters 
brownish black. Legs light brown, ringed with dark brown ; 
furnished with very minute blackish spines. 

Described from many specimens collected in Champaign, 
Effingham, and McLean counties. 

I refer this species to the genus Liobunum, for the present, 
with considerable hesitancy, as it does not strictly belong there 
on account of the projecting inner angle of the palpal patella. 
Its life history also is different from that of any other mem- 
ber of the family with which I am acquainted, as it lives over 
winter as an adult instead of depositing eggs and dying in 
autumn, as do the other species. I have collected it repeatedly 
under boards in fields during the months of September, 
October, November, January, April, and May. 

Phalangium, Linn". 1758. 

Teguments soft or subcoriaceous. Striae of the cephalo- 
thorax, and of the three last abdominal segments very distinct, 
those of the five cephalic segments only slightly so. Cephalic 
border of the cephalothorax smooth; lateral border more or less 
toothed; dorsum nearly always furnished with small teeth. 
Dorsum of abdomen having transverse series of small teeth or 
hairs. Eye eminence of medium size, canaliculate, provided 
with two series of pointed tubercles, always separated from the 
cephalic border by a space larger than its diameter. Lateral 
pores large, elongate-oval, sub-marginal, visible from above. 
Anal piece quite small, wider than long, of the same width, or 
scarcely narrower than the curved borders of the eighth seg- 
ment. Mandibles short and simple in the female, often more 
developed and provided with tubercles in the male; first article 
unarmed below. Palpi simple, often having the inner distal 



The Phalangiina' of Illinois. 93 

angle of the femur and of the patella very slightly produced, 
but never prolonged into a process; hairs equal, or sometimes 
thicker on the inner side, but not forming a brush; patella 
always shorter than tibia; maxillary lobe provided at the base 
with two conical tubercles. Maxillary lobe of the second pair 
of legs much longer than wide, gradually narrowing from the 
base to the extremity, directed obliquely forward and not meet- 
ing, anterior border straight. Pectus large, parallel between 
the coxte, rounded in front or slightly lanceolate, more rarely 
enlarged and obtusely truncate. Feet long, more or less robust, 
tibiee without false articulations. Claws of palpus simple. 

P. cinereum, Wood. 

Phalatujiumcinereum, Wood, Commun. Essex Institute, Vol. VI., 

p. 25. 

S. Body 5-6 mm. long, 3 mm. wide. Palpi 4 mm. long. 
Legs: I., 21-32 mm.; II., 42-52 mm.; lit., 23-33 mm.; IV., 32- 
43 mm. 

Dorsum cinamon-gray, with a slightly darker subobsolete, 
wide, vase-shaped, central marking ; with transverse series of 
small spinose tubercles caudad of the eye eminence, and a 
curved series cephalad of it. These tubercles having whitish 
bases and acute black apices, and also generally having a spinous 
hair arising on one side of the tubercle near the apex of the 
white portion, and reaching beyond the tip of the tubercle. 
Cephalad of the eye eminence, there are also two longitudinal 
series of these tubercles of about three each. Lateral borders 
of cephalothorax sub-sinuate. Eye eminence low, canalicu- 
late, with a series of five or six tubercles, like those on the 
dorsum, surmounting each eye. Mandibles brownish white, 
tips of claws black ; second joint and apical portion of first 
joint furnished with short, black, stiff hairs. Palpi light 
brown, rather slender, first four joints with minute tubercles 
and short black hairs ; none of the angles prolonged ; tarsal 
joint without tubercles, but with hairs. Claw moderately 
robust. Ventrum (including coxa3), light grayish-brown, with 
many somewhat quadrangular patches of a more pronounced 
brown, and scattered blotches of chocolate-brown. Trochanters 
light brown, with many small tubercles. Remaining joints of 
legs cinnamon-brown, more or less annulated with darker and 



94 Illinois State Laboratori/ of Natural History. 

li<^hter shades ; angular, with longitudinal rows of black spines. 
Sheath of penis subcylindrical, truncate. Shaft robust, with 
two lateral oval openings near distal extremity, then con- 
tracted into a blunt scoop-shaped piece, turned upward at 
nearly a right angle, and terminating with a slender acute 
point. 

In very small specimens of this species, as of many others 
of the group, the tubercles on the body and members are often 
partially wanting or replaced by hairs. 

?. Body 7.8 mm. long, 3.5 mm. wide. Palpi 4 mm. long. 
Legs: I., 20 mm.; II., 36 mm.; III., 20 mm.; IV., 28 mm. 

Differs from $ as follows : 

Dorsum darker gray, more mottled ; central marking more 
distinct. Tubercles on eye eminence more numerous, and those 
forming the longitudinal series cephalad of the eye eminence 
also more numerous. Palpi with hairs, but without tubercles. 
Legs with annulations more distinct ; trochanters without 
tubercles ; spines on femur less prominent and on tibia obso- 
lete. Narrow quadrangular brown patches on ventrum of 
abdomen arranged in transverse series. Distal joints of ovi- 
positor black. 

Described from many specimens collected in Champaign 
Co., 111., during October, 1886, and August, 1887. I have 
also received a fine lot of this species from my brother, Mr. 
Howard E. Weed, collected at Lansing, Michigan, where it was 
very common during the autumn of 1886. 

Oligolophus, C. Koch, 1872. 

Teguments soft or subcoriaceous. Striae of the cephalo- 
thorax and of the three last abdominal segments very clear, 
those of the first five segments only slightly distinct. Anterior 
border of the cephalothorax smooth, or provided at the middle 
with three small geminated points; lateral borders more or 
less spiny; dorsal surface of cephalothorax nearly always pro- 
vided with small teeth. Abdomen presenting transverse series 
of small teeth or hairs. Eye eminence of medium size, as wide 
as long, or a little wider than long, lightly canaliculate, pro- 
vided with two series of low tubercles, separated from the 



The Phalangiina' of Illinois-. 95 

anterior border by a space wider than (often nearly double) its 
diameter. Lateral pores large, oval, submarginal. Anal piece 
quite large, wider than long, at least as wide as the bent bor- 
ders of the eighth segment, rounded before, its posterior border 
truncate and slightly curved. Mandibles quite short, and nor- 
mal in both sexes; first article provided below at the base with 
a pointed tooth, slightly curved in front. Palpi, inner surface 
of the extremity of the femur, patella, and tibia thickly fur- 
nished with hairs forming a brush; upper internal angle of the 
femur and patella slightly projecting, rarely prolonged; patella 
slightly shorter than tibia, enlarged from the base to the 
extremity; maxillary lobe having at the base two conical 
tubercles. Maxillary lobe of the coxte, and feet as in Phalan- 
gium. 

O. pictus, (Wood). 

Phalangium plctum, Wood, 1. c, p. 30. 

6. Body 6 mm. long, 3.2 mm. wide. Palpi 4.1 mm. long. 
Legs: L, 10 mm.; II., 24 mm.; III., 12 mm.; IV., 17 mm. 

Dorsum minutely scabrous, 
mottled ash-gray, much lighter 
in some specimens than others. 
Dark central marking generally 
very distinct, commencing at the 
cephalic border of the cephalo- 
thorax, the dorsal surface of 
which it almost covers, and sud- 
denly contracting at its caudal / \ 
margin, so that it starts on the Oligolophus i-ictus. S 
abdomen as a narrow line, slightly wider than the eye eminence, 
then gradually expanding until it reaches the end of the cephalic 
third of the abdomen, where it suddenly contracts, its borders 
irregularly curving toward the dorso-meson, then expanding 
again,— though not becoming as wide as before,- and finally 
gradually contracting and running as a stripe to the anus, or, 
as in some specimens, simply terminating at the cephalic mar- 
gin of the penultimate segment. Cephalic margin of cephalo- 
thorax nearly straight, lateral angles slightly produced, each 
having a black spine on an elevated base; three large brownish 




96 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

black tooth-like processes just caudad of the middle of the 
margin, each terminating with a minute spine, the middle proc- 
ess being slightly cephalad of the others. Dorsad of these 
but cephalad of the eye eminence, there is a curved series 
of minute spines on whitish elevated bases, and caudad of 
the eye eminence on the cephalothorax there are two similar 
nearly transverse series. There is also a similar transverse 
series on "each segment of the abdomen — most easily seen 
on the black central marking. Eye eminence large, brownish, 
canaliculate; each carina having four thick, brownish tubercles, 
each of which terminates in a black spine. Mandibles light 
brown, tips of claws black; dorsal surface of second joint and of 
apical portion of first joint furnished with short black hairs ; 
second joint with a blunt tubercle on its inner dorso-lateral sur- 
face, just above the base of the finger forming part of the claw, 
and the apical portion of its outer lateral surface (caudad of the 
insertion of the thumb) prolonged into a tubercular process. 
Thumb with a prominent dorsal tubercle near its base. Palpi 
mottled; the outer ventro-lateral portion of the femur with 
an irregular row of long, slender, white tubercles, terminating 
with black spines ; inner ventro-lateral surface with a series of 
long, black, curved, spinous hairs ; inner lateral surface with 
similar shorter hairs more numerous, forming a brush on the 
slightly produced inner distal angle ; dorsal and outer lateral 
surfaces with short spinous hairs. Patella nearly as long as 
tibia, its inner distal angle produced and furnished with a 
brush of black hairs with recurved tips ; shorter hairs in dis- 
tant rows on its dorsal and lateral surfaces. Tibia with its 
inner lateral distal angle slightly swollen, but not projecting 
forward as does that of the patella, bat furnished with a 
similar brush of hairs; outer ventro-lateral surface with a sub- 
obsolete row of white tubercles, tipped with spinous hairs ; 
dorsal and outer lateral surface furnished with sparse short 
hairs. Tarsus thickly covered with long black recurved hairs, 
usually with a row of subobsolete, short, black tubercles on its 
inner ventro-lateral surface, and terminating in a moderately 
robust simple claw. Ventrum light grayish-brown, hispid. 
Legs short, robust. Coxa3 light gray, covered with spinous 
hairs on elevated bases. Trochanters light brown or grayish. 



The Phalangiinw of Illinois. 97 

tuberculate. Remaining joints mottled with blackish brown 
and gray ; all except tarsi with longitudinal rows of small 
black spines, and acute tubercles on their dorso-distal borders. 
Tibia? angular. Tarsi hairy. Sheath of penis enlarged dis- 
tally, truncate ; shaft moderately robust, distally canaliculate, 
then expanded into a spoon-shaped portion, and terminating in 
a short, black, acute, articulated piece. 

?. Body 7 mm. long, 4.5 mm. wide. Palpi4.3 mm. long. 
Ringed portion of ovipositor 4 mm. long. Legs: I., 11 mm.; 
IT., 27 mm.; TIL, 13 ram.; IV., 20 mm. 

Besides its larger size and more robust appearance, it dif- 
fers from the male in having no tubercles on the mandibles ; 
joints of ovipositor grayish. 

Described from many specimens collected in Champaign 
Co.* TIL, during September, October, and November, 1886. 



Article VI. — A Partial Biblingraphii of the Phalangiina; of 
North America. By Clarence M. Weed, M. Sc. 

It is believed that there are included below most of the 
references to this group in our American literature. I have 
placed an interrogation point after the genus of several species 
of PJmJangium of which I have seen no specimens, but which 
probably do not belong to that genus as now restricted. 



GENEEAL AETICLES. 

1821. Sat, Thomas. An account of Arachnides of the 

United States. Jour. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., Vol. II., 

( Phalangii7ice,i^\:). 65-68). Complete Writings, Vol. II., 

pp. 13-15. 

The first descriptive paper treating of the group. Four species of 

Phalangium described; viz., dormium, viUaivm, mgrvm, and grandis. 

1868. Wood, Horatio C, Jr., M. D. On the Phalange^e of 

the United States of America. Communications of the 

Essex Institute, Vol. VI., pp. 10-40. 

An elaborate paper on the family as a whole. Anatomy and habits 

discussed. 15 species of Phalangiinx described under genus Phalangium, 

11 being new. Fair wood-cuts illustrate most of the species. 

1885. Underwood, Lucien" M., Ph.D. A Preliminary List of 

the Arthrogastra of North America (excluding Mexico). 

Canadian Entomologist, Vol. XVII. (Phalangiince, pp. 

167-169). 

An enumeration of the described species with bibliographical 

references. 

1887. Weed, Clarence M. The Genera of North American 
Phalangiin 86. American Naturalist, Vol. XXL, p. 935 
(October, 1887). 
Attention is called to the proper generic position of several species. 
Method of extruding tlie genital organs of Phalangiimc described. 



100 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

1889. Weed, Clarence M. A Descriptive Catalogue of the 
Phalangiintx3 of Illinois. Bulletin Illinois State Lab- 
oratory of Natural History, Vol. III., Article V., pp. 
79-U7. 
Extended descriptions of ten species, two being new. Notes on 

distribution, life history, and habits. 



EEFERENCES TO SPECIES. 

1. LiOBUNUM DORSATUM, (Say). 

Fhalangium dorsatum. Say, Jour. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., 
Vol. IL, p. 66 (1«21). Complete Writings, Vol. II., p. 13. 

Original descriptions fr :m specimens in the cabinet of the Academy. 
" Inhabits the United States." 

Phalangium dorsatum., Say. Wood, Com mun. Essex Insti- 
tute, Vol. VI., pp. 18-19, 21, 39, figures la-lc. (1868). 

Extended descriptions and measurements of both sexes. Collected 
in N. Y., D. C, and Penn. An out-door species. Supposed young are 
whitish. Compared with P. vlttatum, of which it is su})posed to be the 
northern representative. 

Phalangium dorsatum, Say. Packard, Guide to the Study 
of Insects, pp. 656-057, fig. 632 (1869). 

Mention of its distribution. Common at Salem. Mass. 

Phalangium dorsatum, Say. Gratacap, American Natural- 
ist, Vol. XVI., p. 120. 

Experiments on influence of oxygen on harvest-men. Specimens 
placed in the uas were somewhat excited, and lived twenty-four hours. 

Phalangium dorsatum. Kiugsley, Standard Natural His- 
tory, Vol. li., p. 122 (1884). 
Mention. 

Phalangium dorsatum, Say. Underwood, Canadian Ento- 
mologist, Vol. XVII., p. 168 (1885). 
Bibliographical references. 

Liohunum dorsatum, (Say). Weed, American Naturalist, 
Vol. XXL, p. 935 (October, 1887). 

Referred from Phalangium of previous authors to Liohunum of C. 
Koch, as <1efined by Simon. 



The Phalangihice of North America. 101 

Liohunum dorsatiim, (Say). Weed, Bull. 111. St. Lab. 
Nat. Hist., Vol. III., pp. 88-85 (1889). 

Elaborate description and measurements. Taken in northern and 
central Illinois and Michigan. Developed largely in fields and woods, 
and migrates to houses and barns. Commonest species in northern 
Illinois. Compared with L. vittatum, which is considered its southern 
representative. 

2. LiOBUNUM VITTATUM, (Say). 

Phalangimn viftatuni. Say, Jour. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., 
Vol. II., p. 65 (1821). Complete Writings Vol. II., p. 13. 

Original description from specimens in the cabinet of the Academy. 
" Inhabits the Southern States." 

Phalangiiim viftatuni. Say. Wood, Commun. Essex Insti- 
tute, Vol. VI., pp. 20-21, 39, figs. 2a-2d. (1868). 

Extended description and measurements. Taken in Texas and 
Nebraska. Compared with P. dorsatum, which is supposed to be its 
northern representative. 

Phalangiiim vittatum., Say. Underwood, Canadian Ento- 
mologist, Vol. XVII., p. 168 (1885). 
Bibliographical references. 

Liohunum vittatum., (Say). Weed, American Naturalist, 
Vol. XXL, p. 935 (October, 1887). 

Referred from Phalangium of previous authors to Liohunum of C. 
Koch, as defined by Simon. 

Liohunum vittatum, (Say). Weed, Ball. 111. St. Lab. Nat. 
Hist., Vol. III., pp. 85-87. (1889). 

Elal)orate description and measurements. Common in southern 
Illinois where it frequents rocky ledges. Taken also in Kentucky 
Compared with L. dorsatum, which it closely resembles, and of which it 
is supposed to be the southern representative. 

3. LlOBUNUM NIGROPALPI, ( Wood). 

Phalangium nigropalpi. Wood, Commun. Essex Institute, 
Vol. VI., pp. 22-23,' 39, figs. 3a-3c. (1868). 

Original description from specimens taken in woods in Huntingdon 
Co., Penn. Males six times as numerous as females. 

Phalangium nigropalpi, Wood. Underwood, Canadian 
Entomologist, VoL XVII., p. 168 (1885). 
Bibliographical references. 



102 Illinois State Lahoratory of Natural Histori/. 

Liohiinumnif/7'opalpi, (Wood). Weed, American Natural- 
ist, Vol. XXL, p.' 935 (October, 1887). * 

Referred from Phalangium of previous authors to Liobunum of C. 
Koch. 

Liobunum nig ropalpi, (Wood). Weed, Bull. 111. St. Lab. 
Nat. Hist., Vol. TIL, pp. 87-88 (1889). 

Elaborate description and measurements. Taken in southern 
Illinois aV)0ut rocky ledges. Males much more numerous than females. 
Remarkable for length of legs. 

4. Liobunum verrucosum, (Wood). 

Phalanyiiim verrucosum. Wood, Conimun. Essex Institute, 
Vol. VL, pp. 29-30, .40 (1868). 

Original description of some males of unknown locality in the Essex 
Institute Collection. 

Phalangium verrucosum^ Wood. Underwood, Canadian 
Entomologist, Vol. XVII., p. 168 (1885). 
Bibliographical reference. 

Liobunum verrucosum^ (Wood). Weed, American Natu- 
ralist, Vol. XXL, p. 935 (October, 1887). 

Referred from Phalangium of previous authors to Liobunum of C. 
Koch. 

Liobunum verrucosum., (Wood). Weed, Bull. 111. St. Lab. 
Nat. Hist., Vol. III., p. 88-89 (1889). 

Extended description of male from specimens collected in Cham- 
paign Co., 111. 

5. Liobunum elegans, Weed. 

Liobunum elegans. Weed, Bull. 111. St. Lab. Nat. Hist., 
VoL III., p. 89 (1889). 

Original description from males taken in Champaign Co., 111. 

6. Liobunum ^olitus. Weed. 

Liobunum politus. Weed, Bull. 111. St. Lab. Nat. Hist., 
VoL IIL, pp. 89-90 (1889). 

Original description from males collected at Champaign, 111. 

7. Liobunum (?) calcar, (Wood). 

Phalangium calcar. Wood, Common. Essex Institute, Vol. 
VI., pp. 26-27, 39, figs. 6«-66. (1868). 

Original description of male collected in mountains of southwestern 
Virginia. Two females that are conjectured to belong to same species 
also described. 



The Phalanglina' of North America. 103 

Phalanfj/ium calcar, Wood. Underwood, Canadian Ento- 
mologist, Vol. XVIL, p. 168 (1885). 
Bibliographical reference. 

Liohnnum (?) calcar., (Wood). Weed, American Natu- 
ralist, Vol. XXL, p. 935 (October, 1887). 

Taken from Phalangium of previous authors and provisionally re- 
ferred to Liobunum, although the palpal spur renders its generic position 
doubtful. 

Liobunum (?) calcar, (Wood). Weed, Bull. 111. St. Lab. 
Nat. Hist., Vol. IIL, pp. 90-91 (1889). 

Extended description of males collected in Champaign Co., 111. 
Provisionally retained in Liobunum. 

8. Liobunum (?) formosum, (Wood). 

Pltalnngium formosum. Wood, Commun. Essex Institute, 
Vol. VL, pp. 30,40 (1868). 

Original description of females collected in the District of Columbia. 
J^halangium formosum. Wood. Underwood, Canadian En- 
tomologist, Vol. XVIL, p. 168. 
Bibliographical reference. 

Liobunum (?) formosum , (Wood), Weed, American Nat- 
uralist, Vol. XXL, p. 935 (October, 1887). 

Taken from Phalangium of previous authors and provisionally re- 
ferred to Liobunum, although on account of palpal angle it does not 
strictly belong there. 

Liobunum (?) formosum^ (Wood). Weed, Bull. 111. St. 
Lab. Nat. Hist., Vol. IIL, pp. 91-92 (1889). 

Extended description of both sexes. Unlike other species, it hiber- 
nates as an adult. Provisionally retained in Liobunum. 

9. Liobunum (?) bicolor, (Wood). 

Phalangium bicolor. Wood, Commun. Essex Institute, Vol. 
VL, pp. 28, 39, fig. (1868). 

Original description from two females taken in Delaware county, 
Penn. 

Phalangium bicolor^ Wood. Underwood, Canadian Ento- 
mologist, Vol. XVIL, p. 168 (1885). 
Bibliographical reference. 

Liobunum, (?) bicolor, (Wood). Weed, American Natu- 
ralist, Vol. XXL, p. 935 (October, 1887). 

In absence of specimens, it is conjectured that the species may 
belong to Liobunum rather than Phalangium. 



104 Illinois State Lahoratory of Natural History. 

10. LlOBUNUM (?) VENTRIOOSUM, (Wood), 

Phalangium ventricosum. Wood, Commun. Essex Institute, 
Vol. VI., pp. 32-33, 39, fig. 7 (1868). 

Original description of female and supposed male. Taken in Penn. 
and Neb. 

Phalangium ventricosum., Wood. Packard, Guide to tlie 
Study of Insects, p. 657, fig. 633 (1869). 

Mention. Said to be widely distributed in United States. 

Phalangium ventricosum., Wood. Underwood, Canadian 
Entomologist, Vol. XVII., p. 169 (1885). 
Bibliographical reference. 

Liohunum (?) ventricosum., (Wood). Weed, American 
Naturalist, Vol. XXL, p. 935 (October, 1887). 

In absence of specimens, it is conjectured that this species belongs 
to Liohunum rather than Phalangium. 

11. Phalangium cinereum, Wood. ♦ 
Phalangium cinereum. Wood, Commun. Essex Institute, 

Vol. VI., pp. 25-26, 39 (1868). 

Original description from specimens taken in northern New York. 

Phalangium cinereum,, Wood. Underwood, Canadian En- 
tomologist, Vol. XVII., p. 168 (1885). 
Bibliographical reference. 

Phalangium cinereum.. Wood. Weed, American Natural- 
ist, Vol. XXL, p. 935 (October, 1887). 

Said to belong to the genus Phalangium, as restricted by Simon. 

Phalangium cinereum., Wood. Weed, Bull. 111. St. Lab. 
Nat. Hist., Vol. III., pp. 93-94. (1889). 

Extended descriptions of both sexes. Taken in Champaign Co., 
111., and at Lansing, Mich. 

12. Phalangium (?) maculosum. Wood. 
Phalangium maculosum. Wood, Commun. Essex Instttute, 

Vol. VI., pp. 31-32, 40, fig. (1868). 

Original description of both sexes from specimens collected in 
Penn. and W. Va. 

Phalangium maculosum., Wood. Underwood, Canadian 
Entomologist, Vol. XVIL, p. 168 (1885). 
Bibliographical reference. 



The Fhalangiince of North America. 105 

13. Phalangium (?) FAVOSUM, Wood. 

Phalangium favosum. Wood, Commun. Essex Institute, 
Vol. VI., pp. 28-29, 40 (1868). 

Original description from a single female collected in Nebraska. 

Fhalangium favosum^ Wood. Underwood, Canadian En- 
tomologist, Vol. XVII., p. 168 (1885). 
Bibliographical reference. 

14. Phalangium nigrum. Say. 

Fhalangium nigrum. Say, Jour. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., 
Vol. II., pp. 66-67 (1821 ). Complete Writings, Vol. II., p. 14. 
Original description. " Not uncommon in the Carolinas and 
Georgia." 

Phalangium nigrum, Say. Wood, Commun. Essex Insti- 
tute, Vol. VI., pp. 34-35, 40 (1868). 

Form from Texas and Nebraska, supposed to be same as Say's 
species described. Say's description also quoted. 

Phakingium jiigrum, Say, Underwood, Canadian Ento- 
mologist, Vol. XVIL, p. 168 (1885). 
Bibliographical references. 

15. Phalangium (?) grande. Say. 

Phalangium grandis. Say, Jour. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., 
Vol. II., pp. 67-68 (1821). Complete Writings, Vol. II., p. 14. 
Original description. "Inhabits the Southern States." 

Phalangium grande., Say. Wood, Commun. Essex Insti- 
tute, Vol. VI., pp. 34, 40 (1868). 

Simple quotation of Say's description. Had seen no specimens. 
Phalangium grande., Say. Underwood, Canadian Ento- 
mologist, Vol. XVIL, p. 168 (1885). 
Bibliographical references. 

16. Phalangium (?) exilipes. Wood, 

Phalangium exilipes. Wood, Commun. Essex Institute, Vol. 
VI., pp. 23-24, 39 (1868). 

Original description from three specimens collected in California 
and Nevada. 

Phalangium exilipes., Wood. Underwood, Canadian Ento- 
mologist, Vol. XVIL, p. 168 (1885), 
Bibliographical reference. 



106 Illinois State Lahorafonj of Xatund History. 

17. Oli&olophus PicTus, (Wood). 

Phalanr/iiim pietiim, Woo^, Cominun. Essex Institute, Vol. 
VI., pp. 30-31, 40. 

Original descriptioa from a single female, taken near Salem, Mass. 
Fhalangium pictum, Wood. Underwood, Canadian Ento- 
mologist, Vol. XVII., p. 169 (1885). 
Bibliographical referenc«. 

Oligolophus pidiis^ (Wood). Weed, American Naturalist, 
Vol. XXL, p. 935 (October, 1887). 

Referred from Phalangium of previous authors to Oligolophus. 
Oligolophus pictus, (Wood). Weed, Bull. 111. St. Lab. 
Nat. Hist., Vol. III., pp. 95-97 (1889). 

Extended descriptions of both sexes, collected in Champaign Co., 111. 



ARTICLE VII. — On an American Earthworm of the Family 
Phreoryctichc. By S. A. Fokbes. 

In 1843 W. Hoffmeister described in Germany (Wieg- 
mann^s Archiv f . Naturgesch., 1843) a peculiar, long, and very 
slender worm found in a well, giving it the generic name of 
Haplotaxis^ and, after its discoverer, Menke, the specific name 
of menkeanus. Two years later this generic name was set 
aside by the same author for that of Phreoryctes, Haplotaxis 
having been already used in botany. In 1859 another species 
of the genus was found, also in Germany, by Schlotthauber 
and noticed as Georyctes lichtejisteinii (Beitr. z. Helmintho- 
logie), — a name which has now given way to that of Phre- 
oryctes Jilif or mis (Claparede) Vejdovsky. In 1888 the well- 
known helrainthologist, Beddard, of England, published in the 
" Annals and Magazine of Natural History " a description of 
a worm from New Zealand which he assigned with some doubt 
to this genus under the name of Phreoryctes smithii, amending 
at the same time the definition of the genus (especially with 
reference to the sexual organs) to include this species. These 
three forms, two from continental Europe and a doubtful one 
from New Zealand, are thus the only examples of the genus 
and family hitherto reported. 

In America these worms have been mentioned, previous to 
the discovery of the present species, only by Minot in the 
Standard Natural History (1885), where a general illustrated 
account of the genus is given with the remark that so far as 
the author knows, it has been found only in Germany. 

In March, 1880, the writer hereof received from a well in 
McLean county, Illinois, and preserved in alcohol, without 
study, a very long and slender pale red worm, remarkable for 
its disposition to coil itself into seemingly inextricable knots. 
In April of the present year (1800) I received from Mr. 
G. W. McChier, Assistant Horticulturist of the Agricultural 
Experiment Station at Champaign, a thick mass of fine roots 



108 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

of the elm, taken from a tile in a farm drain. Here, in com- 
pany with a large number of the ordinary blind crustaceans of 
the subterranean waters of this region {Asellus stygius and 
Crangonyx mucronatus), I found three living examples of the 
same worm as that received from the well ten years before, and 
these proved upon examination to belong unquestionably to 
the genus Phreoryctes, but to a species undescribed. 

From the other Oligochfeta the family Phreoryctida3 and 
its sole genus, Phreoryctes, are distinguished by the long and 
slender form, the great number of segments, the thick cuticle 
and weak longitudinal muscular layer ; by the simple seta?, 
placed singly in four longitudinal rows, two ventral and two 
dorsal (the latter sometimes aborted) ; and by the convoluted 
nephridia imbedded in fat cells and opening to the surface be- 
fore or behind the setae. The ventral ganglia present two 
swellings or enlargements in each somite. The sexual glands 
are said to occur in segments nine to twelve, and the receptacula 
seminis in segments six to eight. 

Phreoryctes emissarius, Forbes.* 

This worm is allied to P. menkeanus by its great length, 
its pale red color and iridescent luster, and its subterranean 
habit, by the presence of ventral organs beneath the nerve 
cord, and by the three pairs of nerves from each ventral gan- 
glion. It differs especially by the fact that the dorsal rows of 
setaj are obsolete except on a variable number of the anterior 
segmentsf and that the lateral vascular arches extend from the 
dorsal to the ventral vessel, instead of connecting only with the 
latter. The worm is at least seven or eight inches in length 
by about .6 to .7 mm. in thickness, and my longest specimen 
(an imperfect one) contains three hundred and seventy-five 
segments. 

The head or prostomium is not transversely lobed, either 
without or within, and thin vertical transverse sections give 
no hint of a cephalic pore. The setae (PI. VI., Figs. 1 & 2) be- 
gin with very small dorsal and ventral pairs in the first post-oral 

* Amer. Nat. May, 1890, v. xxiv., p. 477. 

t None of my specimens are entire, and I am not able to give the 
characters of tlie posterior segments. 



An American Earthirorm of the Family Phreoryctidw. 109 

segment. The ventral setse continue throughout the body, at 
first increasing in size backwards, and becoming very large and 
long and strongly recurved at tip. At the middle of the worm 
the imbedded part of the seta may extend into the coelom two 
thirds the diameter of the body. The tips are obtuse and smooth, 
and a circular ridge surrounds the seta below the middle. The 
inserted portion is straight to the tip, from which very numerous 
distinct slender muscles radiate in all directions to the worms 
wall. The dorsal setae diminish in size and disappear between 
the seventieth and eightieth segments, their occurrence becom- 
ing irregular towards the last. In the middle part of the body 
there is no trace of them nor of the glands for their de- 
velopment. 

The large dorsal and subintestinal blood vessels are readily 
seen in the living worm, as well as the contorted vascular 
loops extending along the side of the intestine. The dorsal 
vessel is contractile, and valved at the posterior portion of 
each ccelomic space by four or five large, pale, nucleated 
cells, so shaped and attached as to yield to forward pressure 
but to close against backward. (PI. VI., Fig. 3). This vessel di- 
vides just behind the cerebral ganglion, each branch passing 
outward and downward under the anterior end of the lateral 
commissure, and then forward under the lateral part of the ce- 
phalic ganglion, and upward and inward to the middle line in 
front of this ganglion, where the two branches from the oppo- 
site sides nearly tuuch. Each then turns directly backward upon 
itself and retraces the course just described, the direct and the 
recurrent portions of the artery running parallel, a short dis- 
tance apart, until beneath the anterior end of the commissure 
again, where the vessel turns outward to the body wall. 

The lateral branches of the dorsal vessel (PI. VI., Fig. 4) 
are given off immediately in front of the posterior dissepiment 
of each somite, and just behind the valves of the dorsal vessel. 
Throughout the greater part of the body they run at first up- 
ward and outward to the body wall, then irregularly forward 
(forming as they go a broad, downward loop on the side of the 
intestine) to the front of the ccjelomic space, where they turn 
directly downward across the intestine, and backward along its 
lower surface, again forming a broad, downward loop in the 



110 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

ventral portion of the crrlom, in front of the ventral seta). 
They terminate finally in the ventral vessel, on the same verti- 
cal plane as that of their origin. The anterior arches are less 
contorted, — the first, indeed, pursuing a nearly direct course 
from above downward. This vessel is no larger than the others, 
and is doubtless non-contractile. It is given off at the posterior 
end of the first segment (subo'sophageal), and on the same ver- 
tical plane the ventral vessel takes its origin, — probably formed 
by the union of these arches. This vessel is supported by a 
vertical mesentery except in the anterior segments, where it is 
borne at the middle of a delicate transverse membranous par- 
tition, which disappears with the formation of the first dissepi- 
ment. It is also valved, but imperfectly, at a considerable 
distance behind the dissepiment. 

The cerebral ganglion is transverse, slightly convex in 
front, and slightly three-lobed, the large anterior nerves going 
off from the anterior lateral angles by bulbous processes. Gan- 
glion cells are most abundant on the anterior and dorsal sur- 
faces, the inferior posterior surface being nearly free of them. 
Three pairs of nerves arise from the cephalic ganglion, the first 
and second large and the third small. The first go outward 
and downward from their origin to the cephalic wall ; the 
second, arising just behind the first, pass directly downward ; 
and the third, springing from the lateral part of the dorsal sur- 
face just before the origin of the commissure, pass directly up- 
ward. The commissures send each five nerves to the wall of 
the head, the four anterior arising in pairs, and the posterior 
and largest, given off just before the commissures meet in the 
subtesophageal ganglion, going singly outward. No branches 
to the pharynx were detected. 

The suboesophageal ganglion is transversely oval in front, 
nearly cylindrical behind, very richly cellular on the lower sur- 
face, especially at the middle, and also posteriorly on the sides. 
The four anterior ventral ganglia are closely approximated and, 
including the suboesophageal, have but a single pair of branches 
each. 

The ventral cord (PI. VL, Fig. 5, & PI. VII., Figs. 6 & 7) 
generally presents two elongate ganglionic swellings to each 
somite, corresponding to the two sets of lateral nerves arising. 



An American Earthworm of the Family Phreoryctida\ 111 

Ganglion cells are but few on the upper half of the cord, but 
are almost continuously distributed on the under surface except 
at the dissepiments, where the cord is rapidly reduced in size 
and contains no ganglion cells. There is nothing in the nerve 
cord or its delicate sheath to represent the giant fibers of the 
earthworm. 

The ventral cord is supported beneath, at the center of each 
somite, between the ganglionic swellings, by the " ventral or- 
gans " of Timm (PI. VI., Fig. 5, & PI. VII., Figs. 6 & 7),*— pyra- 
midal pads or cushions of cells, the outer ones large, distinct, 
nucleated, the inner resembling the ganglion cells of the nerve 
cord itself. The apex of the pyramid extends between the longi- 
tudinal muscle bands, and the base of it commonly supports the 
cord, the lateral angles frequently extending upwards, beside 
the cord, and sometimes, especially in the anterior somites, 
half surrounding it (PI. VII., Fig. 6). In the posterior part 
of the body, however, the cord and the ventral organs are 
much less closely connected, and often lie side by side quite free 
from one another. These cellular masses are longest from 
before backwards, and are connected with each other by a 
single nerve fiber running from one to the other, this having 
occasionally a nucleated cell in its course. 

The lateral nerves (PI. VI., Fig. 5) all pass from their 
origin outwards and downwards through the longitudinal mus- 
cular layer of the body wall to the circular muscle, beneath 
which they are distributed. They are swollen and slightly gan- 
glionated just beyond their origin. Three pairs of these lateral 
nerves rise in each somite (excepting a few of the most ante- 
rior), two from the posterior swelling of the ganglion and one 
from the anterior. The posterior pair arise immediately in 
front of the dissepiment, the second pair a short distance fur- 
ther forward, — commonly immediately behind the ventral 
organ, — and the first pair (which pass directly downward) at 
about the anterior fourth of the somite. These nerves are given 
off on the same horizontal plane, and the pairs are opposite. 



* The structure of these bodies, as well as their greater size in the 
anterior segments, seems to me to bear out the suggestion of Timm 
that they are sensory organs. 



1 12 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

The nephridia open into the ccclom by a conspicuous broad, 
shallow, bi-lobed, ciliated funnel (PI. VII., Figs. 8 & 0) nearly 
sessile on the anterior face of the dissepiment at about the level 
of the nerve cord. The larger lobe of the funnel is composed 
of a single layer of cylindrical cells arranged fan-like, and each 
covered at its outer end by a dense brush of long and very fine 
cilia. From this funnel a short tube narrows rapidly backward 
to the dissepiment, through which it is continued into a narrow 
lobe of the so-called fatty body of the somite behind (PI. VII., 
Fig. 10). These bodies, composed of irregular masses of large 
cells, contain, according to Leydig,* delicate contorted tubes 
representing the glandular portion of the nephridia, — a fact 
difficult to demonstrate positively in prepared slides. They 
extend upwards beside the alimentary canal, in immediate prox- 
imity to the chlorogon layer, their upper end sometimes reach- 
ing the dorsal vessel. Below, a slender lobe extending down- 
wards and inwards is supported by one of the setal muscles, 
which is inserted on the middle line of the ventral body wall. 
Another lobe extending downwards and outwards, contains the 
large excretory duct, which passes from the dorsal surface of 
the intestine with an S-like curve to the body wall (PI. VI., 
Fig. 2), where it is rapidly narrowed to a minute tube, which, 
passing through the body wall, opens, with a slightly expanded 
orifice, upon the surface about a tenth of a millimeter in front 
of the seta and quite outside the setal sheath. This orifice, in 
the living worm, is frequently marked by little accumulations 
of excrete matter, and the tube can be traced a short distance 
inward by the thick cuticular lining of its terminal part. The 
first nephridium appears in the ninth segment, and the first 
ciliated funnel in the eighth. These structures are, however, 
rudimentary in the first six segments in which they occur, the 
fatty bodies being reduced to narrow masses of connective- 
tissue nuclei which extend up in a single band beside the ali- 
mentary canal, immediately behind the dissepiment, auji the 
funnel not being bi-lobed and not always ciliated. No duct or 
external opening is distinguishable in these anterior nephridia.f 

* Archiv f. Mikrosk. Auat. I., p. 283. 

I The segments in which these incomplete nephridia occur, are, 
according to Beddard, those in which the sexual organs are situated 
in the sexually mature worm. 



An American Earthworm of the Family Phreoryctidoe. 113 

The change to the distinctive cell of the fatty body and the 
fully developed bi-lobed, ciliated funnel is gradual, becoming 
complete in the fifteenth segment, where, however, the fatty 
bodies are still very small, occupying only the anterior part of 
the ccelom. In the posterior somites, on the other hand, the 
nephridia and the fatty bodies are very large, occupying the 
greater part of the coelomie space. There was no trace of sex- 
ual organs in any of the specimens studied. 

Just behind the tip of each seta is a small oval mass of 
cells resembling a gland (PI. VI., Fig. 2) and opening to the 
surface at the very margin of the setal sheath. The first dis- 
sepiment occurs between the fourth and fifth segments. The 
coelomie fluid is remarkably destitute of leucocytes. 

The pharynx is short, thick-walled, with heavy roughened 
cuticle, thick, circular and rather few and stout radiating mus- 
cles. A broad, low median ridge projects fromthe dorsal wall 
of this cavity. The oesophagus extends through segments one 
to three. It is thin-walled in the first two somites, with a thin 
cuticular lining and scarcely any circular muscular fibers, but 
very numerous slender radiating muscles extending to the body 
wall. In the third somite its structure is similar, except that 
it is provided with a very thick circular muscle and that the 
radiating muscles are first reduced in number and then disap- 
pear. The cuticle is also thicker than that of the preceding 
part. With the fifth somite the intestine suddenly begins, the 
muscular wall becoming very thin and the epithelial cells very 
long and highly and irregularly villose in arrangement (PI. 
VII., Fig. 11). Here also begin the chlorogon cells in a thin 
imperfect layer. The villosities become at first more prominent 
and irregular backwards, but at about the fifteenth to the twen- 
tieth segment are gradually reduced in length, the epithelial 
lining becoming more uniform in thickness. The intestine is 
slightly constricted at the dissepiments, and there also the 
epithelial cells are considerably shortened (PI. VIII., Fig. 12). 
The exposed ends of the cells are densely ciliated. The intes- 
tinal wall contains capacious blood sinuses which connect at 
intervals with the dorsal vessel (PI. VIII., Fig. 12). In the 
posterior part of the alimentary canal the epithelial cells 
are very much elongated, and the lumen of the canal small. 



114 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

The chlorogon layer becomes finally thick and extensive, 
deeply imbedding the alimentary canal and the dorsal vessel, 
and extending out upon the branches of the latter as far as the 
body wall. 

In the alimentary canal of the specimens examined were 
numerous slender, fusiform, monocystid Gregarinidse (PI. VIII., 
Fig. 14), average examples being about .34 mm. long by .02 
mm. wide, tapering towards both ends, the anterior extremity 
with an apparent open pore or sucker by means of which it was 
commonly adherent to an epithelial cell. In one such case the 
protoplasmic contents of such a cell were drawn out, by the 
slight withdrawal of the gregarinid, into a short, thick, striated 
thread. Each has a large, circular, highly granular nucleus, 
commonly near the center. In some cases these Gregarinidoe 
were in masses of half a dozen. 

In the coelom are numerous encysted parasites (PI. VIII., 
Fig. 15), usually thick-walled, with a central protoplasmic mass 
(varying from spherical to crescentic), within which is a spher- 
ical, conspicuous, highly granular nucleus, often containing a 
nucleolus also. These bodies are commonly attached to the 
inner surface of the longitudinal muscle layer, but are occa- 
sionally imbedded in the fatty bodies or lie free in the coelom. 



BIBLIOGKAPHY. 



HOFFMEISTBR, W. Beitrage zur Kenntniss deutcher Land- 
anneliden. — Wiegmann's Archiv f iir Naturgeschichte, 
1843, Bd. I., pp. 183-198. 

Die bis jetz bekannten Arten aus der Familie der 

Regenwiirmer. Braunschweig, 1845. 

SCHLOTTHAUBER, Dr. Beitriige zur Helminthologie. 
("Amtl. Ber. fiber 31 Versammlung deutscher Natur- 
forscher und Artze zu Gottingen, Sept. 1854. Gottin- 
gen, 1866, pp. 122-124.") [Vejdovsky.] 



An American Earthworm of the Family Phreoryctida'. 115 

Olaparede, E. R. Recherches sur rAnatoniie d'Oligo- 
chetes. Mem. Soc. Phys. et hist. nat. Geneve, Tom. 
XVI. 2-de part. 1862, PI." 1-4, pp. 217-291. 

Leydig, Fr. Ueber Phreoryetes Menkeanus Hoffm. nebst 
Bemerkungen fiber den Bau anderer Anneliden. Arehiv 
fiir Mikroskopische Anatoraie, Bd. I. 1865, pp. 249-294, 
Taf. 16-18. 

Noll, F. O. Ueber einen neuen Ringelwurm des Rheins. 
Wiegmann's Arehiv fiir Naturgeschichte, Jahrg. 40, 
1874, pp. 266-270, Taf. VIL 

VejdoVSKY, F. Beitrage zur Oligochaetenfauna Bohraens. 
Sitzungsber. d. kon. bohm. Gesellschaft der Wissenseh. 
Prag. 1875, pp. 191-201. 

Glaus, Carl. Grundzlige der Zoologie, Vierte Ausgabe. 
Marburg, 1880. 

MicHAELSEN, W. Die Oligochaeten von Siid-Georgien nach 
der Ausbeute der Deutschen Station von 1882-83. 
Jahrb. Wiss. Anst. Hamburg, 5 Jahrg, pp. 55-73, Taf. 
1, 2. Abstract: Zoologischer Jahresbericht, 1888, p. 51, 
Verm. 

TiMM, RUD. Beobachtungen an Phreoryetes Menkeanus 
HofEm. und Nais. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Fauna 
Unterfrankens. Arbeiten des zoolog.-zootom. Inst, in 
Wurzburg, Bd. VI. (1883), Taf. I., II. Review: Zoo- 
logischer Jahresbericht, 1883, I Abth., p. 203. 

VejdoVSKY, F. System und Morphologie der Oligochae- 
ten. Bearbeitet im Auftrage des Comite's fur Natur- 
historische Landesdurchforschung Bohmens. Prag. 

1884, pp. 48-50. Abstract: Zoologischer Jahresbericht, 

1885, I Abth. Nachtr., pp. 47-57. 

MiNOT, 0. S. A^ermes. Order I. Oligochajta. Standard Na- 
tural History, Vol. 1. [l.S.S5],p. 223. 

GlARD, Alfr. Sur une nouvelle station de Phreoryetes 
Menkeanus HofEmeister. Bull. Scientif. France et Belg. 
(3) 1. Ann. No. 4 [1888], p. 298. 



116 Illinois State Labomtonj of Natural History. 

Beddard, F. E. On the Reproductive Organs of Phre- 
oryctes. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 6, Vol. I., No. 6 
[June, 1888], pp. 389-395, 1 PI. Abstracts: Jour. Roy. 
Micr. Soc. 1888, p. 579; Zoologischer Jahresbericht, 
1888, p. 64, Verm. 

Anatomy and Histology of Phreoryctes. Abstract : 

Jour. Roy. Micr. Soc. 1889, Part 6, p. 755. (Proc. Roy. 
Soc. Edinburgh, Vol. XVI., 1888-89, pp. 117-119). 

Forbes, S. A. Note on an American Species of Phreoryctes. 
American Naturalist, May, 1890 [Vol. XXIV.], p. 477. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 

PLATE VI. 

Fio. 1.— Ventral seta detached. X 120. 

Fig. 2. — Ventral seta in its sac, with problematical gland (?) just 
behind its tip, and terminal portion of duct of nephridium in front. 
X 192. 

Fig. 3.— Valves of dorsal vessel, x 328. 

Fig. 4.— Diagram showing course of lateral vascular arches, and 
position of valves, x 36. 

Fig. 5.— Ventral nerve cord in one somite, with ventral organ 
and lateral nerves. The figure shows also the thick longitudinal ven- 
tral muscle, the thin circular muscle layer, the hypodermis, and the 
cuticle. X 200. 

PLATE VII. 

Fig. 6. — Transverse section of nerve cord and ventral organ from 
anterior part of body, showing also portion of ventral longitudinal 
muscle, circular muscle layer, hypodermis, and cuticle, x 192. 

Fig. 7.— Same as Fig. 6, but from central part of body, x 192, 

Fig. 8.— Ciliated funnel of nephridium, and portion of anterior 
lobe of fatty body, with septum intervening, x 328. 

Fig. 9.— Front view of ciliated funnel of nephridium. X 328. 

Fig. 10. — Diagram showing form and position of fatty bodies. 
X43. 

Fig. 11. — Transverse section of alimentary canal and dorsal and 
ventral vessels, a short distance behind resophagus. The outer cells 
form the chlorogon layer, x 192. 

PLATE VIII. 

Fig. 12.— Same as Fig. 11, but from central part of body, x 192. 
Fig. 13.— Portion of wall of alimentary canal. X 328. 
Fig. 14.— Gregarina;,— one attached to wall of intestine, x 192. 
Fig. 15. — Single-celled parasites from cojlom. x 328. 



PLA'J'E VI. 



Fig. 1. 




Fig. 2. 





Fig. 3. 



Fui. -l. 




PLATE VTI. 





Frd. 



FiG. 7. 





Fig. S. 



Fig. 9. 





Vui. l(j. 



Fic. 11. 



PLATE VIII. 





Fig. 12. 



Fig. l:) 





Fig. 14. 



Fkj. 1' 



ARTICLE VIII. — An American Terrestrial Leech. By S. A. 
Forbes. 

Our common land leech was first obtained by me in April, 
1876, at Normal, McLean County, Illinois, where it was dug up 
in a house garden, about a dozen rods from the nearest rivulet. 
An example sent the following year to Prof. A. E. Verrill, with 
some remarks on its superficial characters, was by him iden- 
tified provisionally and with some hesitation as his Semiscolex 
grandis, originally described* from three aquatic individuals 
obtained from Lake Huron, Lake Superior, and West River, 
Connecticut. I have now, however, fifty-six specimens of this 
leech, all from the earth in Central Illinois, some of them half 
a mile or more from water, and representing collections made 
at different times from April, 1876, to June, 1890 ; while, on 
the other hand, it has not once occurred in the course of a 
large amount of aquatic work done in the same regions during 
these fifteen years. It has, moreover, constant characters 
which clearly distinguish it from Semiscolex qrandis^ as far as 
one may judge by a comparison with VerrilFs description, and 
I do not doubt that it is distinct. 

Its only known food is earthworms of various genera, and 
these it swallows entire, as I have repeatedly found by dissec- 
tion, and demonstrated likewise by feeding experiments on 
leeches in captivity. 

From the fact that all my specimens were obtained during 
the early months of the year, — from March to June, — it is 
probable that this leech, like the earthworm, penetrates to 
considerable depths during the midsummer drouths. 

DIAGNOSIS. 

Semiscolex terrestris, Forbes.f This is one of the largest 
of our leeches, my contracted alcoholic specimens reaching a 

* {Synopsis of the North American Fresh Water Leeclies. By A. 
E. Verrill. U. S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries. Part II. Report 
of the Commissioner for 1872 and 1873, p. 072. 

t American Naturalist, vol. xxiv., 1890. 



120 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

length of seven inches, a width of three fourths and a depth 
of three eighths of an inch. In form, it is heaviest pos- 
teriorly, being widest at about the eighth annulus. in front 
of the acetabulum, but tapering very gradually or scarcely at 
all thence forward to the anterior fourth, and thence more 
rapidly to the mouth. Its transverse sec-tion is depressed oval, 
flattened beneath, the margins of the body obtuse. 

The color is sooty drab, varying to plumbeous black, some- 
what lighter beneath, uniform in tint, and quite without spots 
or mottlings of any sort. A darker median longitudinal stripe, 
very conspicuous and well defined, is almost invariably present ; 
a paler marginal stripe often approaching buff, little less con- 
stantly so; and a ventral submarginal stripe of the same color 
as the median dorsal one likewise quite frequent. The surface 
is everywhere smooth, and I find no external trace of segmental 
papillae. 

There are ninety-nine complete annuli from the mouth to 
the posterior sucker, four imperfect aunuli in the cephalic lobe 
(counting the one bearing the first pair of eyes as the first), 
and one such just before the vent — one hundred and four in 
all. All the perfect annuli are very distinct except the first 
two, which, while well distinguished dorsally, are almost, but 
not quite, fused beneath to form the posterior border of the 
mouth. In front of the first annulus is the upper lip, divided 
by a delicate median groove. There are, consequently, eleven 
such grooves meeting the margin of the mouth, its posterior 
boundary being formed by the undivided ventral portion of the 
fifth annulus. The eyes are ten in number, placed upon the 
first, second, third, fifth, and eighth annuli, representing 
somites one to five. The acetabulum is broad oval, wider than 
long, and measures about 10 mm. in its greatest diameter. The 
vent is large and surrounded by irregular radiating grooves. 

The first nephridial pore is at the anterior uiargin of the 
tenth complete annulus, — the fourteenth in all, — and the last 
or seventeenth pore at the anterior margin of the ninetieth vent- 
ral annulus, — the ninety-fourth of the full series. These pores 
open on the ventral surface just within the dark ventral line, 
and consequently at some little distance from the margin of the 
body. The male sexual opening is on the posterior part of the 



An American Terrestrial Leech. 121 

twenty-eighth entire annulus and the female opening on the 
thirty-third. 

Within the buccal cavity is a prominent circular fold. 
Maxillse three, minute, .5 mm. to .66 mm. in length, each with 
an armature of twelve to fifteen bicuspid teeth. The pharynx 
presents ten to fifteen longitudinal folds, the number varying 
in different parts, with an average of twelve or thirteen. 

I have seen no specimens of Semiscolex grandis, Verrill, 
but draw from the author's description distinctions in the 
number of the annulations ( " about ninety" in fjrandis ), the 
presence of maxillae, the positions of the sexual orifices (in 
grandis in the twenty-fifth and thirtieth annuli respectively), 
and in the color markings, — grandis being, in Verrill's speci- 
mens, without stripes, but spotted or blotched with dark. 

ANATOMICAL NOTES. 

The genus Semiscolex, to which this species unquestionably 
belongs, was described by Kinberg* in 1867, but has been since 
very little discussed. It is not, in fact, again referred to in 
any literature within my reach, except by Verrill, in the third 
volume of the American Journal of Science (1872^ p. 136, 
and in the Report of the U. S. Fish Commissioner for 1872 and 
1873, p. 671. It is clearly closely allied to Aulastoraa, Moqu., 
and seems to me but doubtfully distinct. The following 
anatomical details will help to an understanding of the rela- 
tions of our species : 

The alimentary canal is clearly distinguishable into five 
regions. The first is the pharynx (closely invested by muscles), 
which extends to about the twenty-second annulus from the 
mouth. The second is the so-called oesophagus and proventric- 
nlus, a simple cylindrical tube without lateral sacculi, ter- 
minating opposite the fourteenth ventral ganglion (counting 
the sub(L'sophageal as the first), where it gives off two long, 
slender sacculi which extend backward beside the alimentary 
canal to the last testis. At the point of origin of these sacculi, 
the canal becomes very much enlarged, the three remaining 

* Ofversigt af Kongl. Vet. Akad. Forhandlingar, xxiii, p. 357. 



122 Illinois State Lahoratory of Natural History. 

divisions being of nearly equal length. The third region, the 
digestive stomach of Bourne, is large and thin-walled, its cavity 
presenting about four regular constrictions, and its mucous 
membrane being conspicuously and finely rugose. The next 
section, the intestine proper, is smaller, with minute, irregular, 
and much less conspicuous rugosities ; while the last section, 
the rectum, is about the diameter of the stomach, with a 
smooth mucous membrane. It passes backward without nar- 
roAving, rapidly rounding directly into the large anus. 

The testes are ten in number in the specimens examined. 
The penial sheath is very long, extending from opposite the 
seventh ventral ganglion (where it is surrounded by the 
glandnla prostatica) backward to a point opposite the ninth 
ganglion. Here it bends abruptly forward upon itself and 
passes to its external opening beneath the sixth ganglion. 
Immediately in front of the glandnla prostatica lies the 
glandular part of the seminal vesicle of the left side, that of 
the other side being just opposite. Forward from this runs the 
thick-walled, shining ductus ejaculatorius, continued pos- 
teriorly as a slender, somewhat contorted tube which meets its 
fellow of the right side as this tomes under the nerve cord just 
behind the sixth ganglion, the two then running in company 
to the base of the penial sheath. 

The ovaries are small, nearly spherical, and lie closely 
approximated on each side of the nerve cord, immediately be- 
hind the seventh ganglion. The common oviduct passes first 
through a pyriform glandnla albuginca, the apex of which 
reaches backward to the eighth ganglion, and then, at first 
small but presently much enlarged, runs backward somewhat 
deviously to the ninth ganglion, where it turns directly forward 
and continues unchanged to its orifice. 

The sub( esophageal ganglion is closely approxiniated to 
the next behind, the second and third ganglia are about half as 
far apart as the third and fourth, and these about two thirds 
the distance of the fourth and fifth. The last four ganglia 
are likewise much approximated, the posterior one being very 
large, and sending off several pairs of branches. 



Article IX. — A Freliminary Report on the Animals of the 
Mississippi Bottoms near Quincy, Illinois, in August, 1888. 
Part I. By H. Garmax. 



THE LOCALITY. 

The peculiar features of the waters examined while with 
the Fish Commission at Quincy, in August, 188S, are reflected 
in the character of the collections taken from them. The 
locality is not one which would be selected by the naturalist 
as likely to yield a great variety of species. The waters are 
too much alike and are too much at the mercy of the Missis- 
sippi River for that. It is alocalitv, however, that is eminently 
characteristic of the Mississippi Valley, and one that is calcu- 
lated to yield a fauna equally characteristic of certain influ- 
ences which the great stream exerts upon its denizens. 

The flood-ground of the Mississippi River at Quinc}' will 
average six miles in width from blufE to bluff and extends very 
nearly north and south. The river reaches the bluff on tbe 
Missouri side at the village of LaGrange, nine miles northwest 
of Quincy. From LaGrange it flows southeast in a direct course 
to the bluffs upon which Quincy stands. As this part of the 
river is but little more than a mile in width, it will be seen 
that extensive bottom-lands must lie on both sides of it between 
LaGrange and Quincy. On the Missouri side these bottoms 
form an extended and continuous body of land, — all wooded 
except the upper part, which is known as Lone Tree Prairie. 

It is to the forest bottom-lands on the Illinois side north- 
west of Quincy that we wish to call especial attention, since it 
was upon them that most of our work with the Fish Commis- 
sion was done. Unlike the Lone Tree Prairie region, they are 
cut up by channels into numerous separate bodies of land, 
upon some of which the water rises in spring, and leaves, as it 
subsi les, numbers of lakes and ponds, some permanent, others 
transient. Opposite LaGrange some of these tracts are per- 



1 24 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

manently detached from the main-land and form a group of 
large forest-covered islands. Including the channels between 
these islands, the river here has the unusual width .of nearly 
three miles. Between the islands and the bluff is a fertile 
bottom-land, now protected from inundation by the Indian 
Grave levee. From this, the widest part, the Illinois bottoms 
become gradually narrower towards Quincy, just as those of the 
Missouri side do towards LaGrange, and terminate in a point 
known locally as the " tow-head." All of the lower part is with- 
out levee protection and is separated from the neighboring bluff 
by Quincy Bay, a narrow inlet which opens to the river at the 
tow-head, and extends thence northward close along the bluff 
for about three miles. 

THE RIYER. 

As has been said, the river averages about one mile in 
width. While the general course between LaGrange and 
Quincy is nearly direct, the low- water channel makes several 
bends. It runs along the face of the bluff at LaGrange, then 
turns southeast, at length reaching the Illinois side cloae to the 
south end of the LaGrange group of islands, and strikes the 
Illinois bottom-land about three miles north of Quincy, cutting 
down the banks vertically, undermining and carrying away the 
trees and threatening even to cut across to the bay. It then 
turns toward the Missouri side again and reaches it two miles 
below. Thence it is deflected towards Illinois, and passing 
close along the south end of the tow-head, follows the bluff 
along the lower part of Quincy. It flows at the rate of three 
miles an hour. These bends in the low-water channel are not 
specially noticeable to the landsman at high water, since the 
river then fills its whole bed. In the latter part of sumnjer, dur- 
ing most seasons, the water subsides to such an extent that a 
good deal of the extensive sand-bar which has accumulated 
in each bend becomes exposed, and the river is confined to its low 
water channel. One such bar occurs in the bend west of 
the lower end of the Illinois bottom-land, and another on 
the Missouri side opposite the point at which the current strikes 
the same bottom-land above. In the river proper no serious 
work was attempted, because of the protracted high water due 



Animals of the Mississippi Bottoms near Quincy. 125 

to heavy falls of rain in early summer. This was going down 
when we reached Quincy in the latter part of July, and the 
sand-bars in the bends began to appear soon after ; but in Au- 
gust heavy rains in the northwest caused a rise which again 
covered them. This condition of the river had a decided influ- 
ence on the abundance and variety of animals, both in the lakes 
and sloughs and in the river itself. It will be referred to 
again. 

BEAR CREEK. 

This stream winds down through all the northern part 
of the Illinois bottom-land, and after giving ofE several branch- 
es to the Mississippi River on the west, reaches the upper part 
of (Juincy Bay, into which it formerly opened. At present the 
building of the Indian Grave levee across it, a short dis- 
tance within this mouth, has closed the outlet, and the 
only water discharged into the bay passes through a sluice- 
gate. The lower part of the creek is now, therefore, little 
more than a slough. This was well filled with water when ex- 
amined, attd a small stream issued from a break which, during 
a recent inundation, it had made in the levee. The banks are 
steep, as a rule, as would be expected from the alluvial charac- 
ter of the soil through which the channel is cut. The shores 
are commonly wooded, and originally, doubtless, the whole 
of the neighboring region was covered with forest. The bot- 
tom is extremely muddy, and from the abundance of snags and 
brush lodged in its channel and its stagnant water, it is not an 
inviting collecting ground for the naturalist. 

BALLARD SLOUGH. 

This is a channel which has been cut obliquely across from 
the Mississippi River to Bear Creek, reaching the latter about a 
mile and a half northwest of the point at which the levee 
crosses the creek. Its river end, covered by the levee, is a half 
mile further north, and the length of the slough is probably 
not far from one and a half miles. It was, when visited, quite 
shallov and extremely muddy, and varied greatly in width 
at different portions, sometimes expanding into pools of consid- 



126 Illinois State Lahorarorij of Natural History. 

erable extent, and again contracting to fifteen or twenty feet in 
width. It was not continuous at this time, and probably dur- 
ing most seasons dries up in great part before the .close of 
summer. 

HAEKNESS SLOUGH. 

Harkness Slough is a channel which extends almost exact- 
ly parallel with Ballard Slough, and lies a quarter of a mile 
further south. It is very narrow, — not fifty feet across in 
much of the lower part of its course ; has steep banks ; forms 
some rather deep pools ; and is, like Ballard Slough, extremely 
muddy. A dense growth of trees lines its banks. It was 
continuous as far as followed towards the Mississippi River (al- 
though greatly reduced at some points), and, judging from the 
current, was doubtless yet connected with the river. Still 
there can be no doubt that it commonly dries up largely in 
summer. 

GOOSE LAKE. 

An eighth of a mile south of the outlet of Harkness Slough 
into Bear Creek, is a wide opening on the east into Goose Lake, — 
an open sheet of water, from the shores of which much of the 
forest has been removed. It becomes shallower and its bottom 
more sandy towards its south end, from which a channel ex- 
tends which formerly put it into communication with the bay, 
three quarters of a mile below. 

LIBBT LAKE. 

This name was given me by one of the fishermen for a 
long, narrow pool on the west side of Bear Creek about mid- 
way between the outlet of Goose Lake and the Bear Creek 
sluice-gate. It is not named on any map at hand. It was in 
some respects very different from any other water in which col- 
lections were made. The water was quite deep, and, for the 
situation, unusually clear and cool, and gave promise of a 
growth of aquatic and sub-aquatic vegetation at the edges later 
in the season. It is scantily edged with willow and button 
bush and a few other trees and shrubs. 



Animals of the Mississippi Bottoms near Quincij. 127 

QUIKCY BAY. 

The four bodies of water just described are within the 
levee. Quincy Bay extends from the levee where this reaches 
the Illinois bluff (about three miles and a half north of Quincy) 
directly southward along the foot of the bluff to the tow-head 
opposite the center of the city, at which point it opens to the 
river. It varies little in width and will average perhaps a third 
of a mile. It is little more than an inlet of the Mississippi con- 
taining back-water during the latter part of the year, the water 
in much of it becoming then very shallow and the current al- 
most disappearing. Daring the month spent at Quincy this 
year, the water did not reach its usual low stage, and the cur- 
rent due to waters received from Bear Creek, and the sloughs, 
creeks, and springs, was sufficient to keep the bay quite clear 
of the algcie which would otherwise have appeared upon it. Its 
bottom is commonly muddy and no promise of other aquatic 
vegetation could be seen in it. It is edged with woods quite 
continuously on the west, and on the east also there is some 
growth of forest where the strip of level soil between the bay 
and the bluff gives room for it. 

WILLOW SLOUGH. 

This narrow channel extends obliquely across from the 
river to the bay outside of and parallel with the levee. It en- 
ters the bay about one and two thirds miles above the south 
end of the tow-head, and leaves the river a little over four 
miles north of the same point. Its length is about two and 
two thirds miles. At high water a current from the river 
sweeps through and reaches the bay; but at the time it was 
seen but little water ran out; and in the lower part of its 
course it consisted of stretches of water connected by narrow 
rivulets. Some of the pools were of considerable depth. The 
bottom is commonly muddy, but occasional beds of sand occur. 
There was no vegetation. 

WOOD SLOUGH. 

Wood Slough is also a narrow channel extending oblique- 
ly across the lower part of the Illinois bottom-land from river 



128 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

to bay. It formerly entered the bay opposite the north end of 
Quincy, but the building of an embankment for a railroad 
bridge cut it off from this outlet so that it now turns' west at 
its lower end and, running along the embankment, empties in- 
to the river again. Throughout its course it is very nearly 
parallel with the west shore of the bottom-land, in some cases 
being only a few rods away from the river. The river enters it 
four miles northwest of Quincy, and a mile and a half below 
this it breaks through the bank to the river again, so that at low 
water its lower part may not be continuous with the rest. It 
is perhaps three and a half miles long, — a narrow, muddy 
ditch of shallow water, completely devoid of vegetation, and 
containing such animals only as are so unfortunate as to be en- 
trapped in it by the subsiding spring floods. 

GLAUS LAKE. 

This lake is a small temporary pool in the bottom-land 
about one fourth mile east of the north division of Wood 
Slough. It is very shallow, — at no place up to the mens' 
waists; has the usual muddy bottom; and lacks vegetation. 

DEAD man's slough. 

Dead Man's Slough is a name applied by the fishing crew 
to a shallow, muddy pool in the woods about a quarter of a 
mile from the river above the north end of Wood Slough. 

MOSS LAKE. 

Moss Lake, on the southern part of Long Island, the larg- 
est of the LaGrange group, is very similar to the last two in 
general character, being an isolated pond in the woods. It is, 
however, much deeper than they, and its water is cooler and 
clearer. It is surrounded by a growth of hickory, elm, syca- 
more, and grape. Its length is less than a fourth of a mile, 
and its width from 150 to 200 feet. No aquatic vegetation 
was growing in it when it was seined in August. 

LILY LAKE. 

Lily Lake is one of a group of three lakes which lie be- 
tween the lower end of Wood Slough and Quincy Bay. They 



Animals of the Mississippi Bottoms near Qtiincy. 129 

have a coniraon outlet during the fore part of the summer 
through Wood Slough. Lily Lake is the smallest of the three, 
and lies only a few rods from the west shore of the bay. It is 
an oval pond of shallow water full of the pads of water chin- 
quepin, and is the only water from which I collected that con- 
tained a growth of vegetation. It is pretty well protected on 
the north and west by forest, which probably prevents to some 
extent the ravages of overflows. 

LONG LAKE. 

Long Lake, the second of the group, lies a short distance 
northwest of the preceding. It is nearly three quarters of a 
mile long, and is a narrow body of rather deep water surrounded 
by forest. 

BEGAD LAKE. 

West of the lower half of Long Lake is the third lake of 
the group. It is broad and shallow, and when visited consisted 
of a series of detached pools with sloping bottoms of mud so 
deep as to make it extremely difficult to drag a seine. 

CEDAR CREEK. 

This is a small rapidly flowing creek which comes from the 
east and, cutting through the bluff, enters the bay half a mile 
above the city limits. A.t its mouth it has deposited a large 
bed of alluvium through which one sinks to his knees in wading. 
A short distance from the bay it becomes rocky, and between 
the bluffs and in the upper part of its course flows over almost 
solid limestone. When visited, it was moderately low, and in 
places were shallow pools connected with each other by narrow 
reaches along which the water rushed with considerable speed. 
The water is quite clear notwithstandiug the sewage which it 
receives ; yet the influence of the latter is seen in the compara- 
tive scarcity of aquatic life for some distance back of the bluff. 

OTHER WATERS. 

The only situations other than those described above, in 
which collections were made, were a small creek without name 
just above Qiiincy, which is similar to Cedar Creek in every re- 



130 Illinois State Lahoratory of Ndtnral History. 

pect except its smaller size, and a muddy pond near the blufE 
at the southern limit of Quincy. 

It was from the lakes and sloughs thus briefly described 
that the material was obtained upon which this paper is based. 
Omitting Cedar Creek, the bay, and the river, they have much 
in common. All were, or are now, subject to overflow by the 
Mississippi. Since the Indian Grave levee was built, the waters 
within it, — Bear Creek, Harkness and Ballard Sloughs, and 
Libby Lake, — have not commonly been subject to inundation, 
— a fact which explains certain special features of the collection 
taken from them. The condition of the pools with reference to 
the river was not a usual one. A late rise in the river had flooded 
them after the spring freshets had subsided, and kept open the 
communication with the river much longer than would other- 
wise have been, thus helping the large fishes to escape from 
them after spawning, and doubtless carrying away hosts of the 
smaller organisms which had appeared in the pools. All have 
very muddy bottoms. In most, this mud was nearly knee deep, 
and made seining very difficult and disagreeable. In some 
places deposits of mud were of such recent origin and were so 
loose that it was unsafe to venture into them. Aquatic vegeta- 
tion was almost wholly lacking. A scant growth of filamen- 
tous algae was occasionally seen, but in nothing like the quan- 
tities in which it occurs in ordinary stagnant or quiet water. 
In Lily Lake alone there was a rank growth of aquatic vegeta- 
tion. Here a permanent growth of water lilies { Neliunhium 
luteiim) had become established, and to the under sides of the 
lily pads was attached a scant growth of filamentous algte. 
This absence of vegetation is directly traceable to the overflows, 
since these disturb the bottoms of the pools, displacing the silt 
in some places, depositing fresh material in others, and dislodg- 
ing and carrying away the plants which become established 
during the intervals between floods. The water was not very 
deep at this time, but of course varied with the river. It could 
be waded in most places by the men. It was deepest in the 
larger pools, such as Long and Broad Lakes, and here the tem- 
perature was tolerably constant. In the sloughs, where the 
water was shallow, it often became very warm, and during a 



AnimaU of the Mississippi Bottoms near Quincy. 131 

few days of unusually high temperature became at the edge of 
these so hot as to be scarcely bearable. 

ANIMAL LIFE.— MAMMALS AND BIRDS. 

With this sketch of the surroundings we pass to the ani- 
mals themselves. Of course mammals were not to be looked 
for on land so recently covered with water, and no trace of the 
presence of muskrats, even, was noticed. The raccoon, how- 
ever, is said to remain on the flooded ground at all times, re- 
sorting to the trees, and probably often fasting, when sur- 
rounded b}' water. These animals were common about the 
sloughs, as was shown by the prints of feet, and doubtless de- 
pend to some extent on the fishes and other animals there 
crowded together. Fishes thrown upon the shore were gener- 
ally devoured by them before the next morning. In the latter 
part of August they were plainly depending largely on wild 
grapes for food. 

Birds were at no time abundant. A few kingfishers, a 
solitary green heron, or a couple of spotted sandpipers ( Trin- 
goides maciilarius) , were about all that were commonly seen 
during a day's work. As the season advanced these became 
a little more abundant from accessions of migrating birds to 
their numbers. At one time a flock of about forty white peli- 
cans appeared for the greater part of a day on the Missouri 
sand-bar opposite Wood Slough, but were driven away by gun- 
ners and did not again appear. An occasional troop of cormo- 
rants was seen, a single blue heron, a dab chick {Podihimhus 
podiceps)^ and two half-grown ducks, one of which was brought 
in by the seine. When the wild grapes ripened, the bottom- 
land was invaded by a good many of the smaller birds which 
were not often seen there before. Among these, robins, red- 
headed woodpeckers, and blue jays were conspicuous, though I 
cannot say that the two latter were attracted by the grapes. 
One other bird deserves mention as, from the numbers in which 
it occurs, it must have an important influence upon the insect 
life of the waters. Certain parts of the bluff presented exten- 
sive vertical surfaces of exposed clay, and bank swallows, in 
great numbers, had excavated burrows in this for nests. In 
places these exposed surfaces were honey-combed with the 



132 Illinois State Lahoratonj of Natural History. 

burrows. During quiet afternoons and evenings the swallows 
spent a good deal of time skimming the surface of the water of 
the neighborhood. Among them was noted occasionally, the 
white-billed swallow {Tachi/cineta hicolor); but most seemed to 
be the bank'swallow {Clivicola riparia). There can be no 
doubt that the destruction of winged insects from the water 
by the hundreds of swallows annually reared in these banks is 
very great. 

REPTILES. 

With one exception, serpents, even of the aquatic kinds, 
were not seen. I presume they are not able to maintaiu them- 
selves on the bottom-land during inundations. A single Regina 
leberis was seen for several days lurking about fish boxes at the 
headquarters of the Fish Commission. The absence of vegeta- 
tion may also have had something to do with the absence of ser- 
pents, since they prefer places in which they are not so com- 
pletely exposed to observation. The locality was certainly calcu- 
lated to furnish an abundance of food to the fish-eating species. 

Turtles were present in great numbers. They were espec- 
ially common in the more retired pools when these were first 
visited. Subsequent visits showed them in diminished numbers, 
either from their having migrated, or having learned to avoid 
the seine by burrowing in the mud. The egg-laying season 
was apparently past, so that no opportunity offered for study- 
ing the breeding habits of the species. I am informed that 
the eggs are sometimes gathered from sandy shores by hun- 
dreds, and used as food. 

The following brief list includes most of the species of 
Chelonia which occur in Illinois. Doubtless some of the 
other Illinois species will also be found here when the locality 
is more thoroughly explored. 

Painted turtle {Chrysemys belli, Gray). 

This turtle was rather common in the sloughs, but was 
not seen elsewhere. Adults are not easily distinguished from 
the related C. marginata ; but I believe none of the latter 
occurred in the sloughs. 



Animals of the Mississippi Bottoms near Qiiincy. 133 

Pseudemys elegans, Wied. 
Frequent in sloughs. 

Fsct(demi/s froostii, Holbrook. 

Rare. Three examples from Moss lake, on Long Island, in 
the river. A strong, irritable species. 

Mud Turtle {Malacoclemmijs lesueiiri, Gray). 

Equally common with the next species and much like it 
ia habit. The two are not discriminated by river men, and are 
known to them as mud turtles. Observed in most of the 
sloughs and in the river and bay. 

Mud Turtle {Malacoclemmijs geograjjJiicus, Lesueur). 

This and the preceding species probably constitute more 
than half of the turtles which one sees on the partly sub- 
merged trunks of trees and on sunny banks along the river and 
sloughs. Scores may be seen on bright days sunning them- 
selves on the edges of the log rafts in the upper part of the 
bay. They are not used as food, though it is sometimes 
claimed that the flesh is palatable. 

Alligator Snapper {Macrochelys lacertina^ Schw.). 

This species is said by fisherman and sportsmen to occur 
here occasionally. 

Snapping Turtle {Chelijdra serpentina^ Linn.). 

Occasional in sloughs and lakes. Those taken were large 
and very fat. It is prized as food. 

Soft-Shell Turtle [Aspidonectes spinifer^ Lesueur). 

Abundant in river and not uncommon in the sloughs. 
Fishermen sell readily those caught in their seines. 

Soft-Shell Turtle {Amyda mutica, Lesueur). 

Common in the river, but less abundant in sloughs than 
the preceding, lieaches a length of 8 to 10 inches. It is used 
as food. 

AMPHIBIANS. 

Amphibians evidently cannot maintain themselves on these 
bottom-lands. They were very rare; and probably the few 
seen had made their .vay in from the higlier land within the 



134 Illinois State Lahoratonj of Natural History. 

levee. A few half-grown leopard frogs (Rana virescens, Kalm) 
were taken in the woods under logs, and at the edge? of sloughs- 
One full grown example was taken at the edge of Claus 
Lake August 10. A single L'. catesbiana, i-^haw, was heard 
within the levee in Bear Creek. The cricket frog ( Acris gryllus, 
LeConte) was frequently seen at the edges of the water, but 
was by no means common. Two young toads about half an 
inch long were taken at the edge of Lily Lake August 7, and 
another example 1.25 inch long was taken August 15 at the 
edge of Willow Slough. The former had probably grown 
from spawn deposited in the water after the late floods. They 
were found on the side of the bottom next the bluff. It may 
be that a few adults succeed in avoiding the current on this 
side and remain here; but they are certainly rare. Not a sin- 
gle tadpole was noticed in any of the bottom-land sloughs and 
lakes; but a few small tadpoles of toads were noted in shallow 
pools of Cedar Creek. All these amphibians were feeding on 
terrestrial insects, — chiefly beetles belonging to the families 
Carabidse, Staphylinida3, and Heteroceridae, together with a 
small fly, and leaf-hoppers of the family Jassidas. One cricket 
frog had eaten a single aquatic larva (the Acilius described be- 
low). There was little difference in the food of the different 
species from any one locality. Along Cedar Creek a small 
black fly, which was common on moist sand, was eaten largely. 

FISHES. 

The fishes taken from the sloughs and lakes of the bot- 
tom-land at (,)uincy, may be placed in three groups: creek 
fishes, pond or slough fishes, and river fishes. To the creek 
fishes belong most of the minnows, the sand darters, and the 
common sucker, — altogether about half as many species as 
there are in each of the two remaining groups. The individ- 
uals belonging here were probably less than one per cent, of 
those taken from the pools. This scarcity was due in some 
measure to the abundance of predaceous fishes in these waters; 
but the species of this group taken were mostly such as are ordin- 
arily found common in small creeks, and were probably only 
stragglers from the great body of individuals which live in 
such streams. Several of the minnows, however, deserve to be 



Animals of the Mississippi Bottoms near Qtiiney. 135 

placed among river fishes as far as fitness for life in the rivei- 
is concerned. Such species as Hybopsis amblops, Notropis 
atherinoides, N. jejunus, and HybognatJms nuchalis^ though oc- 
curring in small streams, generally prove abundant in our 
rivers, and are certainly perfectly at home there. 

I have considered as pond and slough fishes, such as the 
bull pouts, the top minnows, the two pickerels, the two crop- 
pies, the several species of sunfishes, the large-mouthed black 
bass, and the ringed perch. The members of this group were 
commoner in the sloughs than were those of the preceding 
group, but were not as abundant in species or individuals as 
the next. In the lakes and sloughs outside the levee, probably 
these pond fishes did not constitute more than one fifth of the 
individuals taken; but inside the levee they composed one half 
of those taken in all situations. Some of them were evidently 
breeding in these protected waters, and I do not think any 
member of the group was doing so in the sloughs of the lower 
bottom-land. 

The third and largest group includes river fishes, such as 
gars, dogfish, channel cat, morgan cat, shovel fish, buffalo, carp, 
several minnows, the Ohio shad, pike, perch, striped bass, white 
bass, red-spotted sunfish, and the white perch ( Aplodinotus. ) 
These fishes must have constituted in the neighborhood of four 
fifths of the individuals in the sloughs and lakes outside the 
levee. A number of them, notably the hickory shad and the 
red-mouthed buffalo, occurred there in prodigious numbers. 
As a rule, these species became gradually less and less common 
as one went north and away from the river, and accompanying 
this diminution in the numbers of river fishes was a gradual 
increase in the numbers of pond fishes. There was, in fact, an 
overlapping of the two groups in the bottom-land, the river 
fishes being most abundant in the sloughs near the river, and 
the pond fishes, within the levee and to the northward. Still, 
several river fishes were very common inside the levee. Evi- 
dently not all of the river fishes taken in the sloughs breed 
there. Such species as the morgan catfish (Leptops), the 
shovel fish, the minnows, and the red-spotted sunfish {Lepomis 
JinmUis) had probably wandered here from the river during 
high water and had been confined when the water became low- 



136 IlUnoh State Lahoratonj of Natural History. 

er. Most of the remaining river fishes had, I think, been 
spawned on the flooded bottoms.- The abundant young, of 
gars, buffalo, carp, hickory shad, pike ])erch, and white bass in 
the temporary pools are evidence of this. 

Family Sci^nid^. 
SiiKEi'STiEAD, White Perch, {Aplodinotns grunniens, Raf.) 

The young of this fish, varying from 2.50 inches to 4.50 
inches in length, were frequent in most of the sloughs and 
lakes. These are, in all probability, the young of the season. 
If smaller ones existed in the sloughs, they would certainly have 
been captured in the seine used by the Fish Commission (a 
quarter-inch mesh). This species was more abundant inside 
the levee than in the pools on the lower part of the bottom- 
land, and was especially common in inlets along the lower part 
of Bear Creek and in Choose Lake. On a small sand bar in Bear 
Creek, at the mouth of Harkness Slough, more were taken than 
at any other one place. No specimens longer than 4.50 inches 
were taken from the sloughs and pools, so far as I know. In 
the bay and river, large ones were very common; and probably 
half of the fishes taken during August with hook-and-line 
from barges and river banks were of this species. It seems 
quite at home in the swiftest current of the river, and was 
caught with minnow bait from banks upon which the current 
strikes with a force which it would seem no animal could.with- 
stand. The largest example seen would have weighed about 
one pound. The local name for the fish is perch; and it is con- 
sidered one of the best of food fishes. 

Localities: Ballard Slough, Harkness Slough, Bear Creek, 
Goose Lake, (Juincy Bay, Claus Lake, Willow Slough,, Lily 
Lake, Broad Lake, Wood Slough, Mississippi River. 

Family Serranid.t^. 

Striped Bass, Yellow Bass {Morone internijjta, Gill), 

Young were frequent in certain of the sloughs and lakes, 
but were not seen elsewhere. In the northern part of 
Broad Lake and in small isolated pools above it, they were 
quite common. Examples preserved vary from 1.75 inch to 
4.50 inches in length. 



Animals of the Mississippi Bottoms near Quincij. .137 

Localities: Ballard Slough, Harkness Slough, Goose Lake, 
Dead Man's Slough, Claus Lake, Willow Slough, Lily Lake, 
Broad Lake. 

White Bass, Rock Bass (Roccus chrysops, Raf.). 

This fine species was more abundant than the striped bass, 
and ranged in a greater variety of situations. I saw it caught 
from the swiftest current of the river. Only young ranging 
from 2.50 to 5 inches in length were found in the sloughs. It 
was nowhere common except in the upper part of Broad Lake 
and in the pools which had recently been in communication 
with it. 

Localities: Ballard Slough, Bear Creek, Goose Lake, Dead 
Man's Slough, Moss Lake, Willow Slough, Long Lake, Broad 
Lake, Wood Slough. 

Family Percid^. ( Perch. ) 

Sauger, Jack Salmon {Stizostedion canadense, Smith). 

Young frequent in lakes, varying from 3 to 5 inches in 
length. No adults seen. 

Localities: Goose Lake, Claus Lake, Lily Lake, Long 
Lake, Broad Lake. 

Wall-eyed Pike (Stizostedion vitrenni, Mitch.). 

Young frequent in most of the sloughs and lakes ; some- 
times abundant. Ranged from 2.50 inches to 6 inches in 
length. Frequently with large, conspicuous, dusky blotches. 

Localities: Harkness Slough, Goose Lake, Willow Slough, 
Lily Lake, Long Lake, Broad Lake, Wood Slough. 

Common Ringed Perch {Perca flavescens^ Mitch.). 

Young ringed perch were occasionally seen in the bottom- 
land lakes. Those captured ranged from 2.75 to 3 inches in 
length. In Libby Lake, within the levee, these fishes were 
abundant, — a fact which was noted with surprise, as they had 
not hitherto been found common in the State away from the 
northern part. Those taken from this lake differed from 
the northern lake form in being rounder; and also especially in 
color. When taken from the water tliey were almost uniform- 
ly olive green above, with white belly. As they died, faint 



138 Illinois State Lahonitonj of Natural Historij. 

blackish bars gradually appeared. Mr. Bartlett tells me that he 
has transplanted perch to this locality, — a fact which probably 
accounts for the abundance of the fish in Libby Lake. 

Localities: Libby Lake, Dead Man's Slough, Long Lake, 
Broad Lake. 

Sand Darter {Etheostoma jessi(i\ Jor. & Brayt., var. <i><prigcne^ 
Forbes). 

Judging by the number of specimens of this little fish 
taken, it is not common here, although parts of Willow Slough 
are well suited to it. 

Four examples. Willow Slough; one large brightly colored 
example, Broad Lake; one example, Lily Lake. 

Sand Darter {Etheostoma phoxocepJialuin, Nelson). 

Occasional in Wood Slough. Excepting a single example 
from Willow Slough, it was not seen elsewhere. 

Blackis-ded Darter {Etheostoma aspro^ Cope & Jor.). 

One small example approaching E. phoxocephalam in 
colors, was taken in Wood Slough, July 30. 

Log Per(!H {Etheostoma caprodes, Raf. ). 

This was the most abundant darter collected. It was 
quite common in Willow Slough, Long Lake, Broad Lake, and 
Wood Slough. 

Johnny Darter {Etlieostoma nigrum^ Raf.). 

An immature example from Willow Slough was the only 
one seen. 

Family Centrarchid^. (Sunfishes). 
Large-mouthed Black B\s>^{Micropterus salmoides^La,c.). 

The young of this bass were moderately common in all 
the sloughs and creeks. Examples of considerable size" were 
occasionally taken, showing that this species does not neces- 
sarily leave the sloughs after spawning. One example brought 
in by the net must have weighed seven pounds or more. The 
smaller examples, which are of interest as in all probability 
the young of the season, ranged from 2 to 3 inches in length. 
Between these and the larger ones were various intermediate 
sizes representing probably three or four generations. 



Animals of the Mississippi Bottoms near Qaincij. 139 

Localities: Ballard Slough, Harkness Slough, Libby Lake, 
Moss Lake, Dead Man's Slough, Glaus Lake, Willow Slough, 
mouth of Cedar Creek, Lily Lake, Long Lake, Broad Lake. 

Small-mouthed Black Bass {Micropterus dolomieu, Lac). 

A single young specimen 2.12 inches long, was taken 
in Willow Slough August 7. The locality is somewhat un- 
usual for this species. It is certainly not common in the 
water collected from. Mr. Bartlett informs me that it was 
brought here some time ago by the State Fish Commission. 

Common Sunfish {Lepomis pallidus^ Mitch.). 

Rare in the temporary pools, becoming common in the 
deeper water of Long and Broad Lakes; also quite common 
within the levee. The youngest examples taken ranged from 
1 to 1.75 inch in length. Adults in breeding colors were 
caught in Long and Libby Lakes. Females contained ova 
as large as No. 12 shot. An old gentleman who has fished 
here for years tells me that in the days of the earlier settlers 
sunfishes, presumably of this species, were sometimes taken 
that weighed as much as four pounds. 

Localities : Ballard Slough, Harkness Slough, Libby Lake, 
Dead Man's Slough, Moss Lake, Willow Slough, Lily Lake, 
Long Lake, Broad Lake, Mississippi River. 

Red-spotted Sunfish {Lepo^nis hiimilis^ Gir.). 

This handsome little fish was quite common in sloughs 
and lakes, — more abundant than we have found it elsewhere in 
the State. Very few young were seen, and these were nearly 
mature. It is quite hardy, as is shown by the water it fre- 
quents, and may prove a desirable aquarium fish. All the 
adults taken differed from the descriptions of Drs. Jordan and 
Gilbert in having the opercular flap with a wide ivhite margin 
instead of a red one. Immature examples have the opercular 
flap poorly developed and are marked in the sides with numerous 
small black dots, while the red of the adult is largely wanting. 

Localities : Harkness Slough, Goose Lake, Moss Lake, 
Dead Man's Slough, Claus Lake, Willow Slough, Long Lake, 
Broad Lake, Wood Slough, pond at southern limit of Quincy. 
2 



1-40 Illinois State Lahovatonj of Natural Histonj. 

Redeye, Blue Spotted Sunfish {Lepomis ci/anellus, Raf. ). 
Two examples about 3.50 long, taken in Goose Lake, A.ug. 
13, were the only ones seen. 

Warmouth, Red-eyed Bream {Chwnobryttus gulosus, C. & V.). 

A few young, about 1.50 inch long, were taken in most of 
the pools. Frequent in Libby Lake and Harkness Slough. 

Localities : Ballard Slough, Harkness Slough, Libby Lake, 
Dead Man's Slough, Claus Lake, Lily Lake, Long Lake, Wood 
Slough. 

Pale Croppie {Ponioxys annularis^ Raf.). 

The pale croppie was more abundant than we have found 
it elsewhere in the State away from Southern Illinois. This 
fact is one of a number which our fish fauna yields, illustrating 
the influence of the Mississippi River in extending the range 
of southern species northward immediately along its course. 
Young, from 2.25 to 2.75 inches long, were common ; and be- 
tween these and the largest taken (8 inches long) were a 
number of intermediate sizes. The species became a little more 
abundant in the more northern pools. 

Localities : Ballard Slough, Harkness Slough, Goose Lake, 
Libby Lake, Moss Lake, Dead Man's Slough, Claus Lake, Wil- 
low Slough, Lily Lake, Long Lake, Broad Lake, pool at southern 
limit of Quincy. 

Dark Croppie, Calico Bass {Pomoxijs sparoides^ Lac). 

A little more abundant than the preceding species in the 
sloughs and lakes. Especially common in the more northern 
pools, but very generally distributed. Most of those seen were 
young, from 1.50 inch to 2 inches long. No adults were seen 
from pools outside the levee. 

Localities : Ballard Slough, Harkness Slough, Goose Lake, 
Libby Lake, Moss Lake, Claus Lake, Willow Slough, Lily Lake, 
Long Lake, Broad Lake, Wood Slough, pool at southern limit 
of Quincy. 

Family Esocid^. (Pikes.) 

Pike, Pickerel {Esox lucius^'Liww.). 

This species was not seen in most of the bottom-land 
sloughs. Probably more work in the pools and lakes within 



Animals of the Mississippi Bottoms near Quincy. 141 

the levee farther north would have shown it common enough. 
It probably does not often leave its retreats among the vege- 
tation of quiet water for the current of the river. 

From Harkness Slough, example 12 inches long; Libby 
Lake, several examples 8 inches long ; Long Lake, one example ; 
pool south of Quincy, a half dozen small examples. 

Little Pickerel {Esox vermiculatus, Les.). 

Not common apparently. Seen only within the levee and 
in Lily Lake. 

Harkness Slough, one example ; Glaus Lake, occasional 
examples five inches long ; Lily Lake, four small examples. 

Family Atherinid^. 

Labidesthcs siccnlus^ Cope. 

Probably more common in the sloughs than it seemed to 
be, as its slenderness permits it to pass through most seines 
when they are not encumbered with vegetation. The pools are 
exactly suited to it. 

One small example. Long Lake ; four examples, Broad 
Lake. 

Family Cyprinodontid^.. (Top Minnows.) 

Black-sided Top Minnow {Zt/gonectes nofaf us, Ra.t). 

Frequent and generally distributed, but only a few taken 
at any one tinfe. Schools of about a half dozen individuals 
were frequently seen in the bay. 

Localities : Harkness Slough, Quincy Bay, Willow Slough, 
Long Lake. 

Family Clupeid.^]. ( Shad. ) 

Hickory Shad, Gizzard Shad {Dorosoma cepedianum^ Les.). 

The bottom-land sloughs and lakes are pre-eminently the 
spawning ground of this fish. Young of the year, 1.50 to 2 
inches long and still wearing the black shoulder mark, occur 
in countless numbers. IVobably more than half of the in- 
dividuals taken in the Fish Commission seines during the season 
are these young shad. Tlie temporary pools on the lower })art 
of iho bottom-land were crowded with them. They were le*is 
abundant farther back, but were still very common in Libby 



142 .Illinois State Laboratory of Natural llistonj. 

Lake, inside the levee. The adults, on the other hand, were 
usually scarce; but in the pool south of Quincy both young 
and adults were common, — a fact explained by the situation-of 
the pool east of a railroad embankment and at a considerable 
distance from the river. The pool is consequently very early 
isolated, and the adults which make their way in to spawn are 
prevented from escaping. Predaceous fishes confined in the 
sloughs depend very largely on this shad for sustenance. 

Localities: Harkness Slough, Libby Lake, Moss Lake, 
Dead Man's Slough, Claus Lake, Quincy Bay, Long Lake, Broad 
Lake, Wood Slough, pool south of Quincy. 

Ohio Shad {Clnpea chrysochloris^ Raf.). 

Probably not common. The only specimens seen were a 
half dozen young, 2.G2 inches long, from Moss Lake, Long 
Island, Aug. 14. 

Family CypKiNiDiE. (Minnows.) 
Golden Shiner, Beeam {Notemigonus chrysoleucus, Mitcb.). 

Frequent. Abundant in Libby Lake, where examples 5 
inches long were seen. 

Localities: Harkness Slough, Libby Lake, Dead Man's 
Slough, Claus Lake, Long Lake, Wood Slough, pool south of 
Quincy. 

Hybopsis amblops^ Raf. 

Common in Willow Slough and of large size, some examples 
measuring 4.5 inches in extreme length. Elsewhere taken only 
in Broad Lake and Wood Slough, from each of which one or 
two examples were obtained. 

Phenacobius teretulus^ Cope. 

A single example of this variable minnow was taken from 
Broad Lake, August 9. 

Notropis atJierinoides^ Raf. 

Not found common except in Moss Lake and in the' river. 
On the sand bars of the latter it is caught in numbers for bait. 
It was sometimes seen hurrying up stream near the shore 
against the force of the current. 

Localities: Moss Lake, Mississippi River, Broad Lake, 
Long Lake. 



Animals of the Mississippi Bottoms near Qiiincy. 143 

Notropis jejumis, Forbes. 

One example, Long Lake; eight examples, Broad Lake. 
Shiner {Notropis megalops, Raf. ) 

Rare. Two small examples from Willow Slough, the only- 
ones secured. 

Spawn Eater (Xotropis Jiiirhonixs, Clinton). 

Not common. One example each from Goose Lake and 
Long Lake. 

Notropis cayuga^ Meek. 

The above name was assigned some time ago by Prof. Gil- 
bert to numerous examples of a small minnow jn the Illinois 
State Laboratory collection. Mr. Meek's description has not 
been seen, but a comparison of a single example of a fish 
obtained in Long Lake, with the specimens examined by Prof. 
Gilbert, shows this to be the same thing. The species bears a 
superficial resemblance to Notropis heterodnn, but has a short, 
weak mandible, without pigment, and a complete lateral line. 

Cliola vigilax, Baird and Girard. 

Frequent in several of the pools. 

Localities: Willow Slough, Long Lake, Wood Slough. 

Blunt-nosed Minnow {Pimephales notatns^ Raf.). 
Less common than the preceding. 
Long Lake, Wood Slough. 

Silvery Minnow {Hybognathus nuchalis, Ag.). 

This species was common in the river, where with Notropis 
atherinoides^ it was taken in numbers for bait. Throughout 
Cedar Creek, also, it was very abundant, and in the upper part 
of the stream was the only fish seen. In the sloughs and lakes 
it was not common. 

Claus Lake, Willow Slough, Broad Lake, pool south of 
(^uincy, Cedar Creek, Mississippi River. 

German Carp {Cijprinus carpio, Linn.). 

This hardy fish seems destined to become a permanent part 
of our fauna. Examples of good size were taken on a number 
of occasions, showing it to be widely distributed among the 
pools and lakes of the bottom-lands. A single specimen of 



144 Illinois State Lahoratory of Natural Histonj. 

the fully-scaled form was taken from Dead Man's Slough Au- 
gust 18, The food of an example from Broad Lake consisted of 
vegetation and moUusks, the former constituting two thirds of 
the material in the alimentary canal, and consisting- of dead 
leaves and of seeds. The seeds were, as far as could be deter- 
mined in a hasty examination, chiefly those of trees and weeds. 
Elm seeds, ragweed seeds and the seeds of Polygonum were 
noted. The Mollusca were partly thin-shelled clams with an 
occasional Spha^rium, and partly snails, such as Physa and 
Lioplax. All the matter was apparently gathered from the bot- 
tom. No trace of crustacean or insect food could be detected. 
Dead Man's Slough, Broad Lake, Quiucy Bay, and pool 
south of Quincy. 

Family Catostomid^e, (Suckers.) 

Red Horse {Moxostoma aureola, Les.). 

Rare. Seen only on two occasions. 

Moss Lake, five examples 5.50 to 6 inches long ; Wood 
Slough. 

Red Horse (Moxostoma macrolepidotmii, Les., rar. dnquesnei). 

Occasional young 4.50 to 12 inches long were taken. 

Localities : Moss Lake, Willow Slough, Long Lake, Broad 
Lake, Wood Slough. 
Common Sucker {Catostomus teres, Mitch.). 

Rare. Those taken were about six inches long. 

Localities : Moss Lake, Wood Slough, slough south of 
Quincy. 
Carp, River Carp (Ictiobus velifer, Raf.). 

Generally distributed but not very common, and nearly all 
young. Examples from 3.50 to 7 inches long were taken. 
Frequent in the slough at south edge of Quincy. 

Localities : Harkness Slough, Bear Creek, Goose Lake, 
Moss Lake, Willow Slough, Long Lake, Broad Lake, Wood 
Slough, pool south of Quincy. 
Quill-back Buffalo {Ictiobus huhalus, Raf.). 

Not observed in any of the bottom-land pools outside the 
levee, excepting Broad Lake. The young from 3 to 5 inches 
lono- were rather common inside the levee. The only large 



Animals of the Mississippi Bottoms near Qiiincy. 145 

examples seen were taken from the river, where they seemed to 
be moderately common. The young are easily distinguished 
from the young of /. ciipyinella by their small, inferior mouth, 
compressed body, and pale colors, — especially of the pectoral 
and ventral fins. 

Localities : Harkness Slough, Bear Creek, Libby Lake, 
Dead Man's Slough, Glaus Lake, Broad Lake. 

MoNGEEL Buffalo {Ictiohus urns, Ag. ). 

In my field notes I have recorded the young of this fish as 
occurring in the slough at the south edge of Quincy. They 
were not seen elsewhere. Adults were common in the river, 
and were sometimes seen of large size. One was noted August 
6 which weighed twenty and a half pounds. 

Localities : Slough south of Quincy, Mississippi River. 

Red-mouth Buffalo (Ictiohus ci/prinella, C. & V.). 

Young 4 to 5.75 inches long were extremely common 
everywhere in sloughs and lakes. They differ from the young 
of /. hiihalus in having a larger mouth, thicker body, and darker 
colors. The pectoral and ventral fins are blackish, whereas in 
the case of the quill-back buffalo they are pale. Most of the 
large buffalo taken from the river were of this species. 

Localities : Harkness Slough, Bear Creek, Moss Lake, 
Dead Man's Slough, Claus Lake, Willow Slough, Long Lake, 
Broad Lake, Wood Slough, slough south of Quiiicy, Mississippi 
River. 

Family Silukid.^. (Catfishes.). 

Notnrus gyrinns, Mitch. 

Moderately common in sloughs and lakes. 

Localities : Harkness Slough, Dead Man's Slough, Willow 
Lake, Lily Lake, Long Lake, Broad Lake, Wood Slough. 

Morgan Cat, Yellow Cat {Leptops olivaris, Raf.). 

This catfish was rare in sloughs and lakes. A single ex- 
ample 10 inches long from Willow Slough was the only one 
seen from water of this kind. It was abundant in the river, 
where specimens of ten pounds weight were frequently taken ; 
and one was noted August 6 that would probably have weighed 
18 pounds or more. I am informed that young dog-fish are 
used on trot lines as bait for this catfish. 



146 Illinois Slate Luboralonj of Natural Hiatonj. 

Bull-head {Ameiuriis melas^ Raf.). 

The most common of the small catfishes in the sloughs. 
They seem to be gregarious when young and small schools 
were occasionally seen swimming slowly along in an aimless 
fashion in the bay. The examples taken measured from 1.25 
to 2.75 inches in length. Adults were not seen. 

Localities : Claus Lake, Wood Slough, Lily Lake, Long 
Lake, slough south of (^uincy, Quincy Bay. 

Bull Pout {Ameiurus tiebulosus^ Les.). 

Not seen in most of the pools. Frequent and of large size 
in Dead Man's Slough. 

Yellow Catfish {Ameiurus natalis, Les.). 

Not common. Those seen were adults. 

Harkness Slough, one large example ; Moss Lake, several 
large examples ; slough south of (]uincy, a few. 

Willow Cat, Channel Cat, White Fulton {IdalurHS imnc- 

tatns, Kaf.) 

Young 5 to 7 inches long were frequent in some of the 
sloughs and were quite abundant in Bear Creek. No large ex- 
amples were seen in the sloughs, but specimens weighing from 
a half to three quarters of a pound were abundant in the river, 
as was seen by the numbers caught on trot lines. The young 
are called "fiddlers" by fishermen. 

Localities: Bear Creek, Dead Man's Slough, Willow 
Slough, Long Lake, Broad Lake, Wood Slough. 

Family Amiid.e (Dog-Fish.) 
Dogfish {Amia calva, Linn.) 

Young dog-fish were not often seen in the pools outside 
the levee, but inside they were everywhere common. -They 
measured from six to eight inches in length. In Bear Creek 
they were especially abundant, sometimes sporting at the sur- 
face in great numbers. Adults were also taken inside the 
levee. They certainly spawn on flooded bottom-lands in early 
spring; and I can account for their almost total absence from 
the temporary pools only by supposing that the young follow 
the adults into the deeper waters as the bottom-lands become 



Animals of the Mississippi Bottoms near Quincij. 147 

exposed. Young a few inches in length are caught by the 
hundred at times for trot line bait, their desirable quality for 
this purpose being an extreme hardiness when on the hook. 

Localities: Ballard Slough, Harkness Slough, Bear Creek, 
Goose Lake, Dead Man's Slough, Moss Lake, Willow Slough, 
Long Lake, Broad Lake. 

Family Lepidosteid^. (Gars.) 

Short-nosed Gar {Lepidosteus pJatiistomus^ Raf.) 

Young examples from 8 to 12 inches long were very com- 
mon in some of the lakes and sloughs, and were seen frequent- 
ly lurking about barges and fish boats in the bay. No large 
examples were seen. They are quite sportive at times, and 
keep up a constant splashing of the water as a skiff moves 
among them. Hundreds were seen at the south end of Long 
Lake. They were lying just beneath the surface, fanning the 
water with the fins sufficiently to keep the body stationary, and 
when approached would suddenly lash the tail out of water and 
disappear. The young of this gar averaged considerably larger 
than those of the other species and were more uniform in size. 
Eighteen examples taken at random from different situations 
average 9.94 inches in length from tip of snout to tip of caudal 
fin. With two exceptions all. those seen had lost the caudal 
filament, and also, to a great extent, the black blotches of the 
very young. Those which possessed the filament were two of 
the three smallest examples taken, and measured respectively 8 
and 8.50 inches in length. The largest examples seen measur- 
ed 12.50 inches. If these young are from the eggs spawned 
this season, and I believe they are, they indicate a more rapid 
growth, or an earlier spawning time for this species than forL. 
osseus. 

Localities: Harkness Slough, Goose Lake, Dead Man's 
Slough, Glaus Lake, Quincy Bay, mouth of Cedar Creek, Wood 
Slough. 

Long-nosed Gar {Lepidosteus osseus, Linn.) 

The young were more abundant and more generally dis- 
tributed than those of the preceding species. Thirty-eight ex- 
amples give an average length of 8.10 inches. The smallest 
3 



148 Illinois State Lahoratonj of Natural History. 

seen measured 6 inches in length, and the hirgest 12.25 inches. 
This last was the only one taken that had lost the caudal fila- 
ment. The more uniform occurreiice of this gar in bottom- 
land pools of all sorts and its greater abundance there, in addi- 
tion to the smaller average size of the young as compared with 
those of L. plnt)jstonnis^ suggest a later spawning time. If the 
short-nosed gar spawns earlier, its young have more time to es- 
cape from the temporary pools, and we should expect to find 
fewer of them present in August. The matter needs further 
attention, however, as a difference in the relative abundance of 
adults in the river at this point, or some unknown difference 
in spawning habit, may have to do with some of the differ- 
ences we have noted. 

Localities: Harkness Slough, Dead Man's Slough, Moss 
Lake, Claus Lake, Willow Slough, Lily Lake, Long Lake, Broad 
Lake, Wood Slough. 

Famidy Polyodontid^. (Shovel-fish.) 

Shovel-fish {Polyodon spathida^ Walbaum.) 

This fish evidently does not spawn on the overflowed bot- 
tom-land. A single example about 14 inches long from Wood 
Slough was the only one taken. The adults are common in 
the Mississippi River, where they were occasionally seen leap- 
ing above the water. 

Family Petromyzontid^. (Lampreys.) 

Lamprey Eel {Petromyzon castaneus, Gir.) 

A lamprey taken by the men from Wood Slough was prob- 
ably of this species. It was not secured for examination. 

INVERTEBRATES. 

Small animals, such as insects, crustaceans, and mollusks, 
were not as abundant as they commonly prove to be in perma- 
nent bodies of water in other localities. The absence of vege- 
tation and the abundance of their enemies, the fishes, doubtless 
both had to do with this. The condition of these pools, as we 
have seen, is not favorable to a growth of vegetation, and the 



Animals of the Mississippi Bottoms near Quincy. 149 

season was exceptionally unpropitious with respect to this-. 
Those small creatures which did occur in the pools were thus 
deprived of the protection which a rank growth of vegetation 
affords, and could not be expected to maintain themselves 
where every square yard of bottom must have been searched 
each day by hungry fishes. Notwithstanding this condition of 
things, certain species occurred in considerable numbers. Such 
as have the curious habit of remaining motionless in the pres- 
ence of enemies and such as burrow readily in mud, were very 
common in some of the pools. Consequently, when it is said 
that invertebrate animals were not common in these waters, it 
is meant that, as compared with permanent lakes elsewhere, 
there was not here a great diversity of forms represented each 
by an abundance of individuals. 

MOLLUSC A. ( Shell Fish. ) 

The MoUusca were represented in the locality by both 
Gasteropoda and Lamellibranchiata. 

The snails were nearly all of small size, none of those seen 
having shells over 1.25 inches in length. These creatures are 
well suited to a residence in these ponds. Some of them, at 
least, can breathe either in water or in air, and hence can travel 
to other pools if the water dries up. A part of them never 
need to do this, for when the pools dry up, either in winter or 
summer, they resort to the mud and rubbish of the exposed 
bottom, close up their shells, and remain inactive till the water 
comes again. They are ordinarily seen creeping about over 
the bottom, where they feed upon microscopic plants and 
animals or upon decaying organic matter in the form of a 
slimy coat on sticks and mud. If pressed with hunger, they 
have been known to resort to animal food, and in some instan- 
ces devour their own kind. Some of them burrow into the 
mud at the bottom and become torpid in winter, but more active 
species may be seen moving over the bottom under the ice. 
The eggs are laid in spring, attached in masses to sticks and 
dead leaves. The young hatch in two or three weeks, accord- 
ing to temperature. 



150 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

Family Limn^id^. (Pond Snails.) 

Physa ancillaria^ Say. 

* (Say, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., v, 124, 1825.) . 
Common in Long Lake and in Willow Slough. The larg- 
est examples taken measure about .50 inch in length. 

Physa JieterostropJia, Say. 

{Limnea heterostropha, Say, Am. ed. Nich. Enc, pi. i, fig. 
6, 1817, 1818, 1819 [as cited by Binney].) 

This was probably the most common snail in the bottom- 
land pools. It is one of the thin-shelled species, with about 
four whorls, and differs from the preceding in having a longer 
and more tapering spire and a narrower aperture. Otherwise 
they are much alike. This is one of the most active and wide- 
ly distributed of the species taken. It is said sometimes to 
attack and devour insects as large as itself. The eggs are 
deposited, according to Say, in the month of May, but proba- 
bly at intervals during the summer also. Egg masses, which 
in all probability were from this snail, were quite frequently 
found attached to the outside of shells, where they had been 
left by other individuals. The shells were frequently clothed 
with growths of stalked inf usorians. 

Localities: Harkness Slough, Quincy Bay, Willow Slough, 
Cedar Creek, Wood Slough. 

Helisoma trivolvis^ Say. 

(Planorhis trivolvis^ Say, Am. ed. Nich. Enc, pi. ii, fig. 2, 
1817, 1818, 1819.) 

Common in many of the pools. Easily recognized by its 
depressed shell, — the whorls lying nearly in one plane so that 
they can be followed on two sides of the shell. Large examples 
taken, measure five eighths of an inch in diameter. 

Localities: Harkness Slough, Willow Slough, Lily* Lake, 
Long Lake, Wood Slough. 

Family ValvatidtE. 

Valvata tricarinata, Say. 

(Cydostoma tricarinata^ Say, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., i, 
13, 1818.) 



Animals of the Mississippi Bottoms near Quinctj. 151 

This small mollusk was common in many of the pools, but 
was not often brought out in the nets from pools in which it 
was very abundant. The shell is about .20 inch in diameter 
and may be recognized at once among our species by the strong 
ridges on the outside of the shell. It is somewhat depressed 
and the aperture is nearly circular in outline. The food is 
said to be vegetable matter. The eggs of related European 
species are deposited singly. 

Family Viviparid.^;, (River Snails.) 

Vivipara intertexta^ Say. 

(Paludina intertexta, Say, New Harmony Disseminator, ii, 

244, 1829.) 

A common and uniformly distributed snail of rather large 
size. Shell rather stout, with about live strongly convex 
whorls. Adults dull reddish brown in color; young paler, with 
numerous fine revolving striaa on the whorls. The largest 
example taken measures one inch in length, with the largest 
whorl .87 inch in diameter. Inside the aperture may usually 
be seen several large reddish brown revolving bands. The 
young are born alive. 

Localities: Harkness Slough, Willow Slough, Lily Lake, 
Long Lake, Wood Slough. 

Vivipara subpurpiirea, Say. 

( Paludina subpurpurea, New Harmony Disseminator, ii, 

245, 1829.) 

Found only in Lily Lake. It is much like the preceding, 
but has a slightly more tapering shell with the whorls flattened 
next the revolving suture. 
Campeloma decisum^ Say. 

{Limncea decisa, Say, Am. ed. Nich. Enc. 1, 1817.) 
This was the largest and most abundant river snail ob- 
served. It may be distinguished from the two preceding by its 
more slender form, more tapering spire, and less convex whorls. 
The general color is a uniform olive green, more or less stained 
towards the apex with brown. Inside the aperture pure bluish 
white. An example measures 1.37 inches in length, with the 
largest whorl .87 inch in diameter. The young are brought 



152 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

forth alive, and may be found in the ovaries in the fall preced- 
ing the spri)ig during which they are set free. The adults go 
into the mud at the bottom of the ponds and streams to hiber- 
nate. 

Localities: Harkness Slough, (Juincy Bay, Willow Slough, 
Lily Lake, Broad Lake, Wood Slough. 
Lioplax subcarinata, Say. 

{Limnd'a subcarinata, Say, Am. ed. Nich. Enc. 1, 1816.) 
Frequent in Willow Slough. Similar to the preceding, but 
smaller and marked by an obtuse ridge extending along the 
middle of each whorl. One of the largest examples taken is 
just .50 inch in length. Like the other members of the family 
it is viviparous. 

Family RissoiDiE. 

Somatogyrns isogonus^ Say. 

(Melania isogona, Say, New Harmony Disseminator, ii, 
227, i829.) 

Numerous examples from Willow Slough, Aug. 15. 
Amnicola litnosa, Say. 

{Paludina limosa, Say, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., i, 125, 
1817.) 

Dredged in 3-5 feet of water, Willow Slough, Aug. 15. 

The clams are not very different from the river snails in 
their way of living. They may be frequently seen in shallow 
water with the front part of the body buried in the mud and 
the soft, white "foot" thrust out of the shell. If watched in- 
tently under such circumstances they may be observed to move 
slowly forward, leaving a groove in the mud behind them. In 
suitable places in quiet water they may become very abundant, 
forming what are known as clam beds. The food of some of 
'our species consists entirely of microscopic plants and anim-als, 
such as algae and protozoans. Some of the Unios are very 
probably scavengers, if we may decide from the condition of 
food in the stomachs of alcoholic specimens. In winter our 
species probably all go into the mud at the bottom of the 
streams and lakes, and there remain torpid until spring. 

Their interest, viewed either from the standpoint of the 
fish-culturist or from that of the scientist, is very great. As 



Animals of the Mississippi Bottoms near Qidncy. 153 

Prof. Forbes has shown in his papers on the food of fishes, they 
constitute a large item of the food of some of our best fishes. 
The great abundance in which they occur in the water of this 
region must give them a decided influence, as competitors for 
food. 

Of the two families appearing in the Quincy collection, 
the first is represented by small species which commonly pass 
for the young of the true clams (Unionidae) of the second 
family. That they are adult animals is, however, easily shown 
with a magnifying glass, since by its means they may be seen 
in many cases to contain living young of relatively large size. 
The shells of these bivalves are not commonly more than half 
an inch in length. 

Family Corbiculid^. 

Splucriiim solidulum^ Prime. 

{Cyclas solidula, Prime, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., iv, 158, 
1851.) ' 

Common in shallow water in Willow Slough. 
Sphceriuni transversum^ Say. 

(Ci/clas transversa, Say, New Harmony Disseminator, ii, 
346,1829.) 

Frequent in several of the pools. 

Localities: Willow Slough, Long Lake, Broad Lake, Wood 
Slough. 

Family Unionid.^. (River Clams.) 

Anodonta grandis^ Say. 

(Say, New Harmony Disseminator, i, 341, 1840.) 
This large, smooth, thin-shelled clam is common in most 
of the sloughs and lakes. It is probably the species which the 
channel catfish manages to tear from its shell. The shells re- 
cently emptied were sometimes brought out by seines in great 
numbers. Young and adults were seen in the sloughs and 
lakes, one of the former measuring .62 inch in length. A valve 
of a large one, picked up at the edge of Wood Slough, measured 
6.75 inches in length. 

Localities: Lily Lake, Broad Lake, Wood Slough. 



154 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

Anodonta imbecilis^ Say. 

(Say, New Harmony Disseminator, 1829.) 

Young examples about an inch long were very common in 
Wood and Willow Sloughs. The adults were not seen." 

Localities: Willow Slough, Lily Lake, Wood Slough. 

TJnio alatus, Say. 

(Say, Nich. Enc, Am. ed., pi. iv, fig. 2, 1816, 1818, 1819.) 

Taken in Willow Slough and Lily Lake. 
Unio gracilis, Barnes. 

(Barnes, Silliman's Jour., ii, 174, 1823.) 

Taken in Willow Slough. 
Unio Icevissimus, Lea. 

(Lea, Am. Phil. Soc, iii, pi. 13, fig. 23; Obs. on Genus 
Unio, L) 

This is one of the large compressed species with angular 
expansions of the dorsal or hinge portion of the shell. The 
young are especially noticeable because of the large relative 
size of these angular processes, and were very common in por- 
tions of Wood and Willow Sloughs. In Lily Lake, also, they 
were numerous, but were not seen elsewhere. 

Unio parvus, Barnes. 

(Barnes, Silliman's Jour., vi, 174, 1823.) 

Examples of this small clam 1.62 inches long were taken 
in Harkness Slough. It was not observed outside the levee. 

INSECTA. 

Unfortunately, little has been done on aquatic insects by 
entomologists, beyond describing and naming the species, and 
a search through the writings of American and foreign authors 
does not yield much of the particular kind of knowledge of 
which practical fish work stands in need. The food habits and 
transformations especially have been greatly neglected. We 
cannot therefore give such an account of the species collected 
as could be wished, but shall aim to add something to a knowl- 
edge of food habits in certain cases, and to point out, as clearly 
as we can in a brief paper, the forms whose acquaintance the 
economic ichthyologist needs to make. 



Animals of the Mississippi Bottoms near Quincy. 155 

An exhaustive treatment of the group in its relations to 
fish culture would call for an account of every order of the 
class; for while such orders as Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera 
are very largely terrestrial, a glance at Prof. Forbes's most 
recent paper on the food of fishes will show that even bees, 
moths, and lepidopterous larvae are devoured when chance 
brings them within reach. Freshets surprise and carry into 
the current of streams great numbers of terrestrial beetles 
and bugs which live in the earth, under dead leaves and on 
vegetation, and these furnish at such times no inconsiderable 
part of the food of the smaller fishes. 

The common aquatic insects belong to the following 
orders: Diptera, Coleoptera, Trichoptera, Neuroptera, Hemip- 
tera (true bugs), Ephemeridse, Plecoptera, and Odonata. Some 
of these live in the water throughout life; others in the larval 
and pupal stages; still others in the larval and mature stages; 
while a part are aquatic only in the larval condition. The food 
varies greatly with the species and may vary with different 
stages of the same insect. It consists of decaying organic mat- 
ter, or of living plants or animals, while some forms constant- 
ly take a mixed aliment. It is not possible therefore with our 
present knowledge of the subject to calculate the effect of a 
sudden removal of the whole group from its relations to the 
other life of our waters; but considered only as fish food there 
can be no doubt that the effect would be decidedly to the detri- 
ment of fishes. Even those insects that prey upon the eggs 
and young of fishes are themselves in turn devoured by the 
adult fishes, and there seem to be very few indeed of the aquatic 
insects that are not eaten by fishes in greater or smaller num- 
bers. 

Order Diptera.. ( Flies. ) 

Flies of at least nine families are aquatic in the larval 
stage; but the majority of the individuals commonly collected 
in our waters pertain to the families, Simulidffi, Culicida?, Chi- 
ronomidae, and Tabanidae. To the first-named family belong 
the notorious black fly and buffalo gnat. The larva of a very 
similar species (perhaps the san)e as one or the other) is very 
common in winter and early spring under rocks and wood in 



156 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

spring-fed streams in Illinois, but the flies are not known to 
damage stock in this region (central Illinois). The larvae of 
this family are eaten by trout, and occur in the stomachs of 
other smaller fishes. The pupa? live in leathery cases attached 
to the underside of stones and other objects in the water. The 
adult fly emerges under water in the spring of the year. Cedar 
Creek is exactly suited to these insects, and we should expect 
to find them there at the proper season. 

The families Culicidte and Chironoraidas contain the mos- 
quitoes and gnats. The larvae occur in water at all times of 
the year, so that in all probability a succession of broods are 
reared each season. Some species, at least, are found in water 
when cold weather comes in the fall, and doubtless remain in 
the larval condition till the next season. The eggs are placed 
in small masses on the surface of the water, where they float 
till the larvae emerge. The food is believed, commonly, to be 
decaying organic matter, so that the larvae have been thought 
to offset in a measure, as fish-food and as scavengers, the inflic- 
tions of the adults. They are extremely common, and may be 
captured at night in surface nets literally by the pint. 

The family Tabanida3 (the horse flies) contains a number 
of species with aquatic larva3. The eggs, which are elongated, 
smooth and shining, and of a dark color, are deposited in 
masses by the flies on rushes and other aquatic plants in the 
latter part of summer. The larvae live during the winter in 
the water, lurking about under submerged wood or refuse. 
They are carnivorous, and with their strong mouth parts can 
inflict a severe bite. From their strength and activity they 
must destroy great numbers of the smaller aquatic animals. 
One kept by the late B. D. Walsh, fed upon a number of mol- 
lusks, pushing its way into the shells as far as it could, as it 
devoured the owners. Notwithstanding their aggressive ways, 
quantities of them are sometimes taken by the channel catfish 
(Ictaliirus punctatus)^ and they are eaten, at least occasionally, 
by bull pout. 

Family Culicid^.. (Gnats and Mosquitoes.) 
Ciilex sp. 

The adults of one or more mosquitoes were moderately 
common about the sloughs. The larvae were not observed 



Animals of the Mississippi Bottoms near Quincij. 157 

except in one of the more stagnant bodies of water, but were 
probably present in all. These insects pass the winter in the 
winged state, hid away in crannies. The larvae swim head 
downward, and are the "wigglers" of neglected cisterns and rain 
barrels. The food during aquatic life is probably decaying 
oi'ganic matter. 

Corethra sp. 

The larva3 of this genus are small, worm-like creatures, 
those from Quincy about .32 inch long and .028 inch, in diame- 
ter. The body is cylindrical, tapering towards the posterior 
extremity. The head is provided with a perplexing variety of 
structures for the perception and management of food, includ- 
ing eyes, antennge, biting jaws, and a number of other tactile 
and prehensile appendages. In front of the eyes the head re- 
sembles a truncated cone, and at the blunt front extremity is 
attached a pair of antennas consisting each of a long basal seg- 
ment, from the free extremity of which arise from three to five 
long, curved, and tapering rods. Near the posterior end of the 
body is a series of long, plumose filaments. The body is beau- 
tifully transparent in life, and within it may be seen, near each 
extremity, a pair of pigmented, kidney-shaped respiratory sacs. 

The pupae may be distinguished from those of the next 
genus by the presence on each side of the thorax of an odd, 
bladder-like respiratory structure, the two resembling a pair of 
ears. At the posterior end of the body is a pair of large fan- 
shaped fins, by means of which the pupse swim freely in the 
water. The adults are small, weak, obscurely-colored gnats, 
which are not often observed. Two species of Corethra are 
recorded from this country. 

Our larvae resemble those of the European Corethra lilumi- 
cornis, but differ apparently in some details of form, — as in the 
shape of the eyes, and of certain leaf-like tactile appendages in 
front of the mouth. 

The eggs are laid enclosed in a gelatinous material, 
arranged spirally in a single series in disk-shaped masses, and 
float at the surface of the water till the young larvae emerge. 
This occurs abput a week after the eggs are laid, but probably 
the time varies greatly with the temperature. 



158 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

Family Chironomid.e, ( Gnats. ) 

The familiar aquatic larvae of this family belong to the 
genus Chiron omus. Probably no other one genus of insects 
constitutes as important an item in the food of as large a num- 
ber of fishes. They may be recognized by their uniformly 
cylindrical bodies, small heads, enclosed in an opaque crust, and 
with a bilobed foot-like process bearing a dense brush of curved 
bristly hairs extending forward beneath it. At the posterior 
end of the body is a pair of false feet, also characteristic, each 
bearing a circlet of retractile hooks. The head is smaller rela- 
tively than that of the larva of Corethra, but under the micro- 
scope the parts appear almost as complicated. The structures 
present, however, are mainly in the nature of biting organs, 
the parts having to do with perception being here poorly de- 
veloped. Thus the jaws are well developed, the edges of the 
mouth-opening are furnished with numerous teeth and hooks, 
and the labium is a broad plate with strongly toothed edge, 
while, on the other hand, the eyes and antennae are very small. 
All this corresponds with what is known of the food of the 
larvae. Their digestive tube is often filled with a brown granu- 
lar material, consisting, as nearly as can be made out with the 
microscope, of decomposed organic matter containing great 
numbers of bacteria and a good many empty frustules of 
diatoms. In one example was found the fragments of an in- 
sect. The organs for mastication, complicated as they are, 
would hardly be equal to the complete obliteration of the cell- 
structure of plants and animals, were these the aliment upon 
which the larvge depended, and I believe that the material in 
the alimentary canals examined was dead when taken. The 
diatoms were not more frequent than they would be if taken in 
the slimy coating which collects on submerged objects. , The 
insect fragments, which were of rather large size, bore evidence 
of having formed a rejected skin; while the abundance of bac- 
teria among the alimentary contents points also in the same 
direction. 

The larvae are often of a blood-red color. They swim by 
a wriggling movement when in open water, but commonly live 
at the bottom, under stones and rubbish, where they construct 



Animals of the Mississippi Bottoms near Quincy. 159 

galleries of agglutinated sand in which numbers live together. 
They may be found in water at all seasons of the year, even 
under the ice in winter. Quite a number of species are repre- 
sented by the larvae taken at Quincy, and some of the forms 
described below may represent several related species instead 
of one. 

The pupas differ from those of Corethra in having cottony 
tufts or antler-shaped fleshy respiratory appendages on each 
side of the thorax; but some apparently lack these structures. 
Those with the cottony tufts were common in the galleries 
under rocks. The ones with antler-shaped respiratory struc- 
tures were taken at the surface in the bay, and may prove to 
be free-swimming. Several of these latter had the posterior 
part of the body enclosed in the larval skin. 

The winged adults were emerging at the surface of the bay 
August 8. Those captured, nearly all females, were brought 
in by the surface net, and are probably among the smallest of 
the genus, being only about .08 inch long. Color, pale yellow, 
with three large, brown, longitudinal spots on the thorax, the 
middle one placed before the others and continued behind by a 
very narrow median brown line. Segments of abdomen brown 
centrally above; pale at the margins and below. Antennas, 
legs, and balancers, whitish. Wings unmarked. One male 
taken is more distinctly marked, and shows some dusky on the 
legs and ventral side of the thorax, while the plumose antennae 
are decidedly blackish. 

Chironomiis, larva (1). 

Large examples of this larva average about .44 inch in 
length. Head, yellowish brown. Eye-specks, two. Labium 
with strongly arched anterior edge, cut into about six black 
teeth on each side, with a median tricuspid tooth. Posterior 
segments with three pairs of fleshy (respiratory?) appendages; 
the first pair short and club-shaped, attached at the posterior 
edge of the antepenultimate segment, the second and third pairs 
long and contorted, attached the one to the middle and the 
other to the posterior edge of the penultimate segment. The 
four anal papillae rather slender, enlarging a trifle distally. 



160 Illinois State Lahoratonj of Natural History. 

Pupae constantly found in sand galleries with this larva 
have a pair of strong frontal hooks and are provided with 
cottony respiratory tufts on the thorax. Length about .32 
inch. 

These larvtc and pupae were taken in numbers under rocks, 
a short distance within the mouth of Cedar Creek. Young 
short-nosed gars {L. platystonms) had invaded the creek from 
the bay and were busily probing the crannies and feeding on 
the insects. One hundred and eighty-three larvae and forty-two 
pupae were counted in the stomach of a single gar about nine 
inches long. 

Chironomus^ larva (2). 

About equal to (1) in size. Head pale brown, under side 
black. Two eye-specks. Labium with four teeth on each side; 
median tooth shorter than the two next it. Hairs of anterior 
pediform appendage rusty. A single pair of small club-shaped 
(respiratory?) appendages at posterior edge of the penultimate 
segment. Anal papillae conspicuously enlarged distally. Less 
common than (1), but more widely distributed. 

Localities: Willow Slough, Cedar Creek, Broad Lake, 
Wood Slough. 

Chironomus, larva (3). 

Small; the largest of two examples taken, only .24 inch 
long. A single eye-speck. Posterior segments without fleshy 
respiratory appendages. Anal papillae apparently jointed. 

One example each from Willow Slough and Cedar Creek. 

Chironomiis, larva (4). 

A single very large larva, 1.38 inches long, from Ballard 
Slough, seems to differ from all the preceding. Head black 
beneath ; eye-specks two. Labium with a large truncate median 
tooth, with a small tooth each side of it ; outside the latter, 
two other large truncate teeth, — about four teeth, large and 
small, on each side. Posterior segments without fleshy respi- 
ratory appendages. Anal papillae not jointed. 

Chironomus, larva (5). 

A very small pupa (.12 inch long) taken August 7 within 
the mouth of Cedar Creek still retained its larva skin, the 



Animals of the Mississippi Bottoms near Quincij. 161 

labium of which differs from that of all the preceding larva; in- 
lacking the median tooth. Its condition would not permit of 
more extended comparison with the others, and it may prove 
the same as (3). 

Ceratopogon, larva. 

This is an extremely slender, transparent larva, resembling 
a vinegar eel, with eight long hairs radiating from the pos- 
terior body segment. It has been noted by Professor Forbes 
in the stomachs of fishes. 

Common among alg;e in Lily Lake August 15. 

ORDER COLEOPTERA. (Beetles.) 

The aquatic members of this order of insects frequently 
have some or all of their limbs flattened and fringed to fit them 
for rapid locomotion in the water. Others show little in their 
structure that is adaptive to aquatic life, and simply creep 
about under water or cling to submerged vegetation much as a 
terrestrial beetle might. They are all, when adult, obliged to 
come to the surface for air, which they take and hold in 
bubbles by means of antennae, wing-covers, or legs. Some of 
the larva? also come to the surface for air, but others are pro- 
vided with special respiratory structures by means of which 
they are enabled to get oxygen from water. Only the larvae 
and adult beetles are aquatic. The larva quits the water when 
ready to become a pupa, and commonly burrows into the 
neighboring banks, where it excavates a small chamber in which 
it pupates. The adult on emerging returns at once to the 
water. 

Many beetles in both larval and adult stages are very de- 
structive to small aquatic animals of other kinds, and even 
attack fishes of considerable size. Tadpoles many times larger 
than these insects are often devoured. Some eat only the 
dead of other insects, while still others feed largely on vege- 
tation. 

The families containing aquatic species are Amphizoidae, 
HaliplidtL', Dytiscidte, Gyrinidte, Hydrophilidie, Parnidtv and 
DascyllidiB. The great majority of individuals and species 



162 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

commonly taken in water pertain to the Haliplidiu, Dytiscidas, 
Gjrinidae, and Hydrophilidtc. Several other families may ap- 
propriately be considered in connection with aquatic insects 
because of their constant abundance in the moist earth along 
water and on sub-aquatic vegetation. These beetles are un- 
questionably an important source of food to the carnivorous 
aquatic animals, and themselves doubtless attack and devour 
their aquatic neighbors when chance brings these latter ashore. 

Family Carabid.e. (Predaceous Ground Beetles.) 

A few species of Bembidium and Elaphrus were gener- 
ally to be found on sunny days at the edges of sloughs, running 
over the mud. Under the logs in the neighborhood were the 
usual carabids of such situations — Galerita, Chlsenius, and 
Pterostichus — but they were by no means common. The 
seining operations sometimes revealed the presence of certain 
burrowing species, such as Omophron auiericanum^ in the moist 
mud of the shores ; and in the latter part of August a sudden 
rise in the water surprised numerous examples of Clivina and 
Bembidium, which were noted floating on the surface at the 
mercy of predaceous aquatic animals. 

Family Haliplid^. 

The larvae of this family are odd-looking creatures with 
strong spines or long-jointed respiratory appendages on the 
segments, the 9th (last) segment being produced and divided. 
Tarsi with a single claw. The larvse of our two genera may 
be recognized by the following characters : 

Haliplus. — Spiracles present, no branchial filaments. Max- 
illary palpi three-jointed. Clypeus truncate. 

Cnemidotus. — No spiracles, branchial filaments long and 
jointed. Maxillary palpi two-jointed. Clypeus notched. ^ 

Cnemidotus 12-punctatus, Say. 

{Haliplus 12-punctatus^ Say, Trans. Am. Philos. Soc, N. 
Ser., ii, 106, 1825.) 

The beetles were moderately common in Willow Slough, 
where they were brought out by the dredge and dip net. 
Females taken August 15 contained ova with advanced em- 
bryos. 



Animals of the Mississippi Bottoms near Quincy. 163 

Family Dytiscid.^. (Predaceous Water Beetles.) 

The larvae of these beetles are known as water-tigers from 
their rapacious habits. They have smooth bodies and long 
sickle-shaped jaws. In addition to these characters may be 
mentioned, as distinguishing these larvas, the laterally placed 
antennae, the presence of two claws on the tarsus, and the 
apparent absence of the 9th segment of the abdomen. 

Both adults and young lead a predatory life, attacking and 
devouring whatever they can master. They do not hesitate to 
attack animals many times larger than themselves and are very 
destructive in fish ponds to young fishes. They are in turn 
eaten by the larger fishes. They live, in some cases, several 
years. In the fall some of the beetles go into the mud to 
hibernate; others may be seen actively swimming about in mid- 
winter; and a few leave the water to hibernate under rubbish. 
The eggs are laid at intervals, and are scattered. Some, at 
least, of the larvae become pupae in the fall and emerge as adu It 
beetles the following spring. 

Laccophilus maculosus, Germ. 

(Germar, Ins. Spec. Nov., p. 30 [as cited by G. R. Crotch] ; 
Say, Compl. Writ., ii, 514.) 

From Cedar Creek, Aug. 8. Apparently not common. 

Laccophilus fasciatus, Aube. 

(Aube, Species General des Coleopt^res, vi, 423, 1838 ; 
Crotch, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. iv, 400, 1872-73.) 

This small beetle, generally common in our ponds and 
lakes, was seen only in Cedar Creek. 

Bidessus laatstris, Say. 

{Hijdroporus lacustris, Say, Trans. Am. Philos. Soc, N. 
Ser., ii, 103, 1825; Compl. Writ., ii, 517,) 

A minute species taken in Willow Slough and Cedar Creek. 

Hydroporus aulicus^ Aube. 

(Aube, Species General des Coleopteres, vi, 572, 1838 ; 
Crotch, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, iv, 396, 1872-73.) 

Not rare in Wood Slough. 
4 



164 Illinois Stale Laboratory of Natural History. 

Hydroporus vittatijjennis, G. & H. 

(H. lineatus, LeConte, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., vii, 
296, 1885.) 

Common in Willow Slough. 

Hydroporus consimilis, Lee. 

(LeConte, Agassiz's "Lake Superior," 214, 1850.) 

Very abundant in crannies of decaying and submerged 
wood in Willow Slough. 

Hydroporus hybridus^ Aube. 

( A.ube, Species General des Hydrocanthares et Gyriniens, 
573, 1838.) 

Common in Long Lake Aug. 9. Also found in Broad 
Lake and Willow Slough. 

Coptofonms interrogatus.^ Fabr. 

(Dijtiscus interrogatus^ Fabr., Systema Eleutheratorum, i, 
267, 1801; Crotch, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, iv, 413, 1872-73.) 

Very abundant in Willow Slough and common in Long 
Lake and Cedar Creek. 

Acilius, larva. 

This larva is a trifle more than an inch long (1.12 inches), 
with a fusiform body terminating behind in a pair of short 
naked caudal stylets. It agrees very closely with the account 
of a European species {Acilius sulcatus) given by Schiodte. 
The head is rather small, with two contiguous brownish black 
spots on the front, and a median spot of this color midway 
between these and the posterior margin. Sides of head dusky. 
Segments of thorax and abdomen pale olive above, the scutes 
of the abdominal segments narrowly edged with black, under 
parts and legs chiefly white. It differs from the European 
species in the form of the ligula, which is produced, and fur- 
nished at its tip with two strong seta3. 

From Cedar Creek, Aug. 8. 

Thermonectes basilaris, Harr. 

(Harris, N. E. Farmer [as cited by Crotch]; Crotch, Trans. 
Am. Ent. Soc, iv, 402, 1872-73.) 



Animals of the Mississippi Bottoms near Quincij. 165 

About .44 inch long, general color black, with front, sides 
of thorax, and elytra yellowish brown. A line of this color 
also across the middle of the thorax. This was the largest 
beetle of its family taken at Qaincy. It was captured in the 
same locality as the larva preceding, and may prove to be the 
adult, since the genera Acilius and Thermonectes are closely 
allied. 

Locality, Cedar Creek. 

Family Gykinid^. (Whirligig Beetles.) 

These are the shining black beetles so often seen in large 
numbers circling about on the surface of the water. The 
three American genera all have representatives in Illinois. 
They secrete a milky fluid which probably is offensive to fishes, 
since notwithstanding the great numbers in which they occur, 
they are very rarely eaten by other animals. The eggs are 
placed in parallel rows on the leaves of plants in the water. The 
larvie of European species are fully grown at the beginning of 
August, and creep up rushes and spin upon these a papery 
cocoon. The adult beetle emerges from this in about a month 
and returns to the water, where it hibernates in the mud. In 
some cases the cocoon is placed at some distance from the 
water, under the bark of trees. The beetles are said to feed on 
dead insects. The larvas may be known by their long slender 
bodies, the nine abdominal segments of which are furnished at 
each side with long fringed respiratory appendages. Tarsi 
with two claws. Posterior end of body with four curved hooks. 

Gyrinus analis, Say. 

(Say, Trans. Am. Philos.Soc, ii, 108, 1825 ; Compl. Writ., 
ii, 520, 562.) 

A small Gyrinus, which I presume to be this species, was 
seen frequently on the pools in immense swarms, often with a 
few specimens of the larger Dineutes among them. When 
they were dipped up and carried ashore they turned and began 
making their way back to the water with surprising unanimity. 
This evident knowledge of their whereabouts and ability to 
take care of themselves on land was quite in contrast with 



106 Illinois State Lahoratonj of Natural Histonj. 

the behavior, under similar circumstances, of the equally com- 
mon water bugs of the genus Corisa. The latter, when 
brought ashore by the nets, scattered in every direction, and 
few of them ultimately reached the water again. The food 
of those examined consisted entirely of fragments of insects, 
which, judging by the large number of hairs, scales, and frag- 
ments of legs, were from moths which had fallen upon the 
water. Other species of Gyrinus from other parts of the State 
have been found to contain similar matter, from which it seems 
probable that they depend upon food of this character. 

Dineutes assimilis, Aube. 

{Cyclinus assiinilis^ Kirby, Fauna Bor. Am., iv, 78, 1837 ; 
Dineutes assimilis^ Lee, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., xx, 366, 
1868.) 

Two of three specimens examined contained fragments and 
scales of moths ; and the third had eaten fragments of small 
predaceous land beetles and an aquatic worm, — Lumbriculus, 
or of some allied genus. The beetles are the common large 
whirligig beetles of ponds and lakes everywhere in the State. 
They were common in most of the pools at Qaincy, and a few 
were noted sheltered among the branches of a partly sub- 
merged tree that had fallen into the swift current of the Mis- 
sissippi River. 

Gyrinus^ larva. 

A small larva about .25 inch long, from Wood Slough, 
agrees exactly with published accounts of larvae of this genus. 
Only one example was taken, though doubtless they were com- 
mon, judging by the abundance of adult beetles. 

Family H ydrophilid^. 

In the beetle state the food of this family is largel}^ de- 
composing vegetable matter. Occasionally the large species 
attack mollusks or amphibians. The larva3 are carnivorous, 
and, like those of the Djtiscidii', do a good deal of damage in 
fish ponds. They have a single tarsal claw. The labrum is 
wanting. The 8th pair of spiracles is terminal, and the pos- 
terior end of the body is devoid of hooks. Some have fringed 
appendages along the abdomen like those of Gyrinus larvaj. 



Animals of the Mississip]ii Bottoms near Quincy. IGl* 

The eggs are placed by the female in a silken case, sometimes 
attached to leaves or sticks which keep it at the surface, in 
other cases carried about by the beetle. A single case may 
enclose a hundred or more eggs. After hatching, the young 
larvas remain for some time in the case, where they are pro- 
tected from their enemies and insured a supply of air by being 
kept at the surface. A European species, very similar to our 
large black Hydrophilus, becomes fully grown as a larva in one 
hundred days, and leaves the water to burrow in the earth 
for pupation. The beetles hibernate in the mud and under 
rubbish. 

Hydrochiis squamiger, Lee. 

(LeConte, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil, vii, 359, 1855.) 
Found in Willow Slough August 15. Not common. 

Hydrophilus nimhafiis, Say. 

(Say, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil, 203, 1823; Compl Writ., 
ii, 130.) 

This species is evidently a scavenger. The digestive tube 
is long and coiled like that of a tadpole. It is commonly filled 
with a brown matter, largely granular and unrecognizable, 
among which are numerous diatoms, desmids, and fragments of 
filamentous algae. 

Moderately common in Willow Slough and Cedar Creek. 

Berosus pantherinus^ Lee. 

(LeConte, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil, vii, 361, 1855; Horn, 
Proc. Am. Philos. Soc, 1873, 122.) 

A common and widely distributed species. The long in- 
testine is filled with matter like that found in Hydrophilus 
nimbatus, — probably largely decaying vegetable matter. Mixed 
with the granular matter are many diatoms and bits of fila- 
mentous algffi. 

Localities: Harkness Slough, Willow Slough, Cedar Creek, 
Long Lake, Wood Slough. 

Berosus striatus, Say. 

(Hydrophilus striatus^ Say, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil, N. 
Ser., V, 188, 1825; Compl. Writ., ii. 292.) 



168 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

Food like that of the preceding species, the only recogniz- 
able objects in the alimentary canals being in this case dia- 
toms. 

The species is abundant in Cedar Creek, and was found 
also in Ballard Slough. 

Hydrophilida\ larva (1). 

A small larva with depressed and rather stout body, with a 
median brown band on the head and a pair of obscure dusky 
longitudinal stripes on the abdomen above. Pale below. Sides 
of thorax and abdomen tuberculate. The mandibles are unlike 
any others we have seen. They are rather long, sickle-shaped, 
and bear at about the middle of their inner edge a strong tooth 
with bicuspid apex, minute denticles on its anterior edge, and 
one or two small teeth at its base. The largest example taken 
is a trifle more than a half inch long. 

Locality, Cedar Creek. 

Hydro]philida\ larva (2). 

A small larva about .25 inch long, common in Cedar Creek, 
is evidently the young of one of the above species of Berosus. 
The body is widest at the middle and tapers pretty uniformly 
to the extremities. Head small; ocelli superior; clypeus den- 
ticulate. Basal segment of maxilla; unusually long and strong. 
Segments of body coarsely wrinkled, the seven anterior divisions 
of the abdomen, each with a pair of long, naked respiratory 
filaments. Terminal segment nipple-shaped; no caudal append- 
ages. Young examples are transparent in life, but grow more 
opaque when older. 

Family Staphylinidje. (Rove Beetles.) 

Small species of this family of beetles were always com- 
mon in the mud and sand at the edges of sloughs, and many 
were noticed floating and struggling on the surf ace in the latter 
part of August, after the water had risen suddenly. 

Family Parnid^. 

These small beetles creep about or burrow in the mud un- 
der water. From the structure of the jaws they have been 



Anhnals of the Mississippi Bottoms near Quincij. 169 

supposed to be carnivorous. The larvge are greatly flattened 
and live under rocks, sometimes in rapid currents. 

Stenelmis vittipennis^ Zimm. 

(Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, ii, 259, 1869; Horn, ibid, iii, 40, 
1870-71.) 

Taken in Willow and Wood Sloughs. 
Macronijchus glahratus. Say. 

(Say, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., N. Ser., v, 187, 1827; 
Compl. Writ., ii, 292.) 

Wood Slough, Aug. 4. Not common. 

Family Heterocerid^. 

Heterocerus undatns, Mels. 

This is a small brown pubescent beetle about .20 inch long, 
with a few irregular yellow marks on the wing covers. 

It occurred in very great numbers in the earth at the 
edges of the more isolated sloughs, in burrows resembling 
miniature mole hills. When the seines brought the water over 
the burrows the beetles at once appeared and took flight. The 
larvffi also were present in abundance, and were found at times 
exposed on the surface of the water. 

My attention was especially drawn to the curious little 
mud cases which the larva3 construct when ready to pupate, 
and of which I have seen no published description. The cases 
are always made in the moist mud at the immediate edge of the 
water and are carefully detached from the adjacent soil, so that 
each stands in a little hollow. From one side arises a closed 
chimney often equal in height to the basal portion of the case. 
The beetles were emerging from the cases on the 11th of Au- 
gust, always making their way out by creeping up the chimney 
and breaking through its extremity. The beetles were seen 
along most of the sloughs and lakes. The mud cases were 
noted as especially abundant along Long and Broad Lakes and 
llarkness Slough. At the edge of the first-named lake eighteen 
of tlie cases were counted on an area about one foot square. 
The food of both adults and larvae consists of brown granular 



170 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

matter containing numerous diatoms, and of small cells, isolated 
and in chaplets, of what Prof. Burrill thinks is a Conferva, — 
one of the alga3 which grow on moist surfaces. 

ORDER TRICHOPTERA. (Case Flies.) 

Larvae of this group usually construct movable or fixed 
cases with openings at the ends. These cases are sometimes of 
peculiar shape, and of tener attract attention than the winged 
insects. They may be cylindrical, cone-shaped, spiral, like a 
flattened ink bottle, etc., and generally have bits of vegetation, 
or sand, fastened over the outer surface. The adults are small 
obscurely-colored insects, which usually take no food, and after 
depositing their eggs soon die. The eggs, enclosed in a gela- 
tinous material, are placed on aquatic plants, the females, it is 
thought, sometimes descending into the water for this purpose. 
The larvae feed on vegetable matter, such as dead leaves, stems, 
and wood, but sometimes devour also small insects and crusta- 
ceans. Those I have examined are abundant in small streams in 
central Illinois, and make large cj^lindrical cases, to the outside 
of which are fastened, longitudinally, numerous small sticks. 
The alimentary canal of this larva has always been found filled 
with decayed woody vegetable matter. The pupae are formed 
in the cases, which are, if movable, fastened down by the larva 
previous to pupation. 

Trichoptera, larva (1). 

The common case-fly larva at Quincy was a somewhat un- 
usual one as to habits. Most of our species creep slowly about 
on vegetation or on the bottom. This one is a free-swimming 
larva, and one or two were always taken when the surface net 
was drawn over the deepest water of Quincy Bay. It was cap- 
tured on one occasion in the swift current of the river in a net 
drawn after the steamer " Hannibal Eagle." The case is 
trumpet-shaped, gradually decreasing in caliber from the larger 
end (which has a diameter of about .07 inch) to the smaller 
extremity, where the diameter is about .03 inch. The outside 
of the case has scattered bits of dead vegetable matter fastened 
over it, and numerous minute particles of sand. Fastened to 



Animals of the Mississippi Bottoms near Quincij. 171 

one side, sometimes to two sides, is a long rootlet or twig of a 
weed that may project at one or both extremities some distance 
beyond the case. The larva is plain white, with the head 
mottled with yellow and deep brown. Along the sides are 
attached fleshy respiratory filaments. The usual tubercles and 
hooks for adhering to the case are present. It swims by strik- 
ing the water with the very long and heavily fringed hind legs, 
these being projected beyond the large opening for this 
purpose. 

Trichoptera, larva (2). 

A second larva lives in a short, conical case about .25 inch 
long, with a diameter of .125 inch at the larger and of .06 inch 
at the smaller end. The outer surface is thickly covered with 
bits of dead vegetation, but lacks the long pieces which seem 
never to be absent from the other cases. The larva also is short 
and stout, but is not otherwise very different from (1). The 
posterior legs are not so long and slender relatively and the 
fringe is less perfect. This form was taken from the bottom 
in Willow Slough. 

Trichoptera., pupa. 

A pupa of some species of this group was taken in Willow 
Slough sealed up in its cylindrical case of dead vegetable 
materials. At the end towards which the head lay, a narrow 
slit had been left for the passage of water for respiration. 
Judging by the cast larval skin with this pupa, it cannot belong 
to either of the two larvae described. 

ORDER NEUROPTERA. ( Hellgkammites and Lace-wing 

Flies. ) 

This order contains two families, the larva? of which are 
very different in habit. The lace-wing flies are throughout 
life terrestrial, and are well known to gardeners and fruit- 
growers for the good they do by devouring plant-lice. The 
hellgrammites or crawlers are aquatic during the larva stage 
and feed upon other water insects, such as case-fly and May-fly 
larvffi. They are themselves, to some extent, used by sports- 
men as bait in catching fishes, their tough skin rendering them 



172 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural Histortj. 

easily disposed and retained on the hook. They are furnished 
with seven or eight pairs of respiratory filaments along the 
sides of the body for use in the water, and have, besides, 
breathing pores (spiracles), which they use when they leave 
the water to pupate in the earth. The tarsi have two claws. 
The eggs are deposited in large, whitish discoidal masses on the 
leaves of trees and on the sides, of boats and barges. 

Corydalis cornutus^ Linn. (Hellgrammite.) 

(Walsh and Riley, Am. Eut., i, 61, 1868.) 
The larvie and adult of this large insect often attract the 
attention of those who live on our rivers. The species is not 
often seen in the interior of the State. Along the Mississippi 
River it is very common, though its abundance is not commonly 
apparent excepting during the eg£?-laying season. In August 
the wood barges and boats in the bay were resorted to by the 
females, and the masses of eggs were left in numbers upon the 
timbers. 

ORDER HEMIPTERA. (True Bugs.) 

This is one of the most important groups of aquatic 
insects, both on account of the food its members furnish to 
fishes, and also because of the serious injuries which some bugs 
do to fish eggs and fry. The genera Ranatra and Belostoma 
are especially to be remembered as containing some of Dlie worst 
insect enemies to fishes of which we know. Most of them 
begin a predatory life as soon as hatched from the e^o[,, and 
continue it without cessation throughout their existence. The 
common food consists of larva3 of other insects, mollusks, and 
the like. The eggs are generally deposited on aquatic plants, 
sometimes enclosed in gelatinous matter, but in many cases 
quite naked. Corisa sometimes places its eggs on the shelly of 
crayfishes. Eight families of the order have common repre- 
sentatives inthe waters of the State. Of these, five appear in 
the collection made at Quincy. 

Family Hydeobatid^. ( Crazy Bugs. ) 

Limnotrechus marr/inatus, Say. 

[Gerris marginatus, Say, Heteropterous Hemiptera, 1831, 

807.) 



Animals of the Mississippi Bottoms near Qiiincy. 173 

The eggs of this " skipper " are attached to aquatic plants, 
and the young pupa3 resemble the grown insect except for the 
wings and increased size. In winter the adults are found 
under rubbish in the shallow water at the edges of streams. 
The species was common in a number of the sloughs, and was 
noted especially in Harkness Slough, Willow Slough, and Long 
Lake. 

Stephania picta, H. Sch. 

(Uhler, Stand. Nat. Hist., ii, 270.) 

A small brightly colored insect taken only in Wood Slough 
and Long Lake. 

Family Velud^. 

Mesovelia bisignata, Uhler. 

(Uhler, Stand. Nat. Hist., ii, 274.) 

A small greenish yellow insect about .12 inch long, which 
is frequently found on the surface of water. Frequent at 
edges of Willow Slough August 15. 

Family Belostomatid^. 

BenacHS griseus, Say. 

This is one of the large, flat, predaceous bugs that some- 
times become destructive to young fishes. It is reported by 
Mr. C. A. Hart, of this Laboratory, as common at the electric 
lights in Quincy. It was not seen in the water, but this was 
doubtless due to some peculiarity in its habits. For some 
reason it is never brought out in the seines and dredges in parts 
of the State in which the numbers taken at electric lights show 
it to be very common. Our small species of this family {Zaitha 
Jiuminea) often comes out in the seines by dozens. 

Family Nepid^. (Water Scorpigjs'S. ) 

Ranatra A-dentata^ Stdl. 

(Stal, Ofv. af kongl. Yetensk.-Akad. Forhandl, 1861, 204; 
Uhler, Stand. Nat. Hist., ii, 255.) 

This bug is very slow of motion and creeps about on the 
bottom or on plants, depending on its resemblance to a piece of 
dead vegetation for securing the animals upon which it preys, 



174 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

and for avoiding its enemies. It is said to puncture and destroy 
the eggs of fishes. Its own eggs are elongated and are provided 
with two long filaments at one end. 

Family Notonectid.^. (Water Boatmen".) 

Notoneda undulata, Say. 

(Say, Heteropterous Hemiptera, 1831, 39 ; Corapl. Writ., i, 
368.) 

An active, predaceous insect, capable of inflicting a severe 
sting with its beak when handled incautiously. The eggs, 
which are elongated, cylindrical, and white, are attached to 
aquatic plants. The young have been observed to emerge in May. 

Taken in Quincy on Cedar Creek. 

Plea striola, Fieber. 

(Uhler, Stand. Nat. Hist., ii, 253.) 

A minute, brown, hard-bodied species, which is quite com- 
mon in many streams in Illinois. 

Taken only in Willow Slough. Not common. 

Family Coeisid^. 
Corisa signata, Fieber. 

(Fieber, Abhandl. Kon. Bohm. Gesell. Wiss., 1852, 233.) 
This small species was extremely abundant in the tempo- 
rary pools, especially so in Wood Slough, 

Corisa alternata, Say. 

(Say, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., N. Ser., iv, 329, 1825; 
Compl. Writ., ii, 251.) 

This is the commonest Illinois Corisa. It was less abund- 
ant in some of the Quincy pools than the preceding, but was 
more widely distributed. Noted especially in Cedar Creek and 
Long Lake. The eggs are oval and have a small prominence at 
the free extremity. They are attached generally to plants. 

ORDER ORTHOPTERA. (Crickets and Grasshoppers.) 

This is a strictly terrestrial group, and calls for mention 
here only because of the constant presence, on the banks of 
streams and pools, of species belonging to it, which doubtless 



Animals of the Mississippi Bottoms near Quincij. 175 

have au effect as fish food, aud otherwise on aquatic life. At 
Quincy, a small cricket {Tridactylus apicalis) occurred in 
myriads among weeds which were springing up from the mud 
at the edges of sloughs, and individuals were sometimes found 
upon the water. 

ORDER PLECOPTERA. 

Small insects, which, as nymphs, live under rocks and 
boards, often in swift-flowing water. The pupa takes food, 
and after attaining its growth leaves the water, aud transforms 
to the winged adult. In a number of points they are allied to 
the grasshoppers. 

Plecoptera, nymph. 

A flat nymph found in Willow Slough. It is about .52 
inch long and bears at the end of the abdomen two long, jointed 
appendages. The antennte are long and slender, the mouth 
parts much like those of a grasshopper or cockroach. Head 
very wide, and with a pair of compound and three simple eyes. 
Three divisions of the thorax large, with expanded terga, and 
bearing at each side cottony respiratory tufts. Legs with strong 
femora and three-jointed tarsi. 

They were not common at Quincy, probably because the 
waters do not furnish them suitable shelter. 

ORDER ODONATA. (Dragon Flies, Snake Feeders.) 

These are predaceous when adult, feeding upon gnats, 
mosquitoes, flies, etc., which they capture while flitting rapidly 
about. Dragon fly larvaj and pupaj have the reputation of 
preying upon other insects, and as a rule this will probably be 
found true; but an examination of several larvie shows them to 
be in some cases largely vegetable feeders and possibly scaven- 
gers, the alimentary canal containing numbers of desmids, dia- 
toms, fragments of moulds, and a good deal of material (prob- 
ably slime) gathered from the bottom for the small organisms 
and the organic matter contained in it. The eggs are dropped 
into the water as the females fly over it, or may be attached to 
submerged plants. Members of one genus are said to go be- 



176 Illinois State Lahoratory of Natural History. 

neath the surface and insert the eo;gs in the steins of plants. 
The young are common objects in the stomachs of fishes. The 
adults were not common about the pools in which the Fish 
Commission work was done. An occasional large species with 
clear wings was seen, and a small, slender-bodied form was 
noted as common about Lily, Long, and Broad Lakes. These 
were the only winged dragon flies seen. In the water, on the 
contrary, the immature stages of a number of species were 
common. These latter fall into four groups, which, for the 
purposes of this paper may be chacterized as follows : 

Antennae filiform, of seven articles. Legs slender, not 
suited to digging. Abdomen long, cylindrical, terminating in 
three large, flat, leaf-shaped respiratory appendages. Includes 
numbers 2 and 3 Agrionina. 

Antennae stout, of four articles, the distal one rudimentary. 
Legs stout, suited to digging; tarsi of two anterior legs of two 
articles; tarsi of posterior legs of three articles. Labium not 
cleft. Includes numbers 4, 5, and 6 Gromphina. 

Antennas filiform, of six or seven articles. Legs slender; 
all the tarsi of three articles. Labium with a narrow median 
cleft. Labial palpi not expanded and spoon-shaped. Includes 
only numbers 7 and 8 iEschnina. 

Antennae filiform, of seven articles. Legs slender. Labium 
not cleft. Labial palpi expanded and spoon-shaped, meeting 
along the middle line. Includes number 9-12. .. .Libellulina. 

1. Agrion ranihurii, Selys. • 

(Hagen, Syn. Neur. N. A., 1861, 76.) 

A small dragon fly with narrow transparent wings and 
slender body, with several of the hind divisions of the abdo- 
men blue. Possibly the adult of one of the two following. 

Common on the vegetation about Lily, Long, and Broad 
Lakes. 

2, Agrionina, nymph. 

A larva about .72 inch long; common in Long Lake. 
Chiefly brownish black. A pale, transverse band between the 
eyes, and a ring of minute, pale dashes at the hind margin of 



Animals of the Mississippi Bottoms near Quincy. 177 

each abdominal segment. Legs chiefly white, a dusky band 
near the tip of each femur. Caudal respiratory appendages 
marked with broad, dusky cross bands ; with a small spine at 
the apex of each, and with basal portion of edges spinose. 

3. Agrionina, nymph. 

A short larva, less than .25 inch long, with banded legs 
and antennae, and a median dorsal pale line extending from head 
to end of abdomen. Possibly the young of the preceding, but 
I think not. 

From Wood Slough, August 6. 

4. Gomphus, nymph. 

The larger examples of these young from Qaincy are 1.10 
inches long. The abdomen is greatly depressed, but is quite 
uniformly, though slightly, convex above. Palpus of labium 
with inner edge toothed to the base, distal tooth not longer 
than the others. Front edge of labium without median tooth. 
The wing-pads do not quite reach the hind margin of the 
second abdominal segment. This agrees with Dr. Hagen's No. 
12 in his " Monograph of the Early Stages of Odonata." 
Common. 

Localities : Quincy Bay, Willow Slough, Lily Lake, Broad 
Lake, Long Lake. 

5. Gomphus pillidus^ Ramb., nymph. 

Dr. Hagen gives as the important characters of the young 
of this species, the presence of a median tooth on the front 
edge of the labium, the presence of teeth along the whole 
inner edge of the labial palpus, a median dorsal spine on the 
hind edge of the 9th abdominal segment, and the presence of 
lateral spines on abdominal segments 7-9. It may be distin- 
guished from the two species here noted by the presence along 
the middle of the abdomen, above, of an obtuse ridge. Very 
common in some of the sloughs, and of large size, several meas- 
uring 1.20 inches in length. All those taken in August were 
apparently about ready to yield the winged form. Young of 
this species were taken in Cedar Lake in October, 1882. From 
the two observations it seems probable that tlie adults emerge 



178 Illinois State Laboratory of XaturalHistory. 

in the latter part of summer, and that the young hatching 
from their eggs hibernate in the mud. 
From Harkness and Ballard Sloughs. 

6. Gomphus notatus^ Rarab., nymph. 

These young are like the two preceding in general appear- 
ance, but lack the median tooth of the labium of number 4 and 
the dorsal ridge of number 5. They differ from both of the 
preceding in having only about three blunt teeth on the inner 
edge of the labial palpi. The commonest Gomphus at Quincy. 
Of various sizes, some apparently ready to yield adults. 

This is the Gomphus fluvial is of Mr. Walsh. Of the adult 
dragon fly, Mr. W. says that it flies constantly over water, and 
he thinks feeds exclusively on aquatic insects. It does not, as 
he supposed, breed exclusively in running water. Common. 

Localities : Willow Slough, Lily Lake, Broad Lake, Wood 
Slough. 

7. Anax Junius^ Drury. 

The adult is one of our largest and commonest dragon 
flies. Its general color is obscure green, with some blue and 
black markings. Wings clear, with a yellow wash. The 
young are to be distinguished from all others taken at Quincy 
by the characters given at the beginning of this group. The 
very young are marked with wide transverse alternating bands 
of black and white. 

Taken only in Long Lake, although the adults were seen 
now and then about several of the sloughs. 

8. Epiceschna heros, (Fabr.) Hagen. 

Two small nymphs, the largest one about .72 inch long, 
were taken in Wood Slough August 6. They were found 
clinging to dead sticks, depending apparently on their dark, 
obscure colors for immunity from enemies. They agree in the 
main with Mr. Cabot's description of the young uf this species. 
The antennae are of six articles, the distal one being longest. 
The labium is cleft, but lacks the tooth at each side. There 
are lateral spines on the abdominal segments 5-9, and most of 
the segments have a median dorsal ridge terminating in a tooth 
behind. 



'Animals of the Mississippi Bottoms near Qiiincy. 179 

9. Libellulina, nymph. 

A stout-bodied, pale brown nymph with scattered specks 
and spots of brown. Legs annulate with brown. Segments 8 
and 9 of the abdomen with large lateral spines ; no dorsal 
hooks or tubercles. The digestive tubes of several examples 
contained a good many microscopic plants and animals, 
together with a brown granular matter which I think had been 
gathered from the bottom. Extremely common in the upper 
part of Cedar Creek ; the only young of this group taken there. 

10. Libellulina, nymph. 

With a general resemblance to number 9, but rougher and 
the markings very obscure. A pair of tubercles between the 
eyes. A series of erect cultriform hooks on the middle of the 
abdomen, above. From the alimentary canal of one specimen 
a small mite was taken. Others examined did not contain 
food. Common and widely distributed. 

Localities : Harkness Slough, Ballard Slough, Willow 
Slough, Lily Lake, Long Lake, Broad Lake. 

11. Libellulina^ nymph. 

Much like 10, but with smoother body, and lacks the 
cephalic tubercles. A distinct dusky bar between the eyes. 
Legs annulate with dusky. Dorsal spines not cultriform, and 
not elevated behind. Not as common as the two preceding. 

Localities: Lily Lake, Long Lake. 

12. Libellulina, nymph. 

Similar to number 10, and possibly the young of the same 
species. Tubercles of head relatively much larger. Dorsal 
spines tuberculiform, erect. Body more slender, nearly uni- 
form blackish brown. 

Two small examples from Willow Slough. 

ORDER EPHEMERID^. (Mat Flies.) 

The adults of certain species of this group are familiar to 
any one who has visited our rivers in July. They blacken the 
willows at the water's edge and cause the limbs to droop, in 
5 



180 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

such quantities do they collect upon them. In the evening, at 
times, they mount into the air, and may be seen in countless 
numbers moving for hours in one direction as if bent on migra- 
tion. They are excellent food for fishes, as is attested by the 
avidity with which many of our fishes eat them, and were used 
as bait by sportsmen in the days of Isaac Walton. The winged 
insect takes no food, and lives only for procreation, but may, 
in confinement, live a week or more. The eggs are dropped 
into the water or are placed upon plants, the flies descending 
into the water for this purpose. The larvas (nymphs) devour 
earth and sand containing dead and living animal and vegeta- 
ble matter. 

Hexagenia bilineata, Say. 

This is the common brown May fly of Illinois rivers and 
lakes. It occurs throughout the length of the State, and often 
in such multitudes as to have acquired the name " mormon fly." 
It is commonly very abundant in the middle of July. In Au- 
gust, at Quincy, it was rare. 

Hexagenia^ nymph. 

An elongated, whitish creature,^to be distinguished from 
most other aquatic insects by the presence of seven pairs of 
branchiffi, six of them plumose, attached along the sides of the 
abdomen and carried turned over the back. Jaws long and 
curved; front with an obtuse tubercle. Compound eyes, round, 
black; legs strong, suited to digging; abdomen terminating in 
three plumose stylets. Length of largest example taken at 
Quincy 1.20 inches. The food consists of earth richly charged 
with dead organic matter and with unicellular plants and ani- 
mals. Such protozoans as Euglena are quite common in it. A 
large part of the contents of the digestive tube is sand, which 
seems to be taken incidentally. This is, in all probability, the 
young of H. bilineata. 

It was common in Broad Lake; but elsewhere it was not 
often taken. 

Localities: Willow Slough, Lily Lake, Long Lake, Broad 
Lake, Wood Slough. 



Animals of the Mississippi Bottoms near Quincy. 181 

Ownis^ nymph (1). 

A small brown form with three long, fringed caudal ap- 
pendages, and with the respiratory appendages on segments 
1-5 of the abdomen; those on segments 3-5 concealed by the 
plate-like pair of the second abdominal segment. First respira- 
tory appendages small, erect, not concealed. Head without 
conical tubercles. Antennae, legs, and caudal appendages white, 
with brown annuli. 

A few examples were taken in Willow and Wood Sloughs. 

Ccenis, nymph (2). 

A second small nymph, from Willow Slough, has three 
prominent conical tubercles on the head which agree very 
closely with those of the European species C. luctuosa, as 
figured in Mr. Eaton's monograph of this group of insects. 
Our insect differs in having the prothorax narrowed towards 
the front; and in certain other characters does not quite agree 
with Mr. Eaton's description of the genus. 

ARACHNIDA. (Spiders and Mites.) 

Tetragnatha grallator^ Hentz. 

(Hentz, Bost. Jour. Nat. Hist,, vi, 26, PI. iv, figs. 1 and 2.) 
A small, slender-bodied, long-legged spider, large examples 
of which are .50 inch in length. Extremely common about 
the sloughs and lakes, ofteu living over the water, exposed on 
dead stems and branches. It was sometimes brought in by the 
small seines in situations such that it seemed it must have been 
in the water. Its food probably consists of small gnats. 

Arrenurus sp. 

A pale water mite with long ciliated legs was frequently 
taken by surface nets in the deep water of the bay. It is, I 
believe, a river species. 

VERMES. (Worms.) 

This group is not of the same importance to fish culture 
as are the crustaceans and insects — unless it be as parasites— 
and we shall not give those observed at Quincy more than a 
passing notice. 



182 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

One of the most interesting of those noticed is a small cy- 
lindrical worm with a retractile caudal disc from which arise 
four ciliated tentacles. It lives in great numbers in tubes on 
the under side of lily pads in Lily Lake, and when undisturbed 
lies with the hind end of the body out of the tube and, with 
the disc and tentacles expanded, sways slowly about. It will 
probably prove to be Dero intermedins, Cragin, though it is 
questionable if this is more than a variety of D. digitata, Mull. 

Leeches which I have provisionally separated as five species 
were taken from the sloughs. All appear to belong to the 
genus Clepsine. Several of them were very common, being 
brought in on the shells of turtles, and at other times appar- 
ently attached to fishes. 

Quite a variety of rotifers were observed, but none of 
special interest except the large and beautiful Conochiliis volvox, 
colonies of which, consisting of a dozen or more individuals, 
were common in the open water of the bay, where they could 
always be taken in surface nets drawn after a skiff. 

Flumatella aretJiusa, Hyatt. 

(Hyatt, Observations on Polyzoa, 95.) 

One of the branching poly zoans was very common in most 
of the pools, sometimes on sticks, on the under side of stones, 
and, in Lily Lake, on the under side of the lily pads. The 
statoblasts were frequently noticed scattered among algffi and 
rubbish. 

Hyalinella vesicularis^ Leidy. 

{Plumatella vesicularis, Leidy, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 
vii, 192.) 

A single example of a small colony from Libby Lake, is re- 
ferred to this species with some doubt. 

Pectinatella magnifica, Leidy. 

{Cristatella magnifica^ Leidy, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 
V, 265.) 

The large masses of gelatinous matter so common in "back 
water" in this region, are formed by the colonies of this poly- 



Animals of the Mississippi Bottoms near Quincij. 183 

zoan. The animals themselves are on the outside of the 
masses and constitute but a small part of the bulk of each 
mass. In the upper part of the bay, in the inlets and mouths 
of sloughs, this animal was very abundant. As the veater sub- 
sided the masses were often exposed, and were left in numbers 
to decompose in the air. One of the largest masses seen 
measured 16.50 inches in greater diameter by 12.50 inches in 
lesser diameter, with an average depth of about six inches. 
Small spindle-shaped colonies were common on the stems of 
dead weeds along the margins of the lakes. The shape of the 
colony seems to depend entirely on the character ofthe object 
upon which it is established. I could not see that fishes, or 
indeed anything else, fed upon the gelatinous material. Repro- 
duction both by statoblasts and by eggs was in progress in 
August. 

CCELENTERATA. 

Hydra fiisca^ Trembley. 

These small animals are the closest allies of the corals and 
sea anemones of salt water, which our streams and lakes furnish. 
They are, when extended, about .25 inch long, and consist of a 
tubular body with a circle of tentacles about the one opening, 
the mouth. They are commonly found attached by the end 
opposite the mouth to plants and other submerged objects. I 
was surprised to find them on one occasion in Wood Slough in 
considerable numbers, and took others with the surface net in 
the bay, where they must have been floating at the surface. 
Those taken in Wood Slough, Aug. 4, were multiplying very 
rapidly by budding. The food consists of small animals which 
are captured by the tentacles. 

PROTOZOA. 

Notwithstanding their minuteness, the protozoa are of 
considerable importance as fish food, and are probably still 
more useful indirectly, since they constitute a large share of 
the food of insects. 

At Quincy the animals of this group varied with the veg- 
etation in the water. Where the plants were common, a variety 



184 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

of species and aa abundance of individuals might be expected. 
In the river they were very rare. In the deeper water of the 
bay they were not as common as at its edges, among the wood 
rafts and the barges. They were most common in the stagnant 
water of the lakes. Such genera as Amoeba, Difflugia, Cen- 
tropyxis, Actinosphseriura, Vorticella, and Euglena were 
abundantly represented. In Lily Lake a species of Pyxicola 
attracted attention from its abundance. It was noticed in the 
alimentary canal of the singular Dero mentioned above. 

Two protozoans are especially deserving of mention here. 
The elongated green Euglena viridis was always to be found 
in water dipped up at any place in the bay. When the wind 
blew toward the west shore for a number of hours together a 
dense coherent green scum was observed to collect in the inlets 
and mouths of sloughs, and under the microscope this was 
found to consist largely of the contracted, spherical Euglenae. 
When placed under the cover glass of the slide they soon be- 
come active again. Fishes and other animals could, and prob- 
ably do, at such times collect them in quantities for food. The 
second protozoan is Arcella discoides, which occurred in num- 
bers with the Euglenae. 



Article X. — Notes on Illinois Reptiles and Amphibians, includ- 
ing several Species not before recorded Jrom the Northern 
States. By H. Garman. 

Emys meleagris, Shaw. 

This fine turtle was as late as 1870 rather common about 
water on the prairies of central Illinois. It is now very rare, 
only one example having been taken by me in the past six 
years. 
Chrysemijs belli^ Gray. 

Very common in the sloughs of the bottom-land at Quincy. 
It has not been taken elsewhere in the State. Closely related 
to C. marginata, but I have not seen in many hundred painted 
turtles examined during eight years' collecting, an intermediate 
example. The species is not included in Dr. Jordan's Manual 
of Vertebrates of the Northern United States. 

Chrysenn/s marginata, Ag. 

Very abundant in ponds and lakes throughout Illinois. It 
is much like G. belli, but may be distinguished by the different 
markings of the plastron. It has probably been mistaken for 
the eastern C. picta, a species which has been recorded from 
Illinois, but which I am inclined to believe does not occur in 
the State. 
Pseudemys troosti, Holbr. 

Not common anywhere within our limits. Three fine ex- 
amples taken by the writer from a pool on an island in the 
Mississippi River at Quincy are the only ones in the State Lab- 
oratory collection. It occurs also in the lower Wabash region. 
Pseudemys concinna, LeC. 

This is a southern terrapin closely related to the edible P. 
rugosa. A fine large example was sent me some years ago 
from Mt. Carmel, HI., where it was captured by my friend, Dr. 
J. Schenck. Several others have been observed in the same 
locality. The extralimital distribution of the species includes 
all the States from North Carolina to Texas. It occurs also, 
according to Prof. Louis Agassiz, in Arkansas and Missouri 



186 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

The Illinois example, a large, finely-developed one, is abnormal 
in the possession o£ a pair of symmetrical supernumerary mar- 
ginal plates, one on each side of the nuchal plate, making 
thirteen for each side and twenty-six in all. The serrated 
mandible will distinguish the species from the P. hierogJyphica, 
which also occurs at Mt. Carmel. 

Not mentioned in Dr. Jordan's Manual of Vertebrates. 

Malacoclemmys lesueuri. Gray. 

Very abundant in all our rivers, where it is known as the 
mud turtle. The head of this turtle is rather small, and the 
jaws are narrow compared with those of the next species. It may 
always be distinguished from M. geographicus by a comma- 
shaped yellow spot behind each eye. In some examples these 
may be isolated, but in that case their transverse position is 
characteristic. There is no tympanal stripe like that of the next 
species. The dorsal plates are sometimes said to be imbricated, 
but this is hardly exact, since the sutures between the plates are 
always visible. The food of examples taken from bottom-land 
pools at Quincy in 1888, consisted largely of the bulbs of a 
sedge which Prof. T. J. Burrill thinks is Cyperns phymatodes. 
Occasional remains of mollusks and crayfish were also noted 
in stomachs. 

Malacoclemmys geographicus., LeS. 

Equally common with the preceding and frequenting the 
same waters. Very different from M. lesueuri when adult, and 
easily distinguished at all stages. The head of fully grown 
examples is as large as that of snapping turtles of the same 
size. The alveolar surfaces of the jaws are greatly expanded, 
those of the upper jaw forming elevated tables into which the 
palatine bones enter largely, and which have sharp inner mar- 
gins which almost meet at the middle line. The characteristic 
marks are a spot of greenish yellow behind each eye, which is 
isolated and directed longitudinally, and a stripe of the same 
color which originates on the tympanum and extends down- 
wards, then backwards, upon the neck. The great expansion of 
the jaws is related to the food habits. An examination of 
numerous stomachs shows it to feed upon mollusks. 



Illinois Reptiles and Amphibians. 187 

Ophisauras ventralis, Linn. 

Formerly common on the prairies of the central part of 
the State, but now being rapidly exterminated there by the close 
grazing and cultivation of the land. Still rather common in 
southern Illinois. 

Oligosoma laferale.. Say. 

Occasional in Southern Illinois, 

Agh'strodon piscivorifs, Holbr. 

Extremely common in bottom-land pools along the Missis- 
sippi River in southern Illinois. 

Coluber constrictor, Bd. & Gir. 

The prairie form of this species is of a dull slate-color above, 
becoming blue on the sides and belly. It is known everywhere 
as the blue racer. In southern Illinois the more slender black 
variety is common. The " black snake " of the prairie regions 
is very frequently a different species, — the Elaphis obsoletus. 

Eiitamia radix., Bd. & Gir. 

In the latest edition of his Manual of the Vertebrate Ani- 
mals of the Northern U. S., etc., Prof. Jordan gives the distri- 
bution of this serpent as "Wis. to Oregon." It is certainly 
very common in the central part of Illinois, as far south as 
Champaign county. I have not seen it in Kentucky. 

Tropidoclonium Uneata, Hallowell. 

This is the type of Hallo well's genus Microps (preoccupied) 
and of Cope's genus Tropidoclonium. The anal plate is entire, 
while in Begina kirtlcoidi, a species often placed in the genus 
Tropidoclonium, it is divided. Three examples were taken at 
Urbana, Illinois, in April, 1889. The largest of these meas- 
ured 13^ inches in length, and was thus considerably larger 
than the example from which the original description was 
drawn. The three examples from Illinois differ from Hallo- 
well's type in that the eye is above the third supralabial plate, 
not above the third and fourth. 

Head small, not marked off from the body. Eye very small. 
One nasal plate, grooved below the nostril. Loreal present. 
One anteorbital; two postorbitals; two small internasals; two 
prefrontals. Frontal longer than broad, sides nearly par- 



188 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural Historij. 

allel. Six suprHliiliials (seven on one side in one of the exam- 
ples), third and fourth largest, eye above the third, the fifth 
crowded away from the margin. Dorsal scales in nineteen 
rows, three outer rows with scales smooth and shining, first 
row with no carinas;, second row with very faint carina?. Ven- 
trals 138-150. Subcaudals 26-34 pairs, the first number being 
from an example in which the tail was probably imperfect. 

Color above dark brown, with a gray stripe one and two half 
scales wide extending from occiput to tip of tail. Three outer 
rows of scales gray, each scale of the first row with a black 
spot at base. Head olive brown above; supralabials gray. Be- 
neath ranging from whitish in small examples to gray in the 
largest one. Each ventral plate of the largest example with a 
transverse black spot in the middle of its base, each spot after 
the first ten or so, notched behind at its middle. Towards the 
vent the notches grow deeper, and a short distance before, it, 
separate the spots into two. In the smaller examples these 
spots are all divided. Subcaudals, each with a black basal spot 
in the largest example; wanting in the smaller ones. 

This is not the first record of the occurrence of this serpent 
north of the Ohio River. In Dr. Yarrow's list of the reptiles 
and batrachians in the United States National Museum, I find 
"Hughes, Ohio," given as the locality for an example. It 
bears a superficial resemblance to species of Storeria. 

Not mentioned in Dr. Jordan's Manual of Vertebrates. 

Hijdrops ahacurm^. Gray. 

A fine example of this beautiful serpent is in the State 
Laboratory collection from Union county. •' 

Bana palustris, LeC. 

The only examples which I have seen from the State were 
collected by me some years ago in the western part of Union 
county, in southern Illinois. They differed from all the east- 
ern examples I have examined, in having the two central longi- 
tudinal rows of spots completely fused in two broad stripes. 
The species does not occur on the prairies. 

Bona pipims, Schreber. 

This is the B. virescens and B. halecina of authors. The 
prairie variety is of a decided green above, with large spots 



Illinois Reptiles and Amphibians. 189 

encircled with white. The vocal sacs are very small, and no 
evidence of their presence is visible from without. The note is 
a low gutteral croak quite unlike that of the eastern variety, as 
described by Prof. E. D, Cope (Standard Natural History). In 
southern Illinois and along the Mississippi River is a variety 
generally of a coppery color with small spots, the anterior of 
the three, so conspicuous on the head of the prairie variety, 
being generally wanting, 

Hyla ciiierea, Schn. 

An example of this beautiful tree-frog was taken from lily 
pads at the edge of Bluff Lake, Union county, Illinois, some 
years ago. Judging by the frequency with which the peculiar 
bell-like note was heard at the time, the species is common in 
the locality. The single example taken conforms more closely 
with the variety scDi/fasciafa than with the type forms of the 
species. It differs from the latter in its greater size, and in 
that the lateral pale stripe terminates on the middle of the side. 

It is not mentioned in Dr. Jordan's Manual. 

Chorophilus triseriatus, Wied. 

This is the characteristic prairie "tree-frog." It is always 
found upon the ground or in the water, and never, as far as I 
have observed, mounts upon vegetation. It occurs in very great 
abundance in ponds and ditches in early spring, being the first 
of the ecaudate forms to appear. The most nearly musical of 
all our amphibians, 

Bufo lenticiinosiis, Shaw, 

Two very different varieties of this species occur in Illinois, 
On the prairies is found a large sluggish toad which gathers 
in great numbers in the ponds after the salamanders and 
tree-frogs are gone. Its skin is extremely warty, and the 
ventral surface is mottled with black, often so closely as to 
give the prevailing color. Its note is a high prolonged trill. 

In the south part of the State is a more active toad with a 
smoother skin and white ventral surface, with at most a black 
spot on the chest. The note of this variety is a singular squawk 
which it is hardly possible to represent in words. This variety is 
the only toad which occurs in Kentucky. I have seen no inter- 
gradation of the two, and am inclined to think they may be 



190 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural Histori/. 

distinct species. The northern form is probably the B. le.ntig- 
inosus, var. americanus^ and the southern form the var. len- 
tiginosus of authors, 

Diemyctyhts viridescens^ Raf. 

Rather common in southern Illinois, but never observed 
on the prairies of the central counties. The relation of D. 
viridescens and D. miniatiis as forms of one species appears to 
have been conclusively established by several observers. 

Amblystoma microstomiim, Cope. 

Not rare in the prairie ponds in spring, becomino; com- 
moner eastward. A good Amblystoma. 

Amblystoma firjrinum, Green. 

This is the commonest salamander of the temporary ponds 
on the prairies of Illinois. Thousands collect in these to breed, 
as soon as the snow disappears in spring. The shallow water 
sometimes freezes after they have resorted to it, and many are 
then destroyed. The eggs are laid in large masses attached to 
dead vegetation. The very young are provided with "balan- 
cers" like those of the related A. pimdatum. Fully grown exam- 
ples still retaining rudiments of branchiae and the imperfect 
tongue of the larva are sometimes taken, a condition probably 
to be accounted for by the fact that the eggs are occasionally 
deposited in waters from which the young cannot readily escape. 
It is just possible that the larval characters might be retained 
by this species indefinitely in case of an enforced residence in 
the water. 



Article XL — Descriptions of new Cynipidce in the Collection of 
the Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History*. By C. 
P. Gillette, of the Iowa Experiment Station. 

FAMILY CYNIPID^. 

SUBFAMILY CYNIPIN^. 

Genus Diastrophus Hartig. 

D. scutellaris n. sp. 

Gall-fly. — Female. — Head, thorax, and scutellum black; 
mandibles, antennae, legs, and abdomen yellow-rufous. Length, 
3 mm. 

Head black, shining, face coarsely striate and sparsely 
haired, frontal carina rather prominent and striate, a deep 
groove extending up on the front, from between the antennae, 
containing the middle ocellus at its upper end, the ridges or 
carina on either side of the groove finely aciculate, the outer 
ocelli borne on the summit of the vertex, the latter shining 
and having a few punctures in the vicinity of the ocelli; occi- 
put aciculate. Thorax: collar covered with a growth of rather 
long hair, mesothorax black, polished, and covered with a net- 
work of microscopic depressed lines, humeri coarsely aciculate 

* The following descriptions of new Cynipidce were made during 
a recent vacation visit at the Illinois State Laboratory of Natural 
History, and it is through the kindness of the Director, Dr. S. A. 
Forbes, and Hon. R. P. Speer, Director of the Iowa Experiment Sta- 
tion, that I am permitted to publish them in this iJuUetin. 

I wish here to express my most hearty thanks to Dr. Forbes for 
the free use allowed me of the library, collection, microscopes and 
other laboratory equipments during my visit, and also for the excel- 
lent cuts made under his direction to illustrate the present paper. 
Mr. C. A. Hart and llr. John Marten I have to thank for many favors 
received. 

Types of all the species here described may be found in the col- 
lection of the Laboratory. 



192 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History 

or wrinkled, pleurae finely aciculate and rufous in color. The 
parapsidal grooves and median groove are broad and very deep 
near the scutellura, but become narrower and shallower as they 
extend forward; the parapsides extend to the collar, but the 
median groove disappears on reaching the posterior ends of the 
two parallel lines extending back from the collar. The lateral 
grooves* are very distinct. Scutellum bifoveate, coarsely sculpt- 
ured, and remarkable for being much drawn out posteriorly. 
The length of the scutellum is nearly equal to the distance 
from the scutellum to the collar. Abdomen entirely yellow- 
rufous, 2d segment occupying about one half of the dorsal sur- 
face, 3d segment about two thirds as long as the 2d, follow- 
ing segments very narrow; surface polished, irapunctured. 
Feet, including coxse, entirely yellow-rufous. Wings hyaline 
or very slightly smoky, radial nervure very distinctly bowed, 
the tip being thrown towards the costa; 1st and 2d transverse 
nervures very heavy, the usual dark stain at the base of the 
radial nervure present, areolet medium. 

Described from a single female taken by sweeping in a 
wheat field 20th May, 1884. Accessions number, 1881. Illinois. 

Gall unknown. 

Genus Antistrophus Walsh. 

A. silphii n. sp. 

Galls. — Abrupt sub-globular swellings from 1 to If 
inches in diameter at the tips of the stems of Silphium integ- 
rifoUum and perfoliatum (Plate IX., Fig. 1). The inner por- 
tion of the gall is made up almost entirely of a rather dense 
pithy material that cuts with some difficulty. Interspersed 
through the gall are numerous oval larval cells, and also open 
spaces or cavities that do not contain insects. (Plate IX., 
Fig. 2.) The larval cells are not woody, as is usually the case 
in cynipidous galls, but their walls are of pith like the sur- 
rounding gall substance. 

* The short grooves starting on the mesothorax at a point near 
the outer angles of the scutelhim and extending outside of the parap- 
sides to a point about opposite the bases of the wings, I sh;ill term 
lateral grooves in these descriptions to distinguish them from the 
other lines of the mesothorax. 



Descriptions of Xeiv Cynipidce 193 

These galls are very common in the vicinity of Champaign, 
111., on stems of Silphiiim integri/oliimi, and Mr. Hart had 
collected similar galls at Mormal, III, from S. perfoliatmn, from 
which flies were reared that were in every way identical with 
those from galls of the other species. 

Gall-fly. — Female. — Black, head and thorax opaque, ab- 
domen shining, antennae, except first two joints, spot on man- 
dibles, and anterior and middle pairs of tibias, ferruginous or 
dusky ferruginous. Length, 3-4 mm. 

Head: Face deeply and densely striate, median ridge, below 
the insertion of the antennae, densely and finely sculptured 
but not striate; gense, vertex, and occiput densely sculptured, 
the sculptures being in the form of minute shining pits, as seen 
under a power of 70 diameters. Thorax: collar and mesothorax 
finely and deeply sculptured, parapsidal grooves distinct, median . 
groove broad at scutellum and traceable to collar, lateral 
grooves distinct, all of the mesothoracic furrows sculptured at 
the bottom. The two parallel lines running back from the 
collar appear smooth and shining. Scutellum bifoveate, 
coarsely wrinkled posteriorly aud finely and densely sculptured 
throughout, including the bottom of the foveas and the spaces 
between the wrinkles; pleuras opaque and sculptured like the 
mesothorax but less deeply. The sculpturing of this insect may 
be described as a net-work of raised lines enclosing smooth shin- 
ing spots. Abdomen piceous black, polished, 2d joint occupying 
one half of the dorsal surface, 3d joint one half as broad as the 
second, succeeding joints to 7th usually plainly visible, 4th 
and succeeding joints finely punctured. A power of 70 diam- 
eters shows slight punctures on 3d segment also. Antenna? 
14-jointed, rufous, except the first two joints, which are usually 
black, but sometimes inclined to rufous, joints 1 and 2 stout, 
joints 3 and 4 equal in length, last joint once and a half as long 
as the preceding, length of entire antennae 2-4 mm. Wings': 
hyaline, radial cell open, radial nervure reaching costal margin, 
all the nervures very slender, areolet wanting. The entire 
insect is very free from pubescence. 

The male differs from the female by being but 2| to 3 mm. 
in length, on account of its smaller abdomen, and by having 



194 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History 

the last joint o£ the antennae as long as the two preceding 
joints. 

Described from 60 bred specimens bearing accessions num- 
bers 1928, 5206, 15605, and 15665, all from Illinois. 

The flies live over winter in the galls and emerge from 
them during the months of May and June of the following 
year. 

A. laciniatus n. sp. 

Galls. — Individual galls are egg-shaped, from 4 to 5 mm. 
in length, and occur in clusters un the receptacles of the flowers 
oiSilphium ladniatum. (Plate IX., Fig. 8.) Mr. C. A. Hart 
has collected a number of these gall-clusters and in description 
of them says : '' They always occur in well-ripened, healthy- 
looking flower heads, but do not show until the weather has 
removed the uninfested flowerets. They are always produced 
in the sterile flowers of the disk, towards the center." 

Gall-fly. — Female. — Head and thorax opaque black, 
abdomen shining rufo-piceous, antennas black; length, 3 mm. 

Head: face between eyes and mouth rather coarsely acicu- 
late, median ridge with a few coarse punctures or pits, entire 
surface of head finely and densely sculptured, as in the preced- 
ing species, middle ocellus at the upper extremity of a broad 
furrow extending up from the antennae, the two outer ocelli on 
the summit of the vertex, mandibles rufous on median portion. 
Antennae black, 13-jointed, joints 3 and 4 equal, last joint al- 
most as long as the two preceding; length, 2.3 mm. Thorax,, 
including scutellum, as in the preceding species. Abdomen 
rufo-piceous, polished, rather globose, 2d segment occupying 
scarcely more than one third of the dorsum, 3d segment broad, 
3d and succeeding segments densely punctured. Wings hyaline, 
pubescent, nervures very light, areolet wanting. Feet, includ- 
ing coxae, black; tip of femora, tarsi, and anterior tibias rufous. 

Male. — Length, 2 mm.; antennae 14-jointed, as long as the 
body ; abdomen black, 2d segment occupying fully one half of 
the dorsum ; otherwise as the female. 

This species is easily distinguished from A. silphii by the 
black antennae, which are 13-jointed in the female, by its much 



Descriptions of New Cijnipidce 195 

less robust thorax, by its more globose abdomen, and by having 
the third abdominal segment densely punctured. 

Described from three males and three females bred from 
galls collected at Champaign, 111., by Mr. John Marten. Ac- 
cessions number, 15073. 

A. rufus n. sp. 

While looking through the Laboratory collection for Cy- 
nipidee I was much interested in finding a vial containing a 
section of a stem of Silphiam laciniatum and a number of two 
species of Cyuipidge bred from it. There was not the slightest 
indication of a gall upon the stem, and it was found that the 
flies had emerged from little cells in the pith exactly like the 
cells in the pithy substance of the galls of A. silphii^ above 
described. In company with Mr. C. A. Hart I visited fields 
where this species of Silphiiim was growing, and we found that 
the majority of the stems were more or less infested with cy- 
nipidous larvaa, hundreds of which could, in some cases, be 
found in a single stem; but in no case was there any indication 
of the formation of a gall. An illustration of a stem contain- 
ing these cells is given at Fig. 4, (PL IX). After finding the 
stems of Silphium laciniatum so much infested, we pushed our 
investigations farther and found similar larval cells abundant 
in Silphium perfoliatum^ S. terebinthinaceum^ and S. hitegri- 
folium. Whether the flies when bred from these stems will all 
prove to be one or the other of the two species here described, 
cannot yet be told. 

Gall-fly. — Female. — Color, rufous; vertex, mesonotura, 
and scutellum black ; head and thorax opaque ; length, 3 mm. 

Head and thorax minutely sculptured throughout as de- 
scribed in the two preceding species, face finely aciculate be- 
tween eyes and mouth, vertex and the portion of the occiput 
immediately back of it black, tips of the mandibles infuscate, 
the remainder of the head rufous. Antennae 13-jointed, 4th 
joint a trifle longer than the 3d, the last joint as long as the 
two preceding and bearing a connate suture that in some po- 
sitions makes it appear to be two joints, rufous in color, and 2 
mm. in length. Thorax: parapsidal furrows extending to col- 
lar, median groove not quite reaching the two parallel lines from 



196 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History 

collar ; lateral grooves distinct. The median portion of the 
pleura3 appears finely aciculated, but they are finely sculptured 
throughout. Scutelluni bifoveate and more coarsely sculptured 
than the mesonotum but not wrinkled like the two species just 
described. Foveae broad and shallow and sculptured at bottom 
like the rest of the scutellum. Abdomen dark rufous, almost 
black above, 2d segment occupying somewhat less than half of 
the dorsum, apical portion of 3d segment feebly punctured, fol- 
lowing segments, except 7th, more strongly and densely punct- 
ured, 7th segment covered with a net-work of fine lines but no 
punctures. Wings hyaline, nervures, except the two transverse, 
very slender, areolet wanting. Feet, including cox re, entirely 
rufous, tibiae of the hind pair in a few cases rather dark. 

Male. — Length, 2.2 mm., 2d abdominal segment occupying 
half of the dorsum, antenna3 14-jointed, last segment once and 
a half as long as the preceding; otherwise as female. 

Described from numerous bred specimens from alcohol; 
accessions number 5500. Illinois. 

A. minor n. sp. 

Bred from the same stem of SUphium as the preceding 
species and about half as numerous. 

Gall-fly. — At first sight the flies of this species appear 
to be miniatures of A. rufiis, but there are structural differences 
that make it necessary to give them a separate description. 
They differ from rufus as follows: 

Length of females 2 mm., of males 1^ mm.; collar deeper 
rufous. The most apparent structural differences are in 
the mesothorax and scutellum. The parapsidal and median 
grooves in minor do not appear as sharply defined furrows but 
only as broad slightly depressed lines with sloping sides. The 
foveas of the scutellum are rather deep at base, extend 
far back, and are not separated by a sharply defined septum but 
by a broad slightly elevated ridge. The scutellum is also longer 
in proportion to its breadth and is perceptibly narrowed at the 
sides, about midway of the length. 

Accessions number, 5500. 



Descriptions of New Cijnipidce 197 

A. bicolor n. sp. 

Gall-fly. — Female. — Head and thorax opaque black, abdo- 
men and antennae rufous; length, 3 mm. 

Head black, finely and densely sculptured, mandibles 
except tips rufous, face between eyes and mouth coarsely 
aciculate, frontal ridge rather prominent, ocelli in nearly a 
straight line. Antennas dark rufous, 13-jointed, 3d and 4th 
joints equal in length, 13th joint about as long as the two 
preceding taken together. Thorax, including pleurae, densely 
and finely sculptured, parapsidal and median furrows distinct 
and extending to the collar, lateral furrows and two parallel 
lines plainly marked. Scutellum sculptured like the meso- 
notum, bifoveate. Abdomen rufous, polished, 2 I segment occu- 
pying a little more than one third of the dorsum, 3d seg- 
ment very broad, and microscopically punctured on apical 
portion, succeeding segments to the 7th all exposed and rather 
densely punctured as seen under a power of 70 diameters, 
venter rather prominent, and ovipositor sheaths projecting 
slightly. Feet: the tarsi, tibiae of front pair, and joints of 
all the legs are more or less rufous, the remaining portions 
black. Wings hyaline, radial cell open, all the nervures, 
except the two transverse, very weak, areolet entirely wanting. 

Described from a single specimen from Normal, III., ac- 
cessions number 2581. Gall unknown. 

Genus Acraspis Mate. 

A. compressus n. sp. 

Gall. — Small sub-globular bodies from 2 to 3 mm. in 
diameter attached to the under side of the leaves of the red 
oak, Querciis rubra, in the fall, about the time the leaves 
are beginning to turn brown. The galls appear like wax, 
and are either pure white or tinged with red while on the 
leaves, and when cut into are fleshy and juicy like a potato. 
The galls fall to the ground with or a little before the leaves, 
and each develops a single larva which gets its growth in 
the fall but does not emerge until the following summer. 
Only a very thin shell of the gall is left after the fly emerges. 



198 1_^ Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History 

Gall-fly. — Females. — Head and thorax rufous, abdomen 
black, head nearly twice as broad as thorax, the latter very 
small and narrow, abdomen very much compressed and, when 
viewed from the side, appearing twice as large as the head 
and thorax together. 

Head: face and genae reddish brown, vertex and occiput 
dark brown, mandibles black, clypeus punctured and with few 
hairs, the entire head covered with a net-work of depressed 
lines; "antennae rufous, 14-jointed. Thorax very small and 
narrow, seeming, when viewed from above, out of all pro- 
portion with the comparatively large and very bro^d head; 
sculptured like the head without the usual furrows; scutellum 
very narrow and much elevated posteriorly, and appearing, 
when viewed laterally, in the shape of a crow's beak; a shining 
transverse groove but no foveas at base. Abdomen very strong- 
ly compressed, not broader in the thickest part than the 
thorax, shining black in color with some rufous at base, free 
from hairs or punctures, as deep as long, its length compared 
with that of the entire insect being as 3 to 5 and the 2d 
segment occupying fully two thirds of the dorsum. Feet dark 
reddish brown. Wings entirely wanting. 

Described from two specimens cut from galls taken at 
Ames, Iowa, where they are common. 

Genus Dryophanta Fokst. 

D. lanata n. sp. 

Galls. — During late summer and autumn the galls of this 
species are found on the under side of leaves of Quercus rubra 
and Q. coccinea, appearing externally as little bunches of 
compact brown wool (PI. IX., Fig. 5), and hardly distin- 
guishable in outward appearance from the galls of Andricusjlocci 
Walsh. The galls seldom occur singly, but usually in clusters of 
from four to eight. A cluster of eight galls when fully grown 
will measure about I of an inch in width by § of an inch in length. 
An individual gall when denuded of its covering is in the form 
of an irregularly shaped cone with a bulging base, the diameter 
of the base being three or four sixteenths of an inch, which is 
nearly twice the height. 



PLATE IX. 




Fig. 1. 





Fio. 8. 



KlG. 



Deseriptions of New Cynipidce 199 

The galls fall to the ground in the autumn in advance of 
the leaves, and the flies emerge the following summer. The 
galls are abundant at Ames, Iowa, and I have taken a number 
in the vicinity of Champaign, 111. 

Gall-fly. — A robust, black species, with more or less rufous 
on face, mesonotum, scutellum, and sides of abdomen. Length, 
3^ to 4 mm. 

Head: Face scabrous, shining, with very few hairs; vertex 
black, sub-opaque, finely and densely sculptured; ocelli consid- 
erably elevated, clypeus polished, emarginate, punctured; an- 
tennse black, 14-jointed (in one specimen 13-jointed), a trifle 
over 2 mm. in length; joints 1 and 2 stout, the latter sub- 
globular, joint 3 one third longer than joint 4, last joint 
scarcely longer than the preceding. Thorax: mesothorax 
covered with a fine net-work of depressed lines leaving irregular 
raised portions that are highly polished, parapsides narrow but 
well defined, polished at the bottom and reaching the collar, 
median groove showing plainly at scutellum but soon disap- 
pearing as it runs forward; the two parallel grooves from the 
collar narrow at first, then spreading out in broad furrows 
with sloping sides traceable about one third of the way to 
the scutellum; lateral grooves plainly marked, extending well 
forward, and approximating the parapsides at their anterior 
extremity; pleurae finely aciculate and shining. Scutellum 
bifoveate, the fovese shallow, separated, not by a septum, 
but by a number of polished raised lines that run into the 
smooth surfaces of the bottoms of the foveae; lateral bor- 
ders of the scutellum strongly aciculate anteriorly, the lines 
becoming crooked and broken posteriorly and forming a densely 
and deeply rugose surface; scutellum black at base and tip and 
rufous in the middle. Abdomen dark rufous to almost black, 
2d segment occupying one half of tergum, posterior half of the 
second segment and all of the following segments rather densely 
punctured, all of the segments highly polished. Feet uniformly 
colored, very dark rufous to almost black. Wings hyaline, 
rather densely ciliate, 4 mm. long, submedian and 1st and 2d 
transverse nervures stout and black, areolet medium. 

Described from two bred females from galls taken at 
Ames, Iowa. Male unknown. 



200 Illinois Stafe Laboratory of Natural History 

Genus Chilaspis Matr. 

O. ferrugineus n. sp. 

This genus has hitherto had no recognized representative 
in this country. Dr. Gustav Mayr, in his paper on '^ Die euro- 
paischen Arten dergallenbewohnenden ('ynipiden," gives a sin- 
gle species. C. nitida Gir., for Europe. Giraud's species is given 
as producing galls on the leaves of Qiiercns cerris, while the spe- 
cies here described is either a guest or a parasite, as two of 
them were captured in the act of ovipositing in immature 
galls, one of DryopJianta lanata^ described above, and one in a 
very similar gall of an undescribed species; both were taken 
1st Sep., 1890, at Ames, Iowa. 

I have never seen a specimen of C. nitida^ and it is possible 
that the species here described will require a new genus, but by 
the use of Mayr's synopsis these flies are readily traced to 
Chilaspis. 

Flies. — Females. — General color yellow-rufous, abdomen 
shading into black on apical dorsal portion, tips of mandibles 
black, posterior tibiae and tarsi somewhat infuscate, length 
2 mm. 

Head: face finely rugulose and having the appearance of 
being covered with scales like the body of a fish, a few scatter- 
ing hairs, clypeus in the upper and middle portion sculptured 
like the rest of the face but with a broad polished margin 
below, mandibles punctate, vertex and occiput covered with a 
fine net-work of depressed lines and blackish in color; antennae 
13-jointed, 3d and 4th joints equal in length, last joint twice 
as long as the preceding, ferruginous, reaching to the middle 
of the abdomen. Thorax: mesothorax ferruginous, quite dark 
in one specimen, sculptured like the face, parapsides distinct 
throughout but in the middle showing as broad shallow grooves^ 
without well-defined sides, median groove absent, parallel lines 
from the collar plainly marked, lateral grooves distinct and 
reaching to opposite the bases of the wings; pleurae covered 
with a net-work of slightly raised lines; scutellum with pol- 
ished basal groove crossed by many shining ridges, coarsely 
rugose posteriorly and with a narrow blackish rugose margin; 
metathorax coarsely rugulose and with three longitudinal 



Descriptions of New Cynipidce 201 

carinae running to the base of the abdomen. Abdomen, with 
2d segment occupying fully half of the dorsum, 3d segment 
about one third as long as the 2d, seven segments visible, ovi- 
positor sheaths projecting above the dorsum, venter consider- 
ably extended posteriorly, the last two characters reminding 
one of Ceroptes sp. Wings hyaline, with distinct dusky patch 
surrounding the second transverse nervure, radial cell entirely 
open, the radial and subcostal nervares ending abruptly just 
before reaching costal margin, the subcostal, radial, and first 
and second transverse nervures stout, the others very slight, 
the areolet, consequently, rather faint but of medium size. 

Described from two females taken while ovipositing in 
galls as above mentioned and one specimen captured at large; 
all from Ames, Iowa, 

Genus Aulax Hartig. 

A. bicolor n. sp. 

Gall-flt. — Female. — Head and thorax black, feet and 
abdomen yellow-ferruginous; length 2| mm. 

Head black, shading into rufous between the eyes and 
mouth, mandibles except tips rufous, face finely wrinkled, 
vertex and occiput finely sculptured, the sculpturing of the 
genae making them appear to be covered with scales like the 
body of a fish, ocelli on a flat or somewhat depressed surface; 
antennae dark rust-brown, darkest toward the tips, 13-jointed, 
joints 3 and 4 equal in length, last joint as long as the two 
preceding. Thorax black, shoulders rufous, mesothorax finely 
sculptured, opaque, clothed with sparse recumbent pubescence, 
parapsidal grooves very distinct and rather deep, median groove 
very short and much broadened at scutelium so as to be almost 
triaugular. The lateral grooves appear as polished lines only, 
and the two parallel lines from the collar are rather indistinct; 
pleurae densely and rather coarsely aciculate. Scutelium black, 
with two small, shallow, oblique foveas, rather coarsely rugose, 
the surface somewhat obscured by pubescence. Abdomen 
rufous, shining, 2d segment occupying about one third of 
dorsum, 3d joint a little more than half as long as the 2d, fol- 
lowing joints to the 7th gradually shorter, joints 3-7 inclusive 



202 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History 

finely punctured. Feet^ including coxas, of the same color as 
the abdomen. Winqs hyaline, rather densely ciliate, radial 
cell closed, areolet medium. 

Described from two females, one taken in a wheat field at 
Mt. Carmel, 111., 27th May, 1885 (accessions number 1781), and 
one taken at Champaign, 9th July, 1885 (accessions number 
6122). 

SUBFAMILY INQUILIN^. 

Genus Synergus Hartig. 

S. magnus n. sp. 

Head rufous-yellow, vertex and thorax entirely black, 
abdomen rufous-yellow, except a narrow black stripe along the 
tergura of the 21 segment, feet light yellow, except the tibiae 
and tarsi of the hind pair which are infuscate; length 4 mm. 

Head: face coarsely striate, vertex and occiput micro- 
scopically rugulose and with broad punctures; antennae black, 
as long as the insect, 15-jointed, 3d joint but little longer than 
the 4th. Thorax with coarse transverse wrinkles, parapsides 
distinct throughout, median groove reaching the posterior ends 
of the parallel lines; the lateral grooves appear more like 
ridges and are short and oblique; shoulders coarsely wrinkled, 
pleurae very coarsely aciculated below and very finely acicu- 
lated above, with a smooth shining spot midway upon the 
most prominent part. Scutellum with two small foveae and 
coarsely rugose. Abdomen: first segment, as well as the peti- 
ole of metathorax, coarsely wrinkled or fluted, 21 segment 
occupying nearly the whole surface of the abdomen, ovipositor 
sheaths long and projecting upward above the line of the ter- 
gum, venter considerably projecting. Wings long, narrow and 
slightly smoky, areolet medium. 

Described from a single specimen from my private col-* 
lection that was reared from a gall of Ampliibolips cookii at 
Lansing, Mich. 

S. villosus n. sp. 

The front, above the insertion of the antennse, the vertex, 
a broad stripe extending over the occipafc to the collar, the en- 
tire thorax, a broad blotch on second abdominal segment 



Descriptions of New Cynipidce 203 

extending far down at the sides, the tips of the mandibles, and 
a spot upon thetergum of the 5fch abdominal segment, black; 
feet, including coxae, very light yellow, orbits and antennae 
slightly rufous, other parts light yellow. 

Head: face rather finely striate, vertex and occiput 
with numerous coarse punctures on a microscopically sculp- 
tured surface, antennae 15-jointed, nearly as long as the 
body. Thorax: mesonotum with fine transverse ridges, the 
furrows between bearing coarse but shallow and somewhat 
confluent punctures, parapsidal grooves very distinct, median 
groove narrow and extending but a short distance, parallel 
lines and lateral furrows not very distinct, pleurae coarsely 
aciculated below, finely above, and with a smooth polished 
median spot. Scutellum bifoveate, rather coarsely sculptured, 
foveae shallow, the sculpturing somewhat obscured by pu- 
bescence. Abdomen : first joint, as well as petiole of metathorax, 
fluted, 2d segment occupying nearly the entire surface and 
deeply notched on posterior margin of the tergum, exposing the 
tergites of three or four following segments, ovipositor 
sheaths projecting above the surface of the abdomen, venter 
rather prominent. Wings hyaline, areolet rather indistinct. 

Described from two specimens bred from the galls of Acras- 
pis villosus^ taken in Iowa. 

SUBFAMILY FIGITIN^. 

GrENUS COPTEREUOOILA AsHM. 

C. marginata n. sp. 

Female. — Black, 1.2 mm. in length, antennae clavate, apical 
margin of the wings emarginate. 

Head black, mandibles ferruginous, face and vertex smooth 
and shining, occiput finely rugose. Antennae 13-joiated, cla- 
vate, joints 1, 2, 11, 12, and 13 thick, and joints 1, 11, 12, and 13 
about equal in length ; joint 2 globose and about equal to joint 
3 in length ; joints 3-10 slender and joints 4-10 but little longer 
than broad ; last three joints suddenly and greatly enlarged. 
Thorax: collar narrow, mesonotum smooth and shining, without 
grooves. Scutellum deeply bifoveate, polished. The rather 



204 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History 

narrow but much elevated central area appears as a broadening 
out of the carina separating the foveas, and has a rather large 
pit near its posterior margin and two conspicuous punctures 
immediately in front of it. The broad deeply depressed margin 
of the scutellum is finely wrinkled or aciculate. Abdomen at 
base with a dense growth of fine woolly hair, and there is also 
a small patch of similar hair on either side of the raetathorax ; 
2d segment occupying nearly the entire surface of the abdomen, 
abdomen rather long and pointed. Feet and antennae in one 
specimen are entirely yellow-ferruginous, in two others the feet 
are dark ferruginous and the antennae are black. Wings 
hyaline, broadly and rather deeply emarginate on apical margin, 
ciliate, heavily fringed, and the triangular radial cell open on 
the costal margin. 

Described from three specimens from Illinois. Accessions 
numbers, 1661, 3336, 5437. Male unknown. 

Genus Euooila West. {Cothonaspis Hartig). 

E. 7-spinosa n. sp. 

Female. — Black; feet, mandibles, and antennae clear shining 
rufous ; length, 3 mm. 

Head: face smooth and polished, with a puncture just be- 
neath the insertion of each antenna and about six punctures 
near the lower inner orbit of each eye, also a few scattered 
punctures on vertex, just back of the ocelli. Thorax: dorsal 
margin of collar elevated and emarginate and with a conspic- 
uous growth of coarse yellow hairs upon either side, mesonotum 
and pleurae smooth and polished and without grooves or sculp- 
tures. Scutellum deeply bifoveate, the elevated central area 
with a large pit near its posterior margin, and in front of this 
pit, near the margin on either side, are three coarse setigerons 
punctures. The broad depressed margin of the scutellum is 
coarsely rugose. Abdomen with a narrow girdle of rather 
coarse short hairs, 2d segment occupying nearly the entire sur- 
face, smooth and highly polished. Wings without pubescence 
on their surface, posterior border of anterior wings fringed to- 
wards base, radial area closed, areolet not at all developed, sub- 
costal vein with seven stout setae or spines. 



Descriptions of New Cynipidce 205 

Described from a single female formerly in the private col- 
lection of Mr. C, A. Hart and bearing accessions number 547. 
Taken in southern Illinois. Male unknown. 

Genus Euooilidea Ashm, 

E. rufipes n. sp. 

Female. — Black; feet, mandibles, and antennae rufous, 
mesonotum with parapsides converging and uniting in a broad 
sculptured area; length, 1.8 mm. 

Head: face between eyes and mouth somewhat aciculate, 
about six aciculations on each side, front smooth, polished, and 
convex, vertex and occiput smooth and polished, head with 
scattering gray hairs. Antennae 13-jointed, joints 3 and 4 
equal in length, gradually incrassate towards the tip, hardly 
shorter than the body and freely set with short gray hairs. 
Thorax: mesothorax smooth and polished and along the suture 
bordering the collar, both dorsally and laterally, is a margin of 
deep pit-like sculptures ; a row of these sculptures beginning 
at the outer posterior angle of the mesonotum, runs past the 
base of the wing and then along the lateral border of the mes- 
onotum to the place where the parapsidal furrow usually ter- 
minates ; from this point the row of sculptures extends over 
the mesonotum in the usual direction of the parapsidal groove 
and, after running a little more than one half of the distance 
to the scutellum, suddenly broadens out and, with the similar 
sculpturing of the other side, forms a broad deeply sculptured 
area reaching to the scutellum. There is a narrow median car- 
ina, forked, at its posterior extremity, separating this sculptured 
area of the mesonotum into two equal parts. The sculptured 
lines divide the smooth surface of the mesothorax into three 
nearly equal areas. The elevated central portion of the scu- 
tellum has its large pit or depression centrally located, and there 
are about six punctures along either lateral border. The edge 
of this central area extends on all sides in a thin knife-like mar- 
gin. The depressed border of the scutellum is coarsely rugose 
and punctate. Abdomen smooth, polished, and without show of 
hairy girdle at base ; 2i segment occupying the entire surface 
of the abdomen. Wings fringed and rather coarsely ciliate, 
radial area closed. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE. 

Tig. 1. Gall of Antistroplius silphii on SUphium integrifoUum, 
slightly enlarged. 

Fig. 2. Another gall of same species, with side cut away, show- 
ing internal cavities; a, larval cells; natural size. 

Fig. 3. Galls of Antistroplius laciiiiatus on SilpJiium lacinia- 
tum, enlarged three diameters. 

Fig. 4. Galls of Antistrophus rvfus and A. minor in SilpMum 
laciniatum, natural size. 

Fig. 5. Galls of Dryophanta lanata on Quereus, natural size; a- 
denuded gall, enlarged five diameters. 



Article XII. — Sixth Contribution to a Knotvledge of the Life 
History of certain Little-knonm Aphidida'*. By Clarence 
M. Weed. 



THE CORN ROOT APHIS. {Aphis maidis (?) Fitch.) 

The literature and life history o£ the corn plant louse were 
discussed at length in 1884 by Professor H, Garmauf, who 
showed that at that time nothing definite was known concern- 
ing the time or place of development of the sexed forms, the 
connection between the root and aerial forms, or the manner 
in which the insect passes the winter. In the article cited the 
author adds nothing of importance to our knowledge of either 
of these points, though the conjecture is made " that the lice 
hibernated as alate viviparous females." 

In the autumn of 1885, however, Prof. Garman found a 
single colony of oviparous females on the roots of corn in an 
enclosed frame, and has described this form together with eggs 
obtained from the abdomen by dissectionj. Hence at the be- 
ginning of the season of 1887 there remained to be determined, 

(1) whether the species normally hibernates in the egg state, 

(2) when and where the eggs are laid, (3) the time of appear- 



* The previous contributions of this series have been published 
as follows: first, "Psyche," Vol. V., pp. 123-134; second, "Psyche," 
Vol. v., pp. 208-210; third. Bulletin Ohio Agricultural Experiment 
Station, Second Series, Vol. I., pp. 148-152; fourth, Bulletin Ohio 
Agricultural Experiment Station. Technical Series, Vol. I., pp. 111- 
120; fifth. " Insect Life," Vol. III., pp. 285-293. 

The investigations on which the present article is based were 
made in 1887 during my connection with the Illinois State Labora- 
tory of Natural History, under the direction of Professor Forbes, to 
whom I am nidebted for the opportunity of publishing them at the 
present time. The article was written in December, 1887, and is now 
printed in its original form. C. M. W. 

Hanover, New Hampshire, April, 1891, 

1 14th Kept. St. Ent. 111., pp. 23-33. 

:j: Misc. Essays on Economic Entomology, 188(5, pp. 4fi 48. 



208 I/l/iiois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

ance of the male, and (4) what connection, if any, exists be- 
tween the form on the roots and that on the leaves. The ob- 
servations given below answer the first three of these queries, 
but I am not at present able to give any definite results con- 
concerning the obscure subject of the origin and fate of the 
aJ5rial form. 

Field Observations. 

The first observations during 1887 were made in an oats 
field, on the University farm, that was last year planted to 
corn and abundantly infested with corn root lice. Two hours 
were spent, April 21, in searching the formicaries of the 
common brown ant {Lasius alietiiis) and of a larger red ant 
which was quite abundant, but neither plant lice nor their 
eggs were found. The Lasius were burrowing about the 
young oats plants, which had been up a week. April 25 I 
repeated the search, and found a mass of about fifty plant-lice 
eggs slightly below the soil surface in a Lasius nest. They 
were mostly green and nearly ready to hatch, and some of 
them put in a dry vial disclosed several young lice the follow- 
ing day. On April 29 another lot of aphid eggs, together 
with young lice, were found in another nest of Lasius alienus 
in the same field. 

The young lice were on the radicles of the sprouting seeds 
of smartweed (Polygonum incarnaium) and Setaria, the earth 
about which had been mined by the ants. On May 4 larval 
lice were abundant on the plants just mentioned, always at- 
tended by ants. The majority of them were about half grown, 
but no adults were seen. By May 16 the stem-mothers had 
become adult, given birth to young, and largely disappeared, 
though a few were still present. The prevailing form then in 
the field was the young of the second generation, a few' of 
which had become pupffi (of the winged form), but no winged 
adults were seen. Ten days later the corn lice had, so far as I 
could judge after an hour and a half of diligent search, com- 
pletely disappeared from the field. 

The second field under observation had been in corn for 
years and was again planted to corn last spring. I first exam- 
ined it April 29 (before it had been plowed), when young 



Life History of certain Little-known Aphidido'. 209 

lice were found abundant under the care of the ants on tlie 
youno- sprouts of Setaria and Polygonum. The following day 
a part of the field was plowed and larval aphides were found 
again in the nests of Lasius. On May 0, in a part of the field 
not yet plowed, half-grown specimens were found in an ant's 
nest. By May 21 the lice had been mostly transferred from 
the Setaria and smartweed to the young corn roots. Some 
stem-mothers were yet present, and a few wingless adults of 
the second generation were seen, but the great majority of the 
lice were the young of this latter form (i. e., those born from 
the stem-mothers). Two days later a large number of these 
had become adult, some of them winged but most wingless, 
and a large number of pupa? of the winged form were present, 
as were also a few stem-mothers. At this time the ants were 
mining about the corn plants all over the field, evidently pre- 
paring for the reception of the winged migrants, but as yet 
very few of these mined hills contained lice. June 1 all stages 
of the second and third generations were common throughout 
the field, many of the specimens being winged. On the 27th 
of the same month, however, only wangless adults and larva3 
were found. No further observations were made in this field 
until October 10, when both wingless viviparous and oviparous 
forms were abundant, the most of the lice being young of the 
oviparous form. A week later the oviparous adults were most 
abundant, and the viviparous ones were scarce. Many of the 
oviparous adults were wandering around among the Lasius 
galleries apparently unmolested by the ants, which behaved 
very differently toward them from the way they act toward 
the viviparous forms earlier in the season. I watched repeat- 
edly to see the ants pick one of the oviparous lice up when the 
nest was disturbed, but without success. In large ant colonies 
the oviparous forms had often wandered some distance from 
the corn roots. 

In a field, as yet unplowed, that had been in corn the year 
previous I found (April 30) two separate masses of plant louse 
eggs in one nest of Lasius alienus. Many of the eggs had 
evidently already hatched, for there were numbers of young 
lice on the sprouting Setaria and smartweed. 



210 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

In an oats field (following corn) on the University farm 
larval corn lice were found abundant May 4 on the roots of 
Setaria in an ant's nest. 

In a field of corn on sod ground 1 noticed, May 31, that 
the ants were very busy mining about the young corn plants 
and evidently preparing for the reception of the winged 
migrants. In two hills I found single specimens of the winged 
corn root louse which had not yet begun to establish colonies. 
I picked one of these up and put it down by another hill where 
the ants were at work. Almost immediately a Lasius found it, 
felt of it with the antennae, then grasped the base of the plant 
louse's wings with its jaws and carried it below. 

I also found May 19 in a field northwest of Champaign 
(corn following corn) many adult viviparous females with 
young about them. The same day, on a neighboring farm, a 
winged corn louse was found on one of the upper roots of a 
corn plant (corn following sod). The ants had mined a consid- 
erable opening along the side of the stalk through which the 
louse must have entered. In the same field at the same time 
two wingless viviparous females were found at some distance 
from any corn field. 

In a field of fodder corn (on corn ground) on the Univer- 
sity farm wingless adults of the second or possibly third gener- 
ation were abundant May 25. A single winged specimen was 
seen. 

Winged and wingless lice were common on roots of corn 
in certain fields at Rankin, Vermilion county, July 1. 

In a field in Urbana wingless root lice were abundant in 
hills of corn August 19, and infested hills were easily found. 

During October and the early part of November I found 
the oviparous females repeatedly in various fields about Urbana,. 

Breeding Cage Results. 

On April 25 a mass of aphid eggs found in a nest of 
Lasius alienus in a last year's corn field were transferred to a 
breeding cage. The following day several lice had hatched. 
One of these was isolated on a corn root, and moulted for the 



Life History of certain LiltJe-known Aphididcs. 211 

first time May 2 and for the second time May 5. Unfortun- 
ately it died May 7, but it had become large enough to be rec- 
ognized as a corn root louse. 

In the nest where the above eggs were found were two 
very small plant lice, presumably hatched from the same lot 
of eggs as those mentioned above. These were placed (April 
25) in a glass tube on a corn root, and I succeeded in bring- 
ing one of them to maturity, but the other died shortly after 
being transferred. The one that developed proved to be a corn 
root louse, and from it seven larvse were born between May 9 
and 15, at which latter date it died. 

On April 29 I collected in the field several partially grown 
corn root lice on roots of Setaria and smartweed and placed 
them in a vial with earth and a Setaria sprout. May 4 one of 
the lice had apparently become adult, and it was transferred to 
a corn root inside a glass tube. Ma}^ 5 it had fastened its beak 
in the root but no young had appeared; its markings were be- 
coming more distinct. The following day a young louse was 
born about noon. The next morning ( May 7, at 8 a.m. ) no more 
young had been brought forth, but twenty-four hours later 
three more had appeared. The larvae continued to be born 
until the 15th, when twelve had been brought forth, at which 
time the adult died. 

Two of the young born from this stem-mother were 
brought to maturity, and curiously enough one of them was 
winged and the other apterous. The former, presumably one of 
those born May 6 or 7, became a pupa May 15 and did not 
again moult until May 19, when it became a full fledged adult. 
It was kept in the tube until May 22, but it brought forth no 
young up to that time, and did not insert its beak in the corn 
root, being apparently anxious to escape. 

The wingless specimen was taken out of the tube where it 
was born. May 8, when it was not over a day old. It passed its 
last moult May 19, and the first larva was born from it May 21. 
Another was born the next day, when the observations ceased. 

June 14 a hill of corn in the field which showed evidence 
of the presence of Lasiiis alienus was stocked with corn root 
lice. The lice were placed about the burrows of the ants and 



212 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

were almost immediately carried below. A gauze-covered 
frame was placed over the plants. . July 5 the leaves of the 
plants were examined for at^rial corn lice, but none were found. 
The frame was replaced and was not again taken off until 
October 20, when the leaves of the plants were carefully exam-» 
ined for aphides, but no traces of them were found. On the 
roots, however, there were numbers of oviparous corn lice with 
a few wingless viviparous ones and several males --a form 
which had never before been discovered. There was also a 
single winged viviparous root louse and a pupa of the same form. 
All were put in a watch glass overnigh.t, and the next morning 
one of the males was observed In copula with an oviparous 
female, thus establishing the sex of the former beyond a doubt. 
The pupa had also moulted and become a winged louse; and 
several of the oviparous females had laid yellow eggs. The 
fully developed oviparous forms were mostly of a peculiar yel- 
lowish pink color, probably due partially at least to the eggs 
within the abdomen. Many of the young lice in this corn hill 
were sucking the juices from the roots, which still had a little 
sap left in them; but most of the adults were wandering about 
ia the galleries of the ant colony. 

This experiment proved beyond reasonable doubt that the 
life cycle of the root form of Aphis ma/dis can be completed 
without the appearance of the aerial form. To determine 
whether there ever is any connection between the two forms 
will require more work. 

SUMMAKY. 

Assuming for the present that there is no connection 
between the root and aerial forms of Aphis maidis, we are justi- 
fied in the light of these observations in summarizing the life 
history of the former as follows (starting with the hibernating 
eggs in the nests of ants): 

During the first warm days of spring, usually before' the 
ground is plowed, there hatch from the eggs small greenish lice 
that are transferred by the ants to the roots and radicles of Se- 
taria and Polygonum, where they are carefully tended by the 
ants. In about a fortnight these young have become adult stem- 
mothers C'^Pseudogyna fundatrix''' ) and give birth to quite a 



Life History of certain Little-known Aphididm. 213 

number of young. In the mean while the ground has probably 
been plowed, and some crop sowed. In case this crop is corn 
the ants transfer the lice to the corn roots; but if it is oats or 
wheat they may continue to rear the lice on Setaria and Polyg- 
onum. The young from these stem-mothers become adult in 
about a fortnight, and some of them are apterous and others 
winged. The winged specimens fly to other hills either in the 
same or neighboring fields, where the ants are waiting to receive 
them and proceed to establish colonies. Whether in ground 
not planted to corn more of this second generation become 
winged than where corn is present, or not, I cannot say; nor do 
we know how long the lice can continue to develop on Setaria 
and Polygonum. This second generation bring forth vivipa- 
rous young (mostly wingless); and generations of viviparous 
females continue to develop on corn roots throughout the 
summer. In autumn the true sexes are produced (both being 
apterous), and the eggs are deposited by the oviparous females 
in the mines of the ant colonies. These eggs are cared for by 
the ants through the winter, and the young lice that hatch 
from them in spring are provided for as described above. 

Description. 

Wingless male. — Body 1.4 mm. long; 7 mm. wide. An- 
tennae .9 mm. long; cornicles, .08 mm. long; cauda .05 mm. long. 

Body flattened; sides nearly parallel between middle coxae 
and cornicles; behind cornicles tapering rapidly to cauda; nar- 
rowing in front of middle legs. Greenish black with a glaucous 
bloom; head above black; dorsum of prothorax with a narrow 
black transverse band; dorsum of mesothorax with a similar 
wider band, dorsum of metathorax with a narrow band not ex- 
tending to the margins, — all indistinct and in some lights not 
distinguishable. Eyes black; antennae, legs, and cornicles 
blackish. Caudal segments of abdomen with indistinct trans- 
verse dark bands. Ventral surface of thorax blackish, of abdo- 
men dark green with black patch at caudal extremity. Cauda 
hirsute. Margins of abdomen wavy. Legs long, hairy. An- 
tennae robust; joint I swollen; II about equal to I in length, 
but smaller; III longer than I and II; IV and V subequal, IV 
slightly longer; VI slightly longer than V, and VII about 



214 Illinois State Tjahorafory of Natural TFistonj. 

equal to VI, short for a filament. Cornicles short, slightly 
swollen, surface rough. Rostrum robust, reaching middle of 
posterior coxae. 

Described from two living specimens taken in nest of 
Lasius alienus about corn roots, October 21, 1887. One seen in 
copula with oviparous female. 

Egg. Length, 7 mm; width, 3 mm. Yellow when first 
laid, becoming black during winter and changing to green 
just before hatching in spring. 

Described from many specimens, some of which were ob- 
taiaed in breeding cages October 20-22, 1887. 



Article XI IL — A Si/nopsis of the Reptiles and Amphibians of 
Illinois. By H. Garman. 

PEEFATOEY NOTE. 

This synopsis is presented largely as it was written several 
years ago. Before a final report on our reptiles and amphibi- 
ans is prepared, it is sincerely to be desired that examples of 
every Illinois species may be in the Illinois Laboratory collection 
for description, and that the local features of the fauna may be 
brought out by a critical comparison of Illinois specimens with 
collections from other parts of the United States. Specimens of 
the following species, and observations upon them, are especially 
desirable: Cistudo oniata, Chrysemys pida^ Fseudemys hiero- 
glyphica, P. concinna, Heterodon simus, Ophibolus rhomhomacu- 
latus, Nerodia sipedon Ya.r./asciata, Rana areolata, R. sylvafica^ 
Hyla cinerea, Desmognathus fusca^ Spelerpes ruber, Ambly stoma 
jeffersoniamim and A. punctatum. 

A few additional species known to occur in adjacent states 
may be looked for in Illinois. 

Chelopus guttatus may occur in northeastern Illinois. It 
has been found in northern Indiana and in Michigan. 

Aspidonectes ferox has been found in the Ohio River, and 
is likely to occur in this stream and in the Mississippi, along 
our borders. 

Hyla squirella has been taken at Brook ville, Indiana, by 
Mr. A. W. Butler. It is a southern species, most likely to 
occur in the south part of the State. 

Amblystoma copianiwi was described in 1885 by Prof. 0. 
P. Hay from a single specimen taken at Irvington, Indiana. 
It seems to beaj a general resemblance to the young A. tif/riniim 
just from the water. It may be distinguished from all re- 
corded Illinois members of the genus by the presence of eleven 
costal grooves and two plantar tubercles. 

H. Garman. 
May 6, 1891. 



IK) Illinois State Laboratorij of Natural History. 



CLASS KEPTILIA. 

Exoskeleton in the form of horny scales or bony plates. 
One occipital condyle. Mandible present, each ramus of sev- 
eral bones. Vertebra3 without terminal epiphyses. No mam- 
mary glands. Generally no diaphragm (an incomplete dia- 
phragm is present in crocodiles). Respiration always by means 
of lungs, sometimes aided by the walls of the pharynx. Heart 
generally with three, sometimes with four, chambers. Two 
aortic arches. Blood not warm; red corpuscles nucleated. 
Alimentary canal terminating in a cloaca. Oviparous or ovo- 
viparous. 

Body enclosed in a bony shell, wide, and more or less de- 
pressed. Legs four. Turtles Order Chelonia. 

Body more or less cylindrical, never greatly depressed, covered 
with small scales, generally imbricated. Eyelids and ex- 
ternal ears present. Legs commonly four; if wanting, with 
rudimentary sternal arch. Lizards Order Saukia. 

Body very long and slender, cylindrical, back covered with 
small imbricated scales, belly commonly with larger scales. 
No legs, or at most with rudiments of the hind pair. 
Sternal arch, eyelids, and external ears wanting. Snakes. 

Order Ophidia. 

ORDER OHELONIA. 

Body enclosed between two shields (carapace, upper, and 
plastron, lower) consisting of bony plates. Dorsal vertebra3 
and ribs immovably united with the carapace. Bones of head 
firmly united. Jaws covered with bony plates. No teeth. 
No external auditory organs. Eyes with a nictitating mem_- 
brane. Four well-developed limbs. Oviparous. 

This well-defined group is represented in Illinois by a 
rather small number of species. Our streams and lakes, more 
especially the Illinois and Mississippi Rivers, with their exten- 
sive sloughs, their numerous sandy shores suited to the process 
of oviposition, and their abundance of animal and vegetable 
life, would seem to form an ideal cheloniau habitat. About 



Reptiles and Amphibians of Illinois. 217 

seven species are very abundant in these streams within bur 
limits; beyond this number the more exclusively aquatic species 
are rather scarce, or else only locally abundant. 

The turtles are timid, inoffensive animals, avoiding man 
whenever possible, and only when cornered exhibiting the 
strength and quickness which might render them formidable 
antagonists if they were so disposed. The snapping turtles 
with their strength and vigor are quite able to hold their own 
against most enemies. Our species vary in length from about 
four inches to as many feet, and from one to a hundred 
pounds in weight. Their food consists ordinarily of fishes, 
frogs, mollusks, crayfishes, aquatic insects, and vegetation, some 
being exclusively carnivorous, others taking both animal and 
vegetable food. None of our species depend entirely upon 
vegetable food. Several species trouble fishermen at times 
by devouring fishes which have been caught on trot lines 
or in set nets. Excepting the Trionychidse, they are not rapid 
swimmers, and the predaceous species probably get most 
of their prey by lying in wait for it. An animal once within 
reach of their jaws must be very quick to escape capture. I 
have occasionally seen an individual making off with a partly 
devoured water snake. They emit no sounds except by snap- 
ping the jaws when angered, and a low hiss produced by the 
sudden compression of the lungs and consequent rush of air 
through the glottis, when the head and limbs are withdrawn 
into the shell. The eggs are white, spherical or elongate 
oval (in the latter case the two ends alike in diameter), and are 
provided with a rather tough shell. As far as known our 
species all bury their eggs in sand or earth and leave them to 
hatch by the sun's heat. 

SYNOPSIS OF THE FAMILIES REPRESENTED IN ILLINOIS. 

Plastron with twelve plates, with no, or but one, transverse 
hinge. Bridge between plastron and carapace, when pres- 
ent, formed by wings of the pectoral and abdominal plates. 
No gular barbels Emydid^. 



218 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

Plastron with eleven plates, with two transverse hinges. 
Bridge formed by wings of the abdominal and the contig- 
uous axillary and inguinal. Gular barbels present. 

ClNOSTERNID^. 

Plastron small, cruciform, with ten, nine, eight, or fewer, plates. 
Bridge narrow. Head very large, with gular barbels. 

Cheltdrid^. 

Entire shell covered with a continuous skin, cartilaginous at 
the margins. Head slender; nostrils borne at the end of 
a fleshy proboscis; horny coverings of jaws concealed at 
the sides by fleshy lips Trionychid.^. 

Family EMYDID^. 

Shell bony, moderately depressed or strongly convex, cov- 
ered with horny plates, of which there are five dorsal, eight 
costal, one nuchal, twenty-two marginal, two caudals, twelve 
sternals, and generally two axillaries and two inguinals. 
Head of moderate size, covered with a smooth, soft skin, re- 
tractile within the cavity of the shell. Jaws naked. Digits 
5-4, generally fully webbed, rarely imperfectly webbed. 

The family includes the greater part of our species. The 
majority are aquatic, and, though not by their structure un- 
fitted for life on land, are rarely found far away from the 
water. A few are terrestrial, and in such species the webs of 
the feet are greatly reduced in size. 

SYNOPSIS OF THE GENERA REPRESENTED IN ILLINOIS. 

1(2). Plastron immovably united with the carapace; with no 
transverse hinge 5. 

2(1). Articulation between the plastron and carapace carti- 
laginous; with a transverse hinge between the pectoral 
and abdominal plates 3". 

3 (4). Carapace hemispherical. Plastron rounded before and 

behind. Digits with rudimentary webs Cistudo. 

4 (3). Carapace elongate, convex. Plastron emarginate be- 

hind. Digits with evident webs Emts. 

5(6). Alveolar surfaces of the jaws with no median carina ... 9. 
6 (5). Alveolar surfaces with a median carina parallel with 

the margins 7. 



Reptiles and Amphibians of Illinois. 219 

7 (8). Plastron truncate before and behind. Alveolar sur- 
faces of jaws moderately narrow. Digits short. 

Chkysemys. 

8(7). Plastron distinctly emarginate behind. Alveolar sur- 
faces of jaws wider. Digits longer than in Chrysemys. 

PSEUDEMYS. 

9 (5). Plastron deeply emarginate behind, slightly before. 
Digits long and fully webbed Malacoclemmys. 

OlSTUDO, Fleming. 

Fleming, Philosophy of Zoology, 1822, p. 270. 
Hoffmann, Bronn's Thier lieich, Reptilien, p. 378. 

Carapace strongly convex or hemispherical. Plastron 
large, rounded before and behind, capable of completely clos- 
ing the carapace, and affixed to the latter by a ligamentous 
articulation; a transverse movable hinge between the pectoral 
and abdominal plates, these plates with no wings in adults. 
Axillary and inguinal plates small or wanting. Digits 5-4 or 
5-3, only the terminal phalanges free, with small interdigital 
webs. 

Oistudo Carolina, Linn. Box Turtle. 
Var. Carolina. 

Testudo Carolina, Linn., Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1758, 1., p. 198.— LeC, 

Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 1829, III., p. 97. 
Cistudo Carolina, Dum. et Bibr., Erp. Gen., II., 1835, p. 210. — 

Holbr., N. A. Herp., 1842, 1., p. 31.pl. 2.— De Kay, Nat. Hist. 

N. Y., I., Zof)!. III., Kept, and Amph., 1842, p. 24, pi. 1, fig. 

1.— Gray, Cat. Tortoises, etc., in Coll. Brit. Mus., 1844, p. 30. 
Cistudo clausa, subsp. clausa, Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State 

Lab. Nat. Hist., I., No. 5, 1883, p. 57. 
Cistudo clausa, Davis and Rice, Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 
Var. triunguis. 

Cistudo triunguis, Ag., L., Contr. Nat. Hist. U. S., 1857, 1., p. 445. 
Cistudo clausa, subsp. tritmgtiis, Davis and Rice, Bull. Ill, State 

Lab. Nat. Hist., I., No. 5, 1883, p. 57. 

Length of shell about six inches; carapace strongly con- 
vex, highest before the middle. Nuchal plate very small, 
slightly projecting; anterior and posterior marginals slightly 
flared outwards. Caudals directed downwards. Two gular 



220 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural liistorij. 

plates of plastron elongate, and narrowed posteriorly. Pecto- 
rals transversely elongate, quadrangular, with no lateral pro- 
jecting portion. Abdominals produced backwards laterally. 
No inguinal plate. Preanals and anals large, the latter trunc- 
ate behind. Head convex above. Anterior legs widest, with 
numerous oval scales. Claws well developed. Digits 5-4, or 
5-3. 

Colors extremely variable; generally dark brown above, 
with numerous yellow markings of irregular form and disposi- 
tion. Prevailing color sometimes golden yellow. Often with 
the yellow in the form of short stripes and spots, with a more 
or less continuous vertebral stripe. Head and fore legs often 
with round spots of orange. Iris varying from hazel to light 
magenta. Plastron yellow, with a few dark blotches, or with 
the yellow and black or brown in about equal proportions and 
in the form of stripes; sometimes mostly ebony black. Young 
are yellowish brown, and have a vertebral ridge on the cara- 
pace. 

Length of shell, 4.37; depth, 1.75; width, 3.50. 

Throughout the State, rare northward, not uncommon in 
dry woods of the south part of the State. Du Quoin, Eldorado, 
Cobden, Anna, Fairfield, and Mt. Carmel (Nat. Mus.). 

The box turtle is the most strictly terrestrial of all our 
turtles, frequenting the dryest hills and woods during the 
hottest summer months. It is said to avoid the water and 
to conceal itself at the approach of a storm. This is not in 
accord with my limited experience with the species, for but 
a few seasons ago I took four examples, two males and two 
females, from a small shallow pool, and have seen a few speci- 
mens wandering about during rain storms. It lives to a great 
age according to Mr. J. A. Allen. A marked specimen was 
known to him to have lived sixty years at least. The food ^ 
consists of both animal and vegetable substances; insects, 
fruits, and mushrooms are known to be eaten by it. Both of 
the varieties occur in Illinois. 

Oistudo ornata, Ag. 

Cistudo ornata, Ag., L., Contr. Nat. Hist. U. S., 1857, I., p. 445. 
This species has been described as broad and flat, with no 
vertebral keel even in the young. It is said to be common in 



Reptiles and Amphihians of IlUhois. 221 

some of the states between the Mississippi River and the Rocky 
Mountains. A few specimens have been taken in Illinois, one 
of which is in the museum of the Northwestern University, at 
Evanston. 

Fairfield, Wayne Co. (Nat. Mus.). 

Emys, Brongniart. 
Brongniart, M6m. des savants etrangers, 1805. 

Carapace moderately convex. Plastron large, separated 
into two parts by a transverse, movable articulation between 
the pectoral and abdominal plates; articulation with the cara- 
pace cartilaginous. Wings of pectoral and abdominal plates 
small or wanting in adults. Axillary and inguinal plates pres- 
ent or the latter wanting. Digits 5-4, with interdigital webs. 

The single American species belonging to this genus dif- 
fers from the other members of the genus as described by 
European authors in lacking the inguinal plate. Our species 
agrees in some of its generic features with members of the 
genus Cistudo, but it may be known from any species of that 
genus by its elongate shell, notched upper jaw, and emarginate 
posterior end of the plastron. 

Emys meleagris, Shaw. Blakding's Tortoise. 

Testudo meleagrin, Sljaw and Nodder, Viv. Nat., 1793, pi. 144, 
Cintudo hlandingii, Ilolbrook, N. A. Herp., 1842, 1., p. 39, pi. 3. — 
Storer, Bost. .Jour. ^at. Hist., 1840, III., p. 14.— De Kay, 
Nat. Hist. N. Y., I., ZoOl. III.. Kept, and Amph., 1842, p. 25, 
pi. 1, fig. 2.— Kennicott, Trans. 111. State Agr. Soc, 1853-54, 
I., p. 591. 
Emys meleagris, Agassiz, L., Contr. Nat. Hist. U. S., 1857, I., 
p. 442; II., pi. 4, fig. 20-22.— Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State 
Lab. Nat. Hist., I., No. 5, 1883, p. 57; Bull. Chicago Acad. 
Sci., 1883. 

Length of carapace about seven inches, highest at about 
the middle, with a slight notch behind, margins flared anteri- 
orly and at the sides posteriorly. Nuchal plate small, elongate 
in adults, wider in young examples. Caudal plates directed 
obliquely downward and backward. Plastron large, elongate 
sub-elliptical, its posterior margin broadly cut out. Gular 



222 Illinois State Lahoratory of Natural Hiatory. 

plates large, triangular. Pectorals and abdominals large, about 
equal in size, the former not narrowed, quadrangular. A very 
small axillary. No inguinal. Head of moderate size, convex 
above, nostrils anterior and near together. Anterior legs, with 
transverse scutes on the anterior surface, digits five. Posterior 
legs larger than anterior, with small oval scales, digits four, 
with a large projecting scale in the place of a fifth digit. Claws 
strong and curved. 

Color above black or brown, with numerous small round 
or oval spots of yellow. Color beneath brownish yellow, with 
large black blotches on the outside of the plates. Head black 
or brown above, with numerous small round yellow spots, be- 
neath yellow. Legs dark above, pale beneath. Young with a 
vertebral ridge on the carapace and with a roughened area on 
the plates surrounded by concentric lines; plates beneath 
smooth, but with the concentric lines. Spots often obscure. 

Length of carapace, 7; width, 4.75; depth, 2.75. 

Throughout the State, commoner north; formerly abun- 
dant on the prairies, but rare at present. Normal, LTrbana. 

This species is closely related to the box turtle in both 
structure and habits. It is oftener found in water than the 
latter, but is essentially a terrestrial species. Its home is on 
the prairies where it formerly occurred in numbers, but in the 
better agricultural regions it has been exterminated. 

Ohrysemys, Gray. 
Gray, Cat. Tortoises, etc., in (/Oll. Brit. Mus., 1844, p. 27. 

Carapace depressed. Plastron large, truncate before and 
behind, immovably fixed to the carapace, with no transverse 
hinge. Wings of pectoral and abdominal plates well devel- 
oped. Axillary and inguinal plates present and of about equal 
size. Digits 5-4, several terminal phalanges free, fully webbed, 
short. Alveolar surfaces of jaws moderately narrow, with a 
median carina parallel with the margins. 

This genus and Pseudemys are scarcely distinct. The 
slight differences in the width of the horny covering of the 
jaws and in the length of the digits are not of sufficient im- 
portance to separate them. To these may be added a differ- 



Reptiles and Amphibians of Illinois. 228 

ence in the margins of the carapace and in the form and width 
of the plastron, but the latter are characters which vary in the 
same species with age. 

Plastron black centrally, with rays of this color extending out 
along sutures, front edge deeply denticulate C. belli. 

Plastron reddish orange or yellow. Dorsal and costal plates 
alternating C. marginata. 

Plastron reddish orange or yellow. Dorsal and costal plates in 
transverse rows of three C. picta. 

Ohrysemys belli, Gray. 

Emys belli, Gray, Synopsis Reptilium, 1831, p. 12.— Dum. et Bibr., 
Erp. Gen., 1835, II., p. 502. 

Chrysemys bellii, Agassiz, L., Contr. Nat. Hist. U. S., 1857, I., p. 
439. — True, Yarrow's Checls List N. A. Kept, and Batr., 
1882.— Garman, S., List N. A. Kept, and Batr., 1884. 

Shell depressed; no keel; uniformly convex above; mar- 
gins nearly continuous; a very slight notch behind; nuchal 
plate elongated, narrowed forwards, notched in front. Plas- 
tron truncate behind, with no decided angles; outer angles of 
gulars protuberant. Head below medium in size; jaws w^ak; 
tympanum evident. Feet medium, fingers and toes fully 
webbed; nails strong and sharp. 

Length of carapace, 4.25; width, 3.38; depth of shell, 
about 1.50. 

Dull black above, with a greenish cast, with obscure yel- 
lowish lines following sutures below the dorsal and costal 
plates. Marginals above with about three transverse lines, the 
median of which reaches the inner margin of the plate, and 
sometimes joins a yellow band along the outer margin; mar- 
ginals beneath with a broad median band which may, within, 
join the stripes of adjacent plates. Plastron red, with the 
central region occupied by a large blackish lyriform blotch 
which is marbled with pale yellow and sends rays out along the 
sutures. Sometimes also with a pair of isolated blackish spots, 
one near the outer edge of each pectoral plate. Head and legs 
striped with red as in C. marginata. Noticeable lines on the 
head are as follows: a slender median stripe extending from the 
snout to a point nearly opposite the anterior edge of the tympa- 



224 Illinois State Laboratori/ of Natnidl flisfori/. 

num; a stripe extending backward from the upper border of the 
eje and expanding on the ])osterior part of the head, finally 
extending along the dorsal side of the neck; a short stripe 
extending from the posterior edge of the eye to the dorsal edge 
of the tympanum; a broad stripe on the neck, which bifurcates 
in front, sending its dorsal branch across the angle of the 
mouth to the posterior edge of the eye and its ventral branch 
across the jaws to terminate beneath the nostril; and a stripe on 
the symphysis of the mandible, which bifurcates and sends 
diverging branches along ventral side of neck. Fore feet with 
two conspicuous stripes in front, and with narrower marginal 
stripes; webs largely pale yellow. Tail with two stripes above, 
which converge and finally join in a single median stripe; and 
two similar stripes beneath converge from each side of the vent 
and also join in a single median stripe. 

Described largely from a single young example taken on 
Jjong Island in the Mississippi River at Quincy. The charac- 
teristic marking of the plastron becomes obscure with age. The 
following is Gray's very unsatisfactory description: 

"Shell oblong, solid, rather depressed in the center, con- 
vex on the sides, olive waved with irregular black-edged pale- 
dotted greenish lines placed on the edge and across the middle 
of each shield; vertebrals nearly square, first urceolate, the 
rest 6-sided; beneath black, yellow-dotted; sternum flat, sur- 
rounded with an irregular yellow edge, front edge deeply den- 
ticulate." (Cat. Tortoise, etc., in Coll. Brit. Mus.) 

The species is very common in bottom-land lakes and 
ponds at Quincy, but has not been taken elsewhere in the State. 
It is closely related to C. marginata, with which it agrees in 
the arrangement of the dorsal and costal plates. The elder 
Agassiz states that the ground color is copper-red or bronze. 
He records it as occurring in the Osage River, Missouri, and at 
St. Louis. 

Chrysemys marginata, Agassiz. Western Painted Tuktle. 

Chrynemi/s marginata, Agassiz, L., Contr. Nat. Hist. U. S., 1857, 
I., p. 439; II, pi. 1, fig. 6. — Smith, Geol. Surv. Ohio, Zool. 
and Bot., IV., p. 664.— True, Yarrow's Check List N. A. 
Kept, and Batr., 1882. 



Reptiles and Amphibians of Illinois. 225 

Chrysemys picta [in part], Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. 

Nat. Hist, I., No. 5, 1883, p. 56. 
Chrysemys picta, Garman, S., List N. A. Kept, and Batr., 1884. 

Carapace about six inches long, depressed, convex, highest 
at about the middle, posterior lateral margins slightly flared. 
Nuchal plate long, narrow, notched in front. Three median 
dorsals about equal in size, hexagonal. Dorsals and costals 
alternating, never in transverse series of three. A slight notch 
in the margin, between the caudals. Plastron rounded before, 
truncate or cut out, leaving a very wide angle between the 
margins of the anals, the latter sometimes denticulate. Ante- 
rior lateral angles of the gulars with a blunt tooth, the mar- 
gins more or less denticulate. Pectorals transverse, about half 
the size of the abdominals. Axillary and inguinal well devel- 
oped. Head flattened; eyes prominent, nostrils anterior and 
near together. Upper jaw with a sharp tooth on each side of 
a median notch; lower jaw with a median tooth. Anterior 
feet with transverse imbricated scales; digits five, claws long 
and curved. Posterior legs larger, expanded distally, with four 
digits, claws shorter than those of the anterior digits; a corne- 
ous marginal projection in place of fifth toe. 

Color above greenish olive, or brown, with a narrow black- 
edged vertebral line; margins of plates yellow, edged with black. 
Marginal plates with lines and spots of yellow or red above, 
with a wide transverse band, or a triangular marginal spot of 
red and a few lines and spots of the same below. Plastron 
orange or yellow, with a large black or dusky oblong central 
area, this often marbled with pale, sometimes obsolete. Head 
brown above, with narrow red or yellow lines and dots, with 
numerous alternating black and red or yellow lines below. 
Iris yellowish brown, black before and behind pupil. The 
most conspicuous stripes of head and neck as follows: a stripe 
extending from the upper posterior part of the head down- 
wards and backwards upon the neck; a short wide dash be- 
hind the eye; a stripe extending from the posterior inferior 
margin of the eye beneath the tympanum and backwards on 
the lower part of the neck; a short wide line near the corner 
of the mouth on the lower jaw; and a median narrow stripe 
extending from the tooth of the lower jaw backwards a short 



ti'JC) Illinois State Laboraforij of Natural Histori/. 

distance and then bifurcating, its branches continuing back- 
wards on the under side of the neck. Legs and tail striped 
with red or yellow. 

Length of carapace, 5.50; width, 3.81; depth of shell, 1.50. 

Throughout the State; common. Cedar Lake, Lake Co.; 
Nippersink Lake; Oregon; Normal; Peoria (Brendel); Little 
Fox River at Phillipstown; Mt. Carmel (Nat. Mus.). 

This is one of the commonest turtles of ponds and small 
lakes, where scores of them may be seen on bright days in sum- 
mer sunning themselves on partially submerged logs. It is 
especially abundant in the small lakes of the northern part of 
the State. Young of this species with a carapace about an 
inch and a quarter long are very different from the adults. 
The most noticeable difference is in the form of the head and 
carapace. The head is more convex above, with shorter snout 
and proportionately more prominent eyes. The carapace is 
flatter, less elongate, in some almost circular in outline. The 
nuchal plate is almost square and is without the anterior notch. 
With age there is a gradual change in these particulars, the 
head becoming flatter, the snout more prominent, the cara- 
pace elongate, and the nuchal plate narrower. Some large 
specimens have the anterior edge of the first marginal plates 
sharply toothed, the teeth being large next the nuchal plate 
and growing smaller outwardly. 

Chrysemys picta, Herrm. Painted Turtle. 

Testudo picta, Herrmann, Schneider's Schildkr., 1788, p. 348. 
.Emys picta, Say, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1825, IV., p. 211. 
Testudo picta, LeC, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 1829, III., p. 

115. 
Emys picta, Dum. et Bibr,, Erp. Gen., 1835, II., p. 297.— Holbrook, 

N. A. Herp., 1842, 1., p. 75, pi. 10.— De Kay, Nat. Hist. N.Y., 

1., Zoul. III., Kept, and Amph., 1842, p. 12, pl.5, tig. 10. 
Chrysemys picta, Agassiz, L„ Contr. Nat. Hist. U.S., 1857,1., p 

488; II., pi. 1., fig. 1-5.— Smith, Geol. Surv. Ohio, Zool. and 

Bot., IV., 1882, p. 663. 
Chrysemys picta [in part], Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. 

Nat. Hist., I., No. 5, 1883, p. 56. 

Carapace about six inches long, depressed, convex, smooth. 
Nuchal plate about two thirds as wide as long, notched. Dorsals 



Reptiles and Amphibians of Illinois. 227 

and costals arranged in transverse series of threes, never alter- 
nating as in C. marginata. Anterior lateral angles of the 
gulars, with a blunt tooth. Margins of the first marginals, the 
gulars, and the anals sometimes serrate. Pectorals transverse, 
very narrow, scarcely half the size of the abdominals. Upper 
jaw notched, with a sharp tooth on each side of the excision. 
Anterior feet smallest, with five digits. Posterior feet ex- 
panded distally, with four digits. 

Color above olive-brown, or dull black, with a narrow ver- 
tebral line; median plates with yellow margins. Marginal 
plates with parallel or concentric yellow lines; all the yellow 
lines edged with black. Under side of marginal plates with 
large marginal spots, or almost entirely, red or yellow. Plastron 
yellow or orange, with an obsolete central dark area, the latter 
sometimes made up of approximated gray and yellow stripes. 
Neck, feet, and tail striped with red and yellow. 

Size and proportions nearly the same as in C. marginata. 

Mt. Carmel (Nat. Mus.). 

Under the name C. picta this and the closely allied C. 
marginata are included by good authorities as varieties of one 
species, and as the former name has the right of priority it has 
come to be commonly applied by students to the individuals of 
the genus taken in Illinois. It is very probable, however, that 
C. incta will be found to be very rare in this State, if it occurs 
at all. C. marginata is at any rate the common species. Pre- 
vious to the publication of Kennicott's list of the animals of 
Cook county the two species were not discriminated by natu- 
ralists, and his statement as to the abundance of C. picta in 
the State doubtless applies to the other species. The two 
species may always be known by the difference in the relative 
positions of the dorsal and costal plates. Otherwise the differ- 
ences between them are not marked. In habits they are alike 
both frequenting lakes and ponds. They are occasionally 
found in small streams, but their preference seems to be for 
quiet water in which there are partly submerged rocks or logs 
upon which they may climb to bask in the sun. They are 
harmless and timid, slipping hurriedly into the water when 
approached. They are said to eat both animal and vegetable 
food. The eggs are elongate and are deposited by the mother 



228 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

in a small hole dug in the sand, and are then covered up and 
left to hatch in the heat of the sun. 

PSEUDEMYS, Gray. 

Gray, Cat. Shield Kept., 1855, p. 33. 

Carapace moderately depressed, l^lastron rather large, im- 
movably fixed to the carapace, w\i\\ no transverse hinge, emar- 
ginate before and behind. Wings of pectoral and abdominal 
plates well developed. Axillary and inguinal plates rather 
large and about equal in size. Alveolar surfaces of jaws rather 
wide and with a median ridge parallel to their margins. Digits 
5-4, moderately long, fully webbed. 

Ridges on alveolar surfaces of jaws smooth. Both jaws with 
smooth edges. 
With a broad orange stripe on each side of head. Carapace 

with yellow stripes P. elegans. 

Without orange stripe on head. Markings of head and neck 
obscure. Carapace without yellow stripes .. P. ^roos^/. 
Ridges on alveolar surfaces of jaws tuberculate. 

Both jaws with smooth edges. Shell greatly de- 
pressed P. hieroylyphica. 

Lower jaw with serrated edge. Not greatly de- 
pressed .P. concinna. 

Pseudemys elegans, Max. 

Emys elegans, Max., Reise Nord-Amer., I., 1839, pp. 176, 213. 
Tracheinys elegans, Agassiz, L., Contr. Nat. Hist. U. S., 1857, 1., p. 

4.35. 
Pseudemys elegans, Jordan, Man. Vert. N. U. S., 3d ed., 1880, p. 

165.— Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist., I., No. 

5, 1883, p. 56; Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 

Carapace moderately depressed, convex, with very slight 
indications of a keel in small examples only, emarginate be- 
tween the posterior marginal plates, making the edge obtusely 
serrate. Plastron emarginate before and behind. Anterior 
lateral angles of the gulars slightly produced. Head of medi- 
um size; upper jaw with a median emargination, lower jaw 
•with a corresponding median tooth. Digits 5-4. 



Reptiles and Amphibians of Illinois. 229 

Color above light olive-gray, varying sometimes to brown- 
ish red, with yellow stripes and obscure black lines. Beneath 
yellow, with a large central spot of black, and sometimes a 
blotch of blood-red on each plate. Head striped with orange 
and yellow, finely above, more coarsely on the sides and be- 
neath. Iris greenish yellow, black before and behind the pu- 
pil. A wide orange-red stripe extends from the posterior mar- 
gin of the eye backwards upon the neck, where it becomes 
narrower. A yellow stripe extends from the lower margin of 
the eye downward and backward between the angle of the 
mouth and the tympanum and thence along the neck. On 
the middle line, extending from the tooth of the mandible, is a 
stripe which soon bifurcates and sends backward on the infe- 
rior surface of the neck two large divergent stripes. A stripe 
about midway between the tooth of the lower jaw and the 
angle of the mouth unites with one starting at the lower bor- 
der of the eye, or may terminate short of it. The legs and 
tail are striped with yellow. 

Carapace of small examples about 4 inches long is 3.12 
inches wide and 1.62 inch deep. Adults reach a length of 8 
inches or more. 

Occurs in the larger streams of the southern two thirds of 
the State. Moderately common. Quincy, Henry, Peoria, 
Pekin, Havana, Mt. Carmel. 

A handsome species, approaching the painted turtles in 
the beauty of its colors. When the epidermal scales are re- 
moved from the shell the pattern is very different; on the car- 
apace the brown is entirely removed and the sub-epidermal 
plates are concentrically lined with black and yellow. The 
plates of the plastron when desquamated show a central black- 
ish spot with a pale center, and are yellow elsewhere. 

Pseudemys troosti, Holbr. 

Emys troofttu,Ko\br., N". A. Herp., 1842, 1., p. 123, pi. 20. 

Trachemys troostii, Agassiz, L., Contr. Nat. Hist. U. S., 1857, 1., 
p. ■ISo. 

Pseudemys troostu, Jordan, Man. Vert. N. U. S., 3d ed., 1880, p. 
165.— Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State L-ib. Nat. Hist, I., 
No. 5, 1883, p. 55; Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 



280 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural Histori/. 

Shell moderately convex above, the slope uniform in front, 
somewhat explanate above the insertion of the posterior legs, a 
trifle depressed centrally. Third, fourth, and fifth dorsal plates 
with an obscure rounded median ridge. Costal plates and the 
first and fifth dorsals strongly longitudinally rugose; the three 
central dorsals only faintly so. Nuchal plate slender, tapering 
forward; the two adjacent marginals with outer angles pro- 
jecting. Posterior five marginal plates of each side without 
outer angles, each with a marginal notch. Plastron a little 
rounded in front, nearly truncate; outer angles of the gulars 
bluntly tuberculate, the anterior edges roughened. Plastron 
broadly excised behind; anal plates with no angles. Head of 
medium size; jaws rather strong, the upper with a very slight 
median notch. Tympanum evident. Feet strong, the posterior 
pair greatly expanded and strongly webbed. 

Length of carapace, 9.25; width of same, 6.75; depth of 
shell, 3.50. 

Carapace greenish olive and black above, the former 
slightly predominating, the black confined chiefly to the mar- 
gins excepting on the two median costals, where it forms a 
transverse median band, the olive forming on most of the dor- 
sal and marginal plates large quadrate central spots; marginals 
beneath more extensively black, and with the greenish olive 
replaced with pale yellow. Plastron pale yellow and black, 
the latter extending along the sutures on the anterior two 
thirds of the plastron, but occupying most of the plates of the 
posterior lobe, leaving only central spots and part of the 
margins yellow. Head dusky, obscurely and finely mottled and 
spotted above with olive-brown, beneath narrowly and obscurely 
striped with greenish. Jaws horn-color with dots and dashes 
of black. Feet and tail dusky, with indefinite markings. 

Described from a single example taken on Long Island, in 
the Mississippi River at Quincy. The proportions of the black 
and yellow of the plastron are subject to considerable variation, 
sometimes one, sometimes the other predominating. 

This is one of our rarest species. The only examples in 
the State Laboratory collection were collected at Quincy. Mr. 
R. Ridgway of the United States National Museum has ob- 



Reptiles and Amphibians of Illinois. 231 

served the species at Mt. Carmel, and it has been taken also at 
Wheatland, some miles above Mt. Carmel. 

Pseudemys hieroglyphica, Holbr. 

Emys MeroglypMca, Holbr., N. A. Herp., 1842, 1., p. Ill, pi. 17- 
Ptychemys hieroglyphica, Agassiz, L., Contr. Nat. Hist. U. S., 

1857, 1., p. 434. 
Pseudemys hieroglyphica, Jordan, Man. Vert. N. U. S., 3d ed., 

1880, p. 165.— Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. 

Hist., I., No. 5, 1883, p. 55; Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci.. 1883. 

Shell oval, depressed, keelless, smooth, entire in front, 
elongated and imperfectly serrated behind; sternum oblong, 
nicked behind, dingy yellow, sides olive varied; head very 
small, upper jaw slightly emarginate, lower jaw with a tooth; 
first vertebral urceolate; each costal shield with four or five, 
and each marginal with dark spots with concentric yellow 
lines. — Gray. 

Length about twelve inches. 

The species has been observed only in the Wabash River. 
It resembles in some respects P. concinna, but is more depressed, 
and the mandible is not serrated. 

Pseudemys concinna, LeC. Floeida Cooter. 

Testudo concinna, LeC, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 1829, III., 

p 106. 
Emys concinna, Dum. et Bibr., Erp. Gen., 1835,11., p. 289.— Holbr., 

N. A. Herp., 1842, 1., 119, pi. 19.— Gray, Cat. Tortoises, etc., 

in Coll. Brit. Mus., 1844, p. 25. 
Ptychemys concinna, Agassiz, L., Contr. Nat. Hist. U. S., 1857, 

I., p. 432; II., pi. 1, fig. 13; pi. 2, fig. 4-C. 
Pseudemys concinna, Davis and Rice, Bull. III. State Lab. Nat. 

Hist., I., No. 5, 1883, p. 55. 

Large. Moderately depressed. Carapace oval in outline 
as seen from above, very slightly wider posteriorly and main- 
taining its width well towards the front; slope at the sides 
uniform; margins slightly flared anteriorly and posteriorly at 
the sides; without vertebral carina. Anterior margin with a 
wide, rounded, median emargination. Posterior margin with 
several slight teeth, consisting of the produced posterior parts 
of marginal plates. An acute median notch behind. Costal 
2 



282 Illinois State Labomtonj of Natural Ilistonj. 

plates with slight longitudinal rugfe. First and last dorsal 
plates with obsolete riigie. The remaining dorsal plates and 
the marginals smooth. Nuchal plate nearly twice as long as 
wide, its anterior edge straight. First dorsal plate vase-shaped 
in outline. The second and third dorsal plates are equal in 
size, are elongate, quadrangular, and about equally wide at 
both ends. The fourth dorsal plate is about equal in size to 
the two preceding plates and is elongate, but is hexagonal and 
narrowed behind. The fifth is the widest plate of the series, 
being about a third wider than long, and is sub-heptagonal. 
First costal plate triangular in general form, with its outer 
margin rounded. The remaining costal plates are quadran- 
gular, and decrease in relative size from before backwards. 
Anterior lateral angles of gular plates bluntly rounded. Pos- 
terior lobe of plastron with a median notch behind; on each 
side of the notch slightly sinuate. Inguinal plate produced 
forwards so as to exclude the greater part of the abdominal 
from the marginal plates. Head of medium size. Superior 
jaw with a perfectly smooth edge and a very slight median 
notch. Edge of lower jaw distinctly serrated and with a prom- 
inent median tooth; its outer surface roughened. Alveolar 
surfaces of jaws wide, with strongly toothed ridges. Feet 
completely webbed, with rather strong, slightly curved claws. 
Blackish above, obsoletely reticulate with yellow lines, the 
areas between these lines being occupied in most cases by nar- 
row, concentric lines of the same color. The lines on the 
dorsal plates are mostly longitudinal; those on the sides are 
mostly transverse. On the marginal plates are sets of concen- 
tric yellow lines, each set with two more or less evident 
central dots, one on each side of the line of union of two mar- 
ginal plates. Wider orange-red lines lie one across the middle 
of each marginal plate; they expand at the margin of the shell 
and bifurcate near the inner edges of the marginal plates, their 
branches uniting with each other or with the netted lines of 
the upper part of the surface. Plastron pale straw-yellow, 
without blotches; wings of the pectoral and abdominal plates 
each with two parallel dusky lines. Inguinal plate with a 
dusky ring. Marginal plates beneath orange-red, with large 
round dusky spots at the union of two plates, including in 



Beptiles and Amphibians of Illinois. 233 

some cases concentrically disposed lines of red corresponding 
to the yellow lines on the superior surfaces of these plates. 
Head and neck striped with yellow aad orange. A narrow 
yellow line extends along the middle of the head from the 
snout to a point just behind the orbit, where it abruptly 
expands and terminates. Lines on each side extend from 
the orbit backward upon the sides of the neck, where they 
become wider and more brightly colored. Of these lines two 
are more conspicuous than the others; one of them extends 
from the upper edge of the orbit, where it is very narrow, back- 
ward and downward, expanding on the posterior part of the 
head and becoming again somewhat narrower upon the neck; 
the other extends from the middle of the posterior edge of 
the orbit backward through the upper part of the tympa- 
num. From the inferior edge of the orbit a stripe extends 
downward and backward across the angle of the jaws and 
soon joins another stripe which arises on the middle of the 
lower jaw; from their point of union a conspicuous stripe con- 
tinues backward upon the lower part of the neck. A wide 
stripe extends from the symphysis of the lower jaw backward 
along the middle line for a short distance, and from it diverge, 
upon the inferior surface of the neck, two rather wide stripes. 
A narrow yellow stripe arises at each side of the median tooth 
of the lower jaw. A line of about the same width extends 
from the nostril directly downward, for a short distance, and 
thence obliquely backward to the middle of the side of the 
upper jaw. Legs and tail striped with orange. Skin anteriorly 
mottled with black and yellowish lines. Skin of the inguinal 
region white and immaculate. 

Length of shell, 12.75; depth, 4.75; width, 8.75. 

Apparently not common in the State. Taken only at 
Mt. Carmel. 

This is a southern species. A fine large example, from 
which the above description is drawn, was sent me some years 
ago by Dr. J. Schneck, to whom the credit of the discovery of the 
species within our limits belongs. The extralimital distribu- 
tion of the species includes all the South Atlantic and Gulf 
States from North Carolina to Texas. It occurs also, according 
to Prof. Louis Agassiz, in Arkansas and Missouri. The Illinois 



'-'34 lUinois State Laboratory of Natimd History. 

specimen, though a finely developed one, is abnormal in the 
possession of a pair of small symmetrical supernumerary mar- 
ginals, one on each side of the nuchal plate, making thirteen 
for each side and twenty-six in all. 

Malacoolemmys, Grat. 

Gray, Cat. Tortoises, etc., in Coll. Brit. Mus., 1844, p. 28. 

Carapace depressed, keeled. Plastron moderately large, 
immovably fixed to the carapace, with no transverse hinge, 
emarginate before and behind. Wings of pectoral and 
abdominal plates large. Axillary and inguinal plates present. 
Alveolar surfaces of the jaws smooth. Digits 5-4, long, fully 
webbed. 

A comma-shaped yellow mark behind each eye. Keels of 
second and third dorsal plates concave before the tuber- 
cles M. lesueuri. 

Spot behind eye not comma-shaped. Keels of second and third 
dorsal plates uniformly convex befoi'e the tubercles. 

M. geographicHS. 

Malacoclemmys lesueuri, Gray. Geographic Tortoise, 
Map Turtle. 

Emyfi lesueurii, Gray, Syn. Rep., 1831, p. 12. 

Emys geograpMca [in part], Dum. et Bibr. Erp. Gen., 1835, II., p. 

256. 
Emys pseudo-geographica Holbrook, N. A. Herp., 1842, I., p. 

103, pi. 15.- DeKay, Nat. Hist. N. Y., L, Zool. III., Rept. 

and Amph., 1842, p. 19, pi. 2, fig. 3. 
Graptemys lesueurii, Agassiz, L., Contr. Nat. Hist. U. S., 1857, 

I., p. 436; II., pi. 2, fig. 10-12. 
Malacoclemmys pseudogeographicus, Davis and Rice, Bull. Ill, 

State Lab. Nat. Hist., I., No. 5, 1883, p. 56; Bull. Chicago 

Acad. Sci., 1883. 

Carapace six to eight inches long. Depressed, with a ver- 
tebral ridge, from which the sides slope like the roof of a house 
in young, but are more convex in large examples. Keels of 
second and third dorsal plates concave before the tubercles. 
Plastron distinctly emarginate behind, angulate on each side 
of the emargination. Very slightly emarginate in front^ 



Reptiles and Amphibians of Illinois. 235 

Anterior lateral angles of gular plates slightly produced. 
Axillaries and inguinals equal. Head medium, its width con- 
tained about 6.4 times in length of carapace. Alveolar surface 
of jaws of moderate width, smooth, inner edges not elevated. 

Carapace greenish olive above, obscurely reticulated with 
yellow lines. A black spot on each tubercle of the vertebral 
ridge, and large imperfectly-defined black blotches at the poste- 
rior edges of costal and marginal plates. Plastron wholly or 
largely yellow in large examples, in young with a large central 
area black, lined with pale, and with short rays extending out 
along sutnres. Head, neck, feet, and tail, striped with yellow. 
Characteristic marks are as follows: a bright yellow comma- 
shaped spot behind each eye; a median stripe extending from 
the snout backward beyond the anterior edges of the spots 
behind the eyes. A spot on the symphysis of the mandible. 

Carapace of small example, 4.50 inches long, 3.75 wide, 
1.62 high. 

Throughout the State, but less common north. Quincy, 
Jersey Co., Wabash Valley (Ridgway), Ohio River, Cairo. 

This species resembles M. geographicus in a general way, 
but is very different in the size of its head and the width and 
character of the grinding surface of the jaws. The comma- 
shaped spots are sometimes isolated, forming large transverse 
spots. The line which begins on the tympanum in M. geo- 
graphicus seems to have no counterpart in this species. 

The young appear to take animal food chiefly. Stomachs 
of some of those examined contained only small gastropod 
mollusks. One had eaten a worm belonging to the order of 
Oligochffita, and a small percentage of vegetable matter. 
Most of the adults examined (from Quincy) had eaten noth- 
ing but the bulbs of a sedge {Cyperus phymatodes? ). 

Malacoclemmys geographicus, LeS. Geographic Tor- 
«T0iSE, Map Turti.e. 

Testudo geographica, LeS., Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1817, 

I., p. 80. 
Emys geographica, Say, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1825, IV., 

p. 204. 
Testudo geographica, LeC, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 1829, 

III., p. 108. 



230 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

Emys geociraphim [in part], Dum. et. Bibr., Erp. G('n., 1835, II. 

p. 256.— Holbr., N. A. Herp., 1842, I., p. 99. pi. H.^DeKay,' 

Nat. Hist.N. Y.,I., Zool., III., Kept, and Amph., 1842, p. 18, 

pi. 4, fig. 7. 
Oraptemys geographica, Agassiz, L., Contr. Nat. Hist. U.S., 1857, 

I., p. 43H; 11., pi. 2, fig. 7-9. 
MalacocJemmysgeograpMous, Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. 

Nat. Hist., I., No. 5, 1883, p. 5t'); Jiull. Chicago A^ad. Sci., 

1883. 

Carapace eight to ten inches long. Depressed, bluntly 
keeled. Keels of the dorsal plates regularly convex, posterior 
tubercles not very prominent. Sides a trifle less convex than 
in M. lesneuri. Outer margins of posterior marginal plates 
sinuate, and bluntly toothed. A wide notch between the two 
caudals. Plastron distinctly emarginate behind, slightly or not 
at all in front. Anterior angles of the galars slightly pro- 
duced, outer lateral margins of these plates sinuated. Axillary 
and inguinal plates equal. Posterior margins of anal plates an- 
gulate. Head very large, its width contained about 4.6 times 
in length of carapace. Alveolar surfaces of jaws very wide, 
the inner edges almost meeting at the middle line. 

Carapace above olive brown, obscurely reticulate with nar- 
row yellow lines. An undefined black spot on the posterior end 
of the vertebral keel of each dorsal plate. Black blotches 
at sutures between costal and marginal plates, sometimes also 
a pair of black dots on the dorsals. Marginal plates beneath 
with reniform blotches, including one or more yellow lines. 
Axillaries, iuguinals, and outer extremities of pectorals and 
abdominals marked with similar lines of dark and yellow. 
Plastron in adults largely yellow. Lines of union between 
plates gray or black; in young often with dark spots with pale 
centers in the anterior inner angles of abdominal plates. Head, 
neck, legs, and tail striped. Characteristic marks are as fol- 
lows: a longitudinally-placed spot behind each eye; a narrow 
dorsal line extending from the snout backward to about opposite 
the anterior margin of the spots behind the eyes, where it ter- 
minates abruptly; a stripe originating on each tympanum and 
thence extending downward and backward on the neck; and a 
stripe on the symphysis of the mandible. 



Reptiles and Amphibians of Illinois. 237 

Carapace of small example 3.50 long, 'i.87 wide, and 1.37 
high with plastron. 

Throughout Illinois in the larger streams and lakes; abund- 
ant. Nippersink Lake, Green River in Henry county, Ogle 
county, Quincy, Peoria, Pekin, Little Wabash River, St. Fran- 
.cisville. Little Fox River at Phillipstown, Cairo. 

This is a characteristic species of our waters and occurs in 
countless numbars in lakes, rivers, and flood-ground pools. 
Half the individuals which one may see perched upon logs dur- 
ing a day's boating in August would, if examined, prove to 
be of this species. It is exceedingly common in the Illinois 
and Mississippi rivers, where it is known ( with 31. lesueuri, 
from which it is not discriminated) as the mud turtle. It is 
timid and inoffensive in disposition, always sliding from bank 
or log when approached, and even when made captive shows 
none of the ferocity of '' leather backs " and snapping turtles. 
The great strength of its jaws (unsurpassed in massiveness 
among our Chelonia) would enable it to inflict serious wounds 
if it were so disposed, and it is a little surprising to find such 
efficient weapons of offense unaccompanied by special rugged- 
ness of temper. The unusual width of the masticatory sur- 
faces of the jaws suggests Mollusca at once as the proper food 
of this turtle, and an examination of the contents of stomachs 
from numerous examples, young and adult, shows that it de- 
pends entirely on these for sustenance. Small examples taken 
at Quincy, Illinois, had eaten nothing but the gastropod Val- 
vata tricarinata. 

Family CINOSTERNID^. 

Shell bony, covered with horny plates. Carapace convex, 
with five dorsal, eight costal, one nuchal, twenty marginal, and 
two caudal plates. Plastron small or moderately large, rounded 
before, truncate or emarginate behind, consisting of three por- 
tions, the median of which is covered only by the abdominal 
plates and is immovably united to the carapace, while the ante- 
rior and posterior lobes are attached to the median fixed portion 
by transverse hinges. A single gular plate. Pectorals not 
forming part of the bridge. Axillary and inguinal of each 



238 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

side nearly or quite in contact between the abdominals and 
marginals. Head large, with gular barbels. Digits 5-4, fully 
webbed. 

Plastron moderately wide. Wings o£ the abdominal plates 
wide, with a deep groove behind. Head large, with arhom- 
boidal plate above Cinosternum. 

Plastron narrower. Wings of abdominal plates narrow, not 
grooved behind. Head of moderate size, with no plate 
above Aromochelts. 

CiNOSTERNUM, Spix. 

Spix [Kinosternon] Ranse et Testudinis brasiliensis species novae, 

1825, p. 17. 
Wagler, Nat. Syst. Amph., 1830, p. 137. 

Carapace elongate, convex, smooth. Plastron moderately 
large, rounded before, truncate or slightly emarginate behind. 
Wings of abdominal plates wide, with a groove behind. In- 
guinal and axillary plates with the wings of the abdominals 
forming the bridge between plastron and carapace. Digits 5-4, 
fully webbed. Head large, with a large rhomboidal plate above. 
Tail with a terminal nail. 

Oinosternum pennsylvanicum, Umel. Mud Tortoise. 

Testudo pennsylvanica, Gmel., Syst. Nat. 1788, 1., p. 1042. 
Cistudo pennsylvanica, Say, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1825, 

IV., pp. 206, 216. 
Testudo pennsylvanica, LeC, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y., 1829, 

III., p. 120. 
Cinosternon pennsylvanicum, Dum. et. Bibr., Erp. Gen., 1835, II., 

p. 3(37. 
Kinosternon pennsylvanicum, Holbv. N. A. Herp., 1842, I., p. 127, 

pi. 21.— De Kay, Nat. Hist. N. Y., I., Zool. III., Kept, and 

Amph., 1842, p. 21, pi. II., fig. 4. — LeC, Proc. Acad. Nat. 

Sci. Phila., 1854, YII., p. 183. 
Cinosternum pennsylvanicum, Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State 

Lab. Nat. Hist. I., No. 5, 1883, p. 54; Bull. Chicago Acad. 

Sci., 1883. 



Reptiles and Amphibians of Illinois. 239 

Carapace about four inches long, smooth, elongate, strongly- 
convex, abruptly rounded behind, margins entire or slightly 
sinuate. Nuchal plate small, widest behind. Dorsals widest 
in front. Costals very large, transverse; marginals small and 
elongate. Plastron rounded before, truncate behind. Pectorals 
very much narrowed towards the middle line, forming no part 
of the bridge between plastron and carapace. Abdominals 
very large, wings with a deep groove behind. Axillary small 
and elongate; inguinal large, the two almost meeting between 
the wings of the pectorals and the marginals of the carapace. 
Preanals with strongly rounded outer margins. Head large, 
contracted towards the snout; jaws strong, the upper toothed. 
Chin with two tentacles; two other tentacles situated farther 
back on the throat. Legs short and strong, the anterior with 
a few tranverse scales above and a few small ones on the palm, 
posterior with scales on the soles but with no transverse ones 
above; digits 5-4, with imbricated scales above, claws sharp and 
curved. Skin of the posterior part of the body and of the tail 
tuberculate, the latter with a terminal nail. 

Olive-brown above, uniform or with a few small blackish 
spots; yellowish beneath, with the sutures and margins of the 
plates dark. Head brown above with paler spots and lines. 
Iris brown. 

Length of shell, 3.62; width, 2.62; depth, 1.50 

Southern Illinois, not rare. Peoria ( Brendel ), Mt. Carmel, 
common (Ridgway). 

A small, obscurely-colored species, readily recognized by its 
single gular plate, convex shell, large head, with plate above, 
and gular tentacles. In the form of its head it resembles the 
snapping turtle and, like that reptile, bites viciously, though 
from its small size it is less to be feared. It preys largely on 
fishes, and will occasionally take the bait of the angler. The 
species is southern in its distribution and is probably not com- 
mon in this State away from the southern counties. It fre- 
quents muddy ditches by roadsides and the stagnant waters of 
swamps. The eggs are elongate. 



240 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 
Aromoohelys, (jRAY. 

Gray, Cat. Shield Kept., 1855, p. 40. 

Carapace convex, smooth or keeled. Plastron small, nar- 
row, rounded before, emarginate behind; bridges formed of the 
narrow wings of the abdominal and the contiguous axillary 
and inguinal of each side. Digits 5-4, fully webbed. Head of 
moderate size. 

No stripes on sides of head. Plates of carapace with black 
margins and radiating pale stripes A. carinatus. 

Sides of head striped. Plates of carapace uniform in color. 

A. odoratus. 

Aromoohelys carinatus, Gray. Little Mud Turtle. 

Aromochelys carinatus, Gray, Cat. Shield Kept. Brit. Mus., 1855, 

p. 47. 
Ozotheca tristycha, Aa;assiz, Contr. ]^at. Hist. U. S., 1857, p. 425; 

II., pi. 5, fig. 20-22. 
Aromochelys carinatus, Jordan, Man. Vert. N. U. S., 3d ed., 1880, 

p. 166.— Davis and Kice, Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist, I., 

No. 5, 1883, p. 53; Bull. Chicago Acad. Sei., 1883. 

Plates of the carapace imbricated, with black margins 
and radiating pale stripes. No stripes on the sides of the 
head. Otherwise similar to the following species. 

Lake county (Davis and Rice). 

This is a southern species which I have not taken in the 
State. It is included here on the authority of Messrs. Davis 
and Rice, who report it from Lake county. 

Aromochelys odoratus, Latreille. Musk Turtle. 

Testudo odorata, Latr., Hist. Nat. Kept., 1801, 1., p. 122.— Le C, 

Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. T., 1829, III., p. 122. 
Cistudo odorata, Say, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sei. Phila., 1824, pp. 206, 

216. 
Staurotypus odoratus, Dum. et Bibr., Erp. G^n., 1835, II., p. 358. 
Sternothoerus odoratus, Holbr., N. A. Herp., 1842, 1., p. 133, pi. 22. 

-De Kay, Nat. Hist. N. Y., I., Zool. III., Reptiles and 

Amph., 1842, p. 22, pi. 7, fig. 13. 



Reptiles and Amphibians of Illinois. 241 

Ozotheca odorata, Agassiz, L., Contr. Nat. Hist. U. S., 1857, 1., p. 

425; IL, pi. 4, fig. 1-6. 
Aromochelys odonttus, Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. 

Hist., I., No. 5, 1883, p. 53; Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 

Shell elongate, convex, widest posteriorly, smooth or with 
an indistinct vertebral ridge in adults, distinctly keeled in 
young. Nuchal plate small, elongate, and widest behind in 
adults. First dorsal about half as wide behind as in front; the 
three following dorsals hexagonal; last dorsal about half as 
wide before as behind. Costals very large, covering the greater 
portion of the carapace. Marginals, excepting one on each 
side of the two caudals, narrow and elongate; the two mar- 
ginals next the caudals equal to the caudals in size and about 
twice the width of the other marginals. Plastron small, 
rounded anteriorly, emarginate posteriorly. A single small 
gular; postgulars small; pectorals large, and not specially nar- 
rowed towards the middle line. Axillaries and inguinals meet- 
ing and with the wings of the large abdominal plates forming 
the bridge between the plastron and carapace. Head large; 
snout conical; jaws very strong. Two to four gular tentacles; 
two more widely separated ones on the throat and with numer- 
ous small tuberculiforni tentacles in series on the skin of the 
neck. Anterior feet with about three transverse scales on their 
anterior surface and with a few small ones on the palms; pos- 
terior feet with transverse scutes on the heel. Digits 5— t, claws 
sharp and curved. Skin of legs and tail with numerous papillas. 

Color of shell brownish black above and below in adults, 
more or less yellowish beneath in young. Head greenish olive 
or black with several stripes of yellow. A narrow stripe ex- 
tends from the tip of the snout to the upper part of the eye 
and is continued behind the eye by a stripe which terminates 
abruptly in a spot on the side of the head. Another stripe of 
the same color extends from beneath the nostril, where it meets 
its fellow of the opposite side, backward beneath the eye, and 
continues along the neck. There is a short stripe on each side 
of the lower jaw which may continue posteriorly on the skin 
of the neck. Other stripes are formed by the approximation 
of the light-colored tentacles. Very young examples have a 
distinct pale spot on the under side of each marginal plate, 



242 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

showing above as a very narrow marginal spot. Posterior 
margins of legs and edges of webs of the feet yellow. 

Length of shell, 4.r)U, width, ;}.lt»; depth, 2. 

Occurs in streams and lakes throughout the State. Deep 
Lake, Lake Co.; Chicago: Peoria (Brendel); Pekin; Little Fox 
River at Phillipstown; Running Lake, in Union Co.; Southern 
111., common (Butler). 

Few of our turtles change more with age than this. The 
carapace in young examples is sharply keeled and the posterior 
margins of the plates are elevated, giving an appearance of 
imbrication; the nuchal plate is square or transverse, while the 
marginals are nearly or quite as wide as they are long. In old 
examples there is no trace of a dorsal keel or appearance of 
imbrication. This is a small but strong and irritable species 
which occurs in considerable numbers in muddy lakes and 
rivers. 

Family OHELYDRID^. 

Shell bony, covered with horny plates. Plastron small, 
cross-shaped, with ten, nine, eight, or fewer, plates. Inguinals 
present or wanting. Head large, jaws naked. Digits 5-4, the 
two median longest; fully webbed. 

With two rows of marginal plates on each side. Head with 
symmetrical plates. Tail without dorsal crest. 

Macroclemts. 

With one row of marginal plates for each side. Plates of 
head small and indistinct. Tail with a dorsal series of 
elevated plates forming a crest Chelydra. 

Macroolemys, Gray. 

Gray, Cat. Shield Rept., 1885, p. 48. 

Cope [Macrochelysl Proc. Acad. Nat. Sol. Phila., 1872, p. 23. 

Carapace with a wide channel on each side of the middle 
line, with two rows of marginal plates. Plastron small; bridges 
narrow, each covered by an elongate plate within, and without 
by the contiguous axillary and inguinal. Head very large, 
with symmetrically disposed plates above. 



Reptiles and Amphibians of Illinois. 248 

Macroclemys lacertina, Schw. Alligatoe Snapper. 

Chehjclra lacertina, Schweigger, Prod. Mon. Chel., 1814, p. 23. 
Chelonura temminckii, Holbr., N. A. Herp., 1842, 1., p. 147, pi. 

24.— De Kay, Nat. Hist. N. Y., I., Zool. III., Kept, and 

Amph., 1842, p. 9. 
Gypochehjs lacertina, Agassiz, L., Contr. Nat. Hist. U. S., 1857, 

I., p. 414; II., pi. 5, lig. 23-27. 
MacrocheJys lacertina, Davis and Rice. Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. 

Hist., I., No. 5, 1883, p. 53; Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 

Length of adults two feet or more. Head very large, with 
small imbedded plates above; jaws strong, the upper hooked. 
Shell with a deep channel on each side of the middle line, 
leaving three longitudinal convex ridges; emarginate and 
toothed behind. Tail long, without the elevated dorsal plates 
of CheUjdra serpentina. Skin with numerous short tentacles. 

Quincy, Cairo, Grayville (Ridgway), Union county (C. W. 
Butler). 

This large species is similar to the common snapping tur- 
tle. It inhabits the larger streams of the south part of the 
State, though as Dr. Hoy has observed it in Wisconsin, it 
probably occurs occasionally in northern Illinois. It attains 
an unusual size, even exceeding in this respect the commoner 
species. Mr, R. Ridgway saw a specimen at Grayville, 111., 
which was "large enough to walk with a man standing on his 
back." A large example in the Illinois State Laboratory col- 
lection weighed when alive over eighty pounds. The width of 
the shell at the bridge of the plastron was 17.50 inches; the 
length of carapace 22,50 inches; and its depth 7,50 inches. 
The head measured 6.50 inches in width. Orbit one inch in 
diameter; eye small; iris black, with brown bars radiating 
from the pupil. 

Chelydra, Schweigger, 

Schweigger, Prod. Mon. Chel,, 1814, p. 23. 
Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 1872, p. 23. 

Carapace uniformly convex in adults, obscurely channeled 
on each side of the middle line in young, with a single row of 
marginal plates. Plastron small, with nine or ten plates; 
bridges narrow, each covered by an elongate plate (not repre- 



244 Illinois State Lahoratorij of Natural ll/storij. 

sented in higher turtles) within, and without by the contigu- 
ous axillary and inguinal. Head very large, with small plates 
above. 

Ohelydra serpentina, Linn. Snapping Turtle. 

Testudo serpentina, Linn. Syst. Nat., 1758, p. 199. 

Chelonura serpentina, Say, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 1825, 

IV., pp. 206, 217. 
Testudo serpentina, LeC, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 1829, III.. 

p. 127. 
Emysaura serpentina, [in part], Dum. et iiibr., Erp. Gen., 1835, 

II., p. 350. 
Chelonura serpentina, Holbr., N. A. Herp., 1842, I., p. 139, pi. 

23.— De Kay, Nat. Hist. N.Y., I., Zool. III., Kept, and Amph., 

1842, p. 8, pi. 3, fig. G, young.— Kenn., Trans. 111. State Agr. 

Soc, 1853-54, I., p. 591. 
Chelydra serpentina, Agassiz, L., Contr. Nat. Hist. U. S., 1857, I., 

p. 417; II., pi. 4, fig. 13-16, and pi. 5, fig. 18, 19.— Davis and 

Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist., I., No. 5, 1883, p. 53; 

Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 

Length from two to four feet. Carapace oval in outline 
seen from above, depressed, rounded in front, toothed behind. 
Dorsal plates nearly equal in size; costals but little longer; 
marginals very small. Plastron very small, leaving the greater 
part of the ventral surface of the animal exposed. Gular 
plates wanting; post-gulars small. Abdominals large, not 
forming part of the bridge between the carapace and plastron. 
Bridge narrow, covered by the axillary, inguinal, and, in great 
part, by an elongate extra plate. Head large; snout pointed; 
both jaws with a median tooth. Several gular tentacles. An- 
terior legs with transverse scales in front. Soles with small 
round scales. Posterior legs with transverse scales before and 
with both transversely elongate and round scales on the soles. 
Digits 4-5. Tail long, tapering, with a series of compressed 
and elevated plates above, and beneath with a series of flat 
paired scales. 

Blackish brown above, pale yellow beneath. Superior 
surface of the head, eyelids, and the jaws more or less speckled 
and lined with brown. 

Length of shell, 4.50; width, :^.50; depth, 2.50. Measure- 
ments from small example. 



Reptiles and Aniphibi'ivs of Illinois. 245 

Nippersink Lake, Cook Co. (Kennicott); Greiii River, at 
Genesee; Quincy; Peoria; Havana; Normal; Champaign; Union 
Co.; Mt. Carmel (Nat. Mus.). 

This is one of our largest reptiles. It is extremely pug- 
nacious and is to be handled carefully on account of the readi- 
ness with which it uses its sharp and powerful jaws. A bite 
from one of the larger examples would probably amputate a 
finger, at any rate do serious harm. Their food consists of all 
manner of small animals, such as fishes, frogs, reptiles, and 
young water birds. They are reported to have an especial 
fondness for young ducks. The eggs are deposited in holes 
dug in the sand along the banks of creeks, in June and July. 
The flesh is esteemed by many as a luxury, and the fishermen 
along the Illinois River find ready sale for those captured in 
their nets. The carapace in young turtles is much rougher 
than in adults, in consequence of the greater prominence of 
the radiating carinae of the plates. 

Young just from the egg are about ^laO inches long, with 
very rough shell. The snout is provided with a small, horny, 
pointed cap, with which the shell of the egg is broken. Young 
kept in an aquarium had an amusing way of burying them- 
selves in the sand, leaving only the tip of their snout exposed; 
when fall came on they buried themselves completely for hi- 
bernation. The writer has seen a pair of young scarcely less 
remarkable in their way than the noted Siamese twins. They 
were attached side by side for the most of their lengths. Both, 
as far as could be seen, were perfectly developed, and both 
were alive. The larger turtle was quite as strong as other 
turtles of the same age; the other was less strong, but its hold 
on life was not apparently feeble. 

Family TRIONYOHID^. 

Body flattened; shell covered with a continuous skin, gen- 
erally cartilaginous at the margins. Head slender, covered 
with soft skin; nostrils opening at the end of a fleshy probos- 
cis; horny coverings of jaws concealed at the sides by fleshy 
lips. Digits 5-5, with large webs, first three with claws, the 
fourth and fifth clawless and concealed in the webs. Aquatic. 



246 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

Nasal septum with a ridge on each side. Edge of upper jaw 
serrulate Aspidonectes. 

Nasal septum with no ridges. Edge of upper jaw serrate. 

Amtda. 

Aspidonectes, Wagler. 

Wagler, Nat. Syst. Amph., 1830, p. 134. 

With a ridge on each side of the nasal septum. Nostrils 
terminal. Edge of upper jaw serrulate. Head a trifle wider 
than in Amyda. 

Aspidonectes spinifer, LeS. Soft- shelled Turtle, Leath- 
er-back. 

Trionyx spiniferus, LeS., Mem. Mus., 1827, XV., p. 258. 
Aspidonectes spinifer, Agassiz, L., Contr. Nat. Hist. U. S., 1857. 

I., p. 403.— Jordan, Man. Vert. N. U. S., Sd ed., 1880, p. 168.— 

Smith. Geol. Surv. Ohio, Zool. and Bot., IV., 1882, p. 668. 

— Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist., I., No. 5, 

1883, p. 52; Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 

Length about eight inches. Carapace greatly depressed, 
with a slight, convex, longitudinal ridge anteriorly, with small 
tubercles on its anterior margin, and in some specimens with 
the entire surface roughened with small grain-like elevated 
points. Plastron large, anterior, leaving the posterior legs ex- 
posed. Head small, pointed, with a fleshy proboscis bearing 
the nostrils. Horny covering of the jaws concealed at the 
sides by fleshy lips. Legs strong, anterior pair with several 
transverse scales above, posterior with a single large scale. 
Feet with marginal and interdigital webs. Digits 5-5, the 
first three on each foot with claws, the remaining two of each 
foot with no claws and concealed in the webs. 

Color olive-brown above. Carapace with round, brown, 
pale-margined spots, those nearest the middle being the largest; 
the margin at the sides and behind pale, bounded within by 
a blackish line. A pale stripe, edged with black, extends from 
the snout to the eye, and behind the latter continues backward 
and downward to the side of the neck. A similar stripe ex- 
tends backward from each angle of the mouth. Superior sur- 
face of the neck with small blackish spots; inferior surface of 



Reptiles and Ampldhians of Illinois. 247 

the same spotted and reticulate with black. Legs above and 
feet above and below marked with black. Young examples 
sometimes show a line of blackish specks on the under side of 
the plastron extending from the anterior legs to the outside of 
the posterior pair. 

Length of carapace, 6.00; width, 5.50; depth, with plas- 
tron, 1.87. 

Throughout the State. Rock Creek, Piano; Oregon; 
Quincy; Peoria (Brendel); Bluff Lake, Union Co.; Wabash 
River, Mt. Carmel (Ridgway). 

Very similar to Amyda mutica in form and habits, and 
perhaps the two should be placed in one genus. They may be 
distinguished by the presence or absence of the septa of the 
nostrils, as described. The round ocellate spots of the carapace 
and the black-marked feet of this species are characteristic. 
The habits of the two, so far as known, are the same. Both 
species appear in the fish markets at Peoria, but are not dis- 
criminated, all passing under the name of soft-shells or leather- 
backs. 

Amyda, Fitzinger. 

Fitzinger, Syn. Kept., 1843, p. 30. 

Margin of upper jaw distinctly serrate. Nostrils slightly 
inferior. No ridges on the nasal septum. Head more slender 
than in Aspidonectes. 

Amyda mutica, LeS. Soft-shelled Turtle, Leather-back. 

Trionyx muticus, LeS., Mem. Mas., 1827, XV., p. 263.— Holbr., N. 
A. Herp., 1842, II., p. 19, pi. 2. 

Amyda mutica, Agcissiz, L., Contr. Nat. Hist. V. IS., 1857, I., p. 
390; II., pi, (5, fig. 6. 7. — Jordan, Man. Vert. N. U. S., 3d ed., 
1S80, p. 168. — Smith, Geol. Surv. Ohio, Zoo), and Bot., IV., 
1882, p. 668.— Davis andliice, Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist.. 
I., No. 5, 1883, p. 52; Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 

Length about eight inches. Carapace and plastron carti- 
laginous in great part, greatly depressed, smooth. Plastron 
anterior, leaving the posterior legs exposed. Head small, slen- 
der, pointed; nostrils opening in the extremity of a short, 
fleshy proboscis. Jaws contracted, the horny covering con- 
3 



248 Illinois State Lahomtonj of Natural History. 

cealed at the sides by fleshy lips. Legs strong, with marginal 
and interdigital webs, anterior vvith a few transverse scales 
above, posterior with a single large scale. Digits 5-5, the first 
three of all the feet with claws, the two outer without- claws 
and concealed in the webs. 

Dorsal surfaces of head, legs, and carapace olive-brown, 
the carapace with small obscure blackish spots and short lines, 
and with a pale margin preceded by a blackish line. Plastron 
and the head and legs beneath white and unmarked. A pale, 
black-edged stripe extends from the snout to the eye, and is 
continued behind the latter backward and downward to the 
side of the neck. 

Length of carapace, 0.50; width, 5.00; depth, with the 
plastron, 1. 

In running water throughout the State. Mackinaw Creek, 
Woodford Co.; Quincy; Illinois River, Peoria; Wabash R., Mt. 
Carmel (Ridgway); Ohio River, Cairo. 

The leather-back is never found at any great distance 
from water. The time for oviposition is in the fore part of 
July, and at this season the female searches out a sloping 
bank up which she creeps a short distance and deposits her 
eggs in a hole dug in the sand. At other seasons these turtles 
remain in the water, though they may often be seen at its 
edge basking in the sun. They are expert swimmers and 
can move with considerable speed against a strong current. 
Hundreds of them may be seen at the foot of dams across the 
Illinois River in July, where they apparently collect in at- 
tempting to get further up the stream. They take the hook 
occasionally, and their flesh is highly esteemed as food. 

ORDER SAURIA. 

Body elongated and covered with numerous small imbri- 
cated scales. Four limbs (rarely wanting). Shoulder girdle 
always present. Eyelids and external organs of hearing pres- 
ent. Jaws with teeth set in a continuous groove; jaws not 
dilatable. Heart with three chambers. Urinary bladder pres- 
ent. Oviparous, with a few exceptions. 

Our lizards are almost confined to the southern third of 
the State, where two species q,re very common. The joint 



Reptiles and Amphibians of lUinois. 249 

snake occurs in the central part of the State, but grows more 
common southwards. The six-lined lizard appears to be very 
local in its distribution in the State, and has only been ob- 
served in the central and northern parts. AH our species are 
insectivorous. They are perfectly harmless to man, although 
large examples of the blue-tailed lizard have received the name 
" red-headed scorpion " under the impression that they are poi- 
sonous. This cannot, however, be said of all lizards; a large 
western species ( Heloderma suspect um) introduces a poison 
into wounds produced with its teeth, which may afEect the sys- 
tem very injuriously. Recent lizards are nearly all terrestrial 
in habit, and none of the Illinois species are aquatic. 

SYNOPSIS OF THE FAMILIES REPKESENTED IN ILLINOIS. 

Tongue not bifid. Legs four. Scales imbricated, carinated 
above. A fold of the skin on each side of the neck. Proxi- 
mal end of clavicle simple Tguanid^, 

Tongue deeply bifid, with an ensheathing base. Legs wanting , 
or with a pair of rudimentary hind legs. Body serpenti- 
form. A lateral longitudinal groove. Proximal end of 
clavicle simple Anguid^e. 

Tongue bifid, but with no ensheathing base. Legs four. Two 
transverse subgular folds of the skin. Scales granular 
above, large below. Premaxillary single. Clavical dilated 
at proximal end Teid.^. 

Tongue notched at the tip. Legs four. No transverse subgu- 
lar folds. Scales smooth and about uniform in size above 
and below. Premaxillary double. Proximal end of clavi- 
cle simple SciNciD^. 

Family IGUANID^E. 

Tongue short, thick, fleshy, but slightly free in front, 
scarcely bifid. Teeth attached to the inuer face of the jaws, 
pleurodent. Femoral pores present or absent. Premaxillary 
single. Clavicle with simple proximal ends. Mesosternum an- 
chor-shaped. A xiphisternal fontanel present. Abdominal ribs 
generally wanting. 



250 Illinois State Laboraforij of Natural History. 
SCELOPORUS, WiEG. 

Wiegmann, Isis, 1S28, p. 369. 

Holbrook, N. A. Herp., 1842, II., p. 73. 

Hoffmann, Bronn's Thier-Keich, 1883, VI., Reptilien, p. 1238. 

Body somewhat depressed. Head shorh, convex above; 
plates mostly small. Interparietal largest. Nostril near the 
margin of the snout, opening in a single plate. Several series 
of supraciliaries. No subgular fold. A short fold on each 
side of the neck. Scales imbricated, those of the back and 
tail carinated, those of the belly smooth. Tail rather short, 
depressed and thickened at the base. Femoral pores well de- 
veloped. No anal pores. 

Sceloporus undulatus, Bosc. Brown Swift, Pine-tree 
Lizard. 

IStellio undulatus, Bosc, Latreille's Nat. Hist. Rept., 1801, II., p. 

40. 
Lacerta hyacinthina {i) and L.fasciata (?), Green, Jour. Acad. 

Nat. Sci. Phila., 1818, p. 349. 
A(/ama undulata, Harlan, Med. and Phys. Res., 1853, p. 140. 
Tropidolepis undulata, Dum. et Bibr. Erp. Gen., IV., 1837, p. 298. 

—Holbrook, N. A. Herp., 1842, II., p. 73, pi. 9.— De Kay, Nat. 

Hist. N. Y.. I., Zool. III., Rept. and Amph., 1842, p. 31, pi. 

8, fig. 16.— Gray, Cat. Spec. Lizards in Coll. Brit. Mus., 1845, 

p. 208. ^ 

Sceloporus undulatus, subsp. undulatus, Davis and Rice, Bull. 

111. State Lab. Nat. Hist, I., No. 5, 1883, p. 48; Bull. Chicago 

Acad. Sci., 1883. 

Total length about six and a half inches. Scales large 
above, sharply carinate and mucronate, many of them with 
notches on each side of the apex, about forty-five in a row from 
the parietals to a point opposite the vent. Scales below not 
carinate nor mucronate but'with an apical notch. Scales in a 
transverse row midway between the fore and hind legs, about 
forty-five. Femoral pores from twelve to sixteen. Two 
frontal plates. Five series of supraciliaries, one of large plates, 
and an inner one and three outer series of small obtusely cari- 
nate ones. From two to four small frontoparietals. Four 
small parietals and a single very large interparietal From 



Reptiles and Amphibians of Illinois. 251 

six to eight prefrontals. Internasals about ten, varying 
greatly in number, most of them obtusely carinate. A single 
nasal plate with the nostril opening in its posterior part. Au- 
ricular aperture large, bordered anteriorly with five acutely- 
pointed scales. Three rows of small supralabials. On the 
side of the neck behind the ear is a fold of the skin overlying 
a vertical impression which is lined with minute scales. Scales 
on the superior surface of the legs carinate; those on the pos- 
terior surfaces of the humeri and femora very small. All the 
scales on the tail are carinate and verticillated. A curved lin- 
ear impression behind the vent. 

Color above grayish brown, with a series of transverse 
curved black bars on each side of the back. Tail and legs 
above barred with black. All the bars bordered posteriorly 
with pale. A narrow black line extends from the eye posteri- 
orly over the ear and fore leg, and may terminate behind the 
latter or pass into a brown band which continues along the 
side of the abdomen. This last is often obscure or wanting. 
A narrow black line crosses the head from one supraciliary 
ridge to the other. Color beneath grayish white or bluish; in 
females and young with no, or few, green or blue scales on the 
throat, and with the throat, sides, and ventral surfaces of the 
femora speckled with black, generally with a short, dark medi- 
an band before the vent; in males with most of the throat and 
a large elongate patch on each side of the abdomen of a me- 
tallic blue or green color. 

Length from tip of snout to vent, 3.00; from vent to tip 
of tail, 3.62. 

Southern Illinois, abundant. Grafton, Belleville (Nat. 
Mus.), Cobden, Anna, Johnson Co., Cave in Rock, Villa Ridge, 
Cairo. 

This is by far the most abundant lizard in Illinois. It 
seems to be confined chiefly to the southern third of the State; 
as far as I know no specimens have been collected north of 
Grafton, in Jersey county. Dr. Hoy, however, took a specimen 
in Wisconsin in 1850, and we shall not therefore be surprised 
if after more careful collecting the species is found to occur 
farther north in Illinois. But it is always to be remembered 
that the great change in the character of this State wrought 



252 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

in the last forty years by the felling of timber, cultivation of 
the soil, and draining of ponds ard swamp lands, has had its 
effect upon our fauna, and the capture of a species in central or 
northern Illinois forty years ago is not necessarily evidence as 
to the present distribution of the species. Southern birds and 
serpents which were in early days not rare in the latitude of 
Blooraington and Peoria are now not found away from south- 
ern Illinois, some of them not in the State at all. The food of 
the brown swift consists of insects. The stomach of an exam- 
ple from southern Illinois, dissected Jan. 12, 1885, was nearly 
filled with small ants (Crematogaster), and contained besides, 
two beetles (one a carabid, the other a chrysomelid) and a 
cricket. It is commonly seen on old rail fences or in the woods 
on logs. It runs with great rapidity, and often eludes the col- 
lector by scampering up the trunks of trees. 

Family ANGUID^. 

Legs wanting or two rudimentary posterior legs present. 
Body long and serpentiform, with lateral longitudinal grooves. 
Head pyramidal. Tongue bifid, extensile, with squamiform 
papillae. Teeth placed on the inside of the jaws and project- 
ing inwards. 

Ophisaurus, Daudin. 

Daudin, Hist. Nat. Kept., 1803. VII., p. 346. 
Dum. et Blbr., Erp. (ien., 1839, V., p. 421. 
Holbrook, N. A. Herp., 1842, II., p. 139. 

Legs wanting. Ear-opening present, small. Eyelids well 
developed. A deep groove along each side of the abdomen. 
Two longitudinal series of teeth on the roof of the mouth 
borne on the pterygoids and palatines. Several supranasals. 
Nostril lateral, opening through a single plate. Sternal bones 
represented by rudimentary cartilages; clavicles not meeting at 
the middle line. Pelvis rudimentary and cartilaginous, the 
cartilages of opposite sides not meeting at the middle line, each 
bearing a minute cartilage representing femora. 

The species described is the only one in the genus. 



Reptiles and Ampliibians of Illinois. 253 

Ophisaurus ventralis, Linn. Joint -snake, Glass -snake. 

Anguis ventralis, Linn., Syst. Nat, 1766, p. 391. 

Ophisaurus ventralis, Dum. et Bibr., Erp. Gen., V., 1839, p. 423. 

-De Kay, Nat. Hist. N. Y., I., Zool. III., Rept. and Amph. 

1842, p. 34; Holbr. N. A. Herp., 1842, II., p. 139, pi. 20.— Gray, 

Cat. Spec. liizards in Coll. Brit. Mas., 1845, p. 56. 
Ophiosaurus lineatus, Kenn., Trans. 111. State Agr. Soc, 1853-54, 

I., p. 591, 
Opheosaurus ventralis, Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. 

Hist., I., No. 5, 1883, p. 48; Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 

Total length about twenty-eight inches. Body long and 
slender. Scales equal in size above and below, those on the pos- 
terior part of the body and on the tail with a slight median ridge 
forming obtuse longitudinal carinae. Aperture of the ear small. 
A deep groove extending from a short distance behind the ear 
along the sides of the abdomen to the vent. Scales in a longi- 
tudinal row from the parietals to a point opposite the vent, 
about one hundred and twenty-five. Scales in a transverse row 
about midway between the head and vent, twenty- four. Head 
continuous with the body, compressed forwards and pointed. 
Two series of supraciliary plates. Frontal large, widest behind. 
Two small frontoparietals. Two large parietals and a pentag- 
onal interparietal. Two prefrontals. Internasal large, as 
broad as long. Seven supranasals. Nasal plate small. Ros- 
tral slightly wider than high. Eleven supralabials, the ninth 
and tenth largest. Marginal series of infralabials elongate 
and narrow. 

Color above clay yellow,, or brown or greenish olive, with a 
median longitudinal stripe of brown, and on each side above 
the lateral grooves a wide black or brown stripe including 
three narrow whitish lines. On the sides of the abdomen be- 
neath the lateral grooves are two narrow dark stripes. Beneath 
whitish, unspotted. 

Length of body to the vent 28.25; tail beyond vent. It). 

Throughout the State; rare in the north; formerly common 
in central and southern Illinois, but now fast disappearing. 
Cook Co. (Kennicott), Stark Co. (Boardman), Peoria ( Bren- 
del), Normal, Wabash Valley (Ridgway). 

The colors of Illinois specimens of the joint snake are 
generally disposed in distinct longitudinal dark and pale stripes, 



254 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural Histonj. 

as described. Occasional specimens occur in which the dark of 
the sides is intimately mingled with pale, and the pale stripes 
of the back may be thickly speckled with black or brown. 
This form seems to be more common farther south. In young 
examples the dark and pale stripes of the side are of about equal 
width. Formerly this was a very common species in dry prairie 
regions, but its haunts have been destroyed by the cultiva- 
tion of the soil, and few can now be found. Many of those 
now captured have stubbed tails, these organs having been pre- 
viously broken and partially reproduced. The small boy de- 
voutly believes this species to possess the power of " coming 
together" again after being broken into fragments. It should 
be unnecessary to state here more than that it is only the long 
tail which breaks, and that this appendage is scarcely more 
brittle than are the tails of other lizards. An example dis- 
sected had eaten crickets. 

The rudimentary sternal bones are imbedded in the mus- 
cles a short distance behind the head. The sternum is a thin, 
transversely elongate plate of cartilage, and lies behind the 
other bones of the arch. The scapula is largely, perhaps wholly, 
bone. The supra-scapula is well developed and is cartilaginous. 
The coracoid is large, transversely placed, and meets its fellow 
of the opposite side; it is also cartilaginous. The clavicle is a 
slender, curved bone, which is attached at its outer extremity 
to the ventral surface of the supra-scapula. 

The pelvic bones consist of a rather long ilium, attached to 
the transverse process of the fifty-seventh vertebra, and a flat- 
tened bone, supposed to represent ischium and pubis combined, 
at its free extremity. In a small acetabulum in the surface of 
the latter fits a minute cylindrical femur. The bones are fully 
ossified. Those of the two sides are separated by a considerable 
interval. They are imbedded in muscle slightly in front of the 
vent. The rudiments are probably quite variable. The figures 
given by Dr. Shufeldt (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1880, p. 399) 
and those in Bronn's Thier-Reich do not agree, and neither 
agree with dissections made by the writer. 



Reptiles and Amphibians of Illinois. 255 

Family TEID^. 

Tongue long, bifid, with squamiform papillae. Teeth 
solid, pleurodont. Head pyramidal, with large, regularly dis- 
posed plates above. One pair of supranasal plates. Nostril 
opening in the midst of a plate, or between two plates. Scales 
of the back granulate or carinate; scales on abdomen large. 
To these, other characters used by Prof. Cope may be added as 
follows: A xiphisternal fontanel; premaxiilary single; clavi- 
cles dilated proximally; mesosternura cross-shaped. 

Onemidophorus, Waglee. 

Wagler, Syst. Amph., 1830, p. 154. 

Holbrook, :N". A. Herp., 1842, II., p. 109 (Ameiva). 

Hoffman, Bronn's Thier-Reich, 1883, VI., Reptilien, p. 1076. 

With two subgular folds. Tongue with no sheath, free 
behind. Maxillary teeth compressed, the posterior teeth tri- 
cuspid. Femoral pores present. Scales granulate above, trans- 
versely elongate and quadrangular on the belly. Digits 5-5. 

Onemidophorus sexliaeatus, Linn. 

Lacerta 6-Uneata, Linn., Syst. Nat., 1766, p. 364. 
Cnemidoptiorus sex-lineatus, Dum. et Bibr., Erp. Gen., 1839, Y., 

p. 131. 
Ameiva sex-lineata, Holbr., N. A. Herp., 1842, II., p. 109, pi. 15. 
Onemidophorus sex-lineatus. Gray, Cat. Spec. Lizards in Coll. 

Brit. Mus., 1845, p. 21.— Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. 

Nat. Hist., I., No. 5, 1883, p. 47; Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 

1883. 

Total length about seven inches. Body slender. Tail 
lung, cylindrical, and tapering. Posterior legs much larger 
than the anterior, with long slender digits. Head small, com- 
pressed before the eyes and pointed. Scales on the back and 
sides, the superior and posterior surfaces of the posterior legs, 
the posterior surfaces of the anterior legs, and on the throat, 
minute and granular. Scales of the ventral surface of the 
abdomen large and quadrangular; about thirty in a longitudi- 
nal row and eight in a transverse row. Femora with a ridge 
bearing sixteen pores. Scales of the tail large, verticillated, 
carinate. Two well-marked gular folds. Ear-opening large, 



25(> IJltnois State Lahoratori/ of Natural Histori/. 

circular, exposing the tympanum. Frontal plate wider in front 
and rounded. Parietals small. Inner series of superciliaries 
composed of four plates. Prefrontals in contact for a short 
distance at the middle line. Internasal large, hexagonal, wider 
than long. Nasals large, touching at the middle line, the nos- 
tril opening in their lower part. Rostral produced backward 
and acutely angled between the nasals. Two loreals. Six 
supralabials, the third largest. Five elongate, narrow infrala- 
bials. 

Color above brownish gray, with three narrow yellow 
longitudinal lines on each side with black spaces between them. 
Head brown or blue-gray. Legs brown. Entire under parts 
bluish white. 

Length of body to the vent, 2.2r); tail beyond vent, 4,50. 

Local in its distribution and not common; probably occurs 
in suitable localities throughout the State. Ottawa, Henry, 
Cave in Rock (?). 

An exceedingly active lizard and consequently difficult of 
capture. It occurs in dry sandy regions, where it may be seen 
by roadsides among shrubbery, or running along the lower rails 
of fences. It never resorts to trees, but trusts to its swiftness 
and skill in dodging from one covert to another to escape its 
pursuers. The only specimens the writer has collected in the 
State were taken at Henry, in a dry sunny field on the banks of 
the Illinois River. They were not rare in that particular local- 
ity, but were not seen any where else, though the country round 
about was scoured for miles. I think I saw an individual of 
the species at Cave in Rock on the Ohio River during the sum- 
mer of 1883, but it disappeared so completely and suddenly, 
before I could get a fair glimpse of it, that I cannot be sure 
about it. An example has recently been sent to me from 
Ottawa. 

Family SCINOID^. 

Tongue very slightly notched at its tip, free in front, 
with squamiform papillae. Teeth pleurodent. No gular or 
lateral folds. Nostril generally in one plate. No femoral or 
inguinal pores. Basal portion of scales ossified. Premaxillae 
double. Xiphisternal fontanel generally wanting. 



Beptiles and Amphibians of Illinois. 'i57 

With two supranasals. Lower eyelid scaly. Anterior margin 
of ear-opening with several projecting scales .... Eumeces. 

No supranasals. Lower eyelid with a transparent central part. 
Ear-opening with no projecting scales Oligosoma. 

EUMEOES, WlEGMANN. 

Wiegmann, Herp. Mex., 1834, p. 36. 

Body fusiform, cylindrical. Head pyramidal, four-sided. 
Two supranasals. Lower eyelid scaly. Ear-opening large, 
generally with a few projecting scales at its anterior margin. 
Scales smooth, large. Tail cylindrical and tapering. Toes 5-5. 

Eumeces fasciatus, Linn. Blue-tailed Lizaed, Red- 
headed Lizard, Scorpion. 

Lacerta fasciata, Linn., Syst, Nat., 1758, p. 209. 

Scincus erythrocephalus, Gilliams, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 

1818, 1., p. 461. 
Plestiodon quinquelineatum, Dum. et Bibr., Erp. Gen., V., 1839, 

p. 707. 
Scincus fasciatus, De Kay, Nat. Hist. N. Y., I., Zool. III., Kept. 

and Amph. 1842, p. 29, pi. 8, fig. 17. — Holbr., N. A. Herp., 

1842, II., p. 127, pi. 18. 
Scincus quinquelineatum, Holbr., 1. c, p. 121, pi. 17. 
Plestiodon erythrocepJurlus, Holbr., 1. c, p. 117, pi. 16. 
Plestiodon quinqaelinentuin and P.fasciatum, Kenn., Trans. 111. 

State Agr. See, 1853-54, 1., p. 591. 
Eumeces fasciatus, Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat, 

Hist., I., No. 5, 1883, p. 47; Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 
Eumeces obsoletus, Davis and Rice, Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 

Total length about eight inches. Body moderately slen- 
der, tail long and tapering. Scales smooth, about equal in 
size above and below, median row beneath the tail largest and 
transversely elongate. Fifty-three scales in a longitudinal 
row from the occipital plates to a point opposite the vent. 
Thirty scales in a transverse row about midway between the 
fore and hind legs. Ear-opening large, somewhat elongate 
vertically, in young examples with a few projecting scales at 
its anterior margin. Frontals and parietals the largest of the 
head plates. Six large supraciliaries. Two prefrontals. A 
single internasal. Two supranasals, occasionally four. One 



258 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

small postnasal. Two loreals, the anterior the smaller and 
separating the supranasals and prefrontals. Supralabials nine, 
the eighth largest, the sixth alone reaching the orbit. Six in- 
fralabials, the sixth largest. 

Color above dark chestnut-brown or, in old examples, brown- 
olive with five longitudinal blue stripes, the median of which 
bifurcates at the base of the head and the outer on each side 
extends through the ear forward on the upper lip. Posterior 
half of the tail blue or bluish slate-color. Lines often obscure, 
sometimes wanting. Beneath white or pale bluish. 

Length of body to vent, 3.19; tail beyond vent, 5.50. 

Common in the southern counties of the State, rare else- 
where; probably does not now occur in northern Illinois. 
Cook Co. (Kennicott); Cobden; Anna; Dug Hill, Union Co.; 
Johnson Co.; Cairo. 

In large specimens a few strise occur on each of the dorsal 
scales. The submentals and anals are in some finely reticulate. 
The ventral scales present an appearance of striation, but 
with a lens this is seen to be due to fine dark lines radiating 
from the basal part of the scale. Very old examples of this 
species represent the Scincus erythrocephalus of Gilliams. This 
form is commonly known as the red-headed scorpion in south- 
ern Illinois, and has been mistaken for Enmeces obsoletus, a 
species which does not occur in Illinois. As illustrating the 
changes which take place in this species with age, the follow- 
ing examples are given: 

1. Total length 4.50 inches. Stripes distinct. Head like 
the back in color. Width of head equal to distance 
from tip of snout to anterior margin of the interpari- 
etal plate. 

2. 5.50 inches long. Stripes distinct. Head paler brown 
anteriorly than elsewhere. Width of head equal to 
distance from snout to middle of interparietal. 

3. 6.25 inches long. Stripes less distinct. Head reddish 
brown. Width slightly greater than distance from 
snout to middle of interparietal. 



Beptiles and Amphibians of Illinois. '259 

4. 6 inches long. Stripes very obscure. Head of a uni- 
form pale brown color. Width equal to distance from 
snout to posterior margin of interparietal. 

5. 7.50 inches long. Median stripe lacking, color of back 
uniform brown, lateral stripes nearly wanting. Head 
brown, width equal to distance from snout to middle 
of first occipital plates. 

6. 9 50 inches long. No stripes, pale grayish brown above. 
Head pale red, width equal to distance from snout to 
posterior margin of the occipital plates. 

The last is evidently an aged example, and lacks the pro- 
jecting scales commonly present in younger examples at the 
anterior margin of the ear-opening. The species is active, run- 
ning with equal address on the ground or on trees, though 
perhaps it is less commonly seen on the latter than the brown 
swift. When captured with the hand it attempts to bite, but 
is not, as far as my experience goes, able to do serious harm. 

Oligosoma, Gikaed, 

Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1857, p. 196. 

Body fusiform, cylindrical. Head short, pyramidal. No 
supranasal plates. Lower eyelid with a central transparent 
portion. Ear-opening large, with no projecting scales at its 
anterior margin. Scales smooth, of medium size. Tail cylin- 
drical and tapering. Toes 5-5. 

Oligosoma laterale, Say. Ground Lizard. 

Scincvs lateralis, Say, Long's Exped. to Rockj^ Mts., 1823, II., 

p. 324. 
Lygosoma lateralis, Dum. et Jiibr,, Erp. Geu. V., 1839, p. 719. — 

Holbr., N. A. Ilerp., 1842, TI., p. 133, pi. 19. 
Mocoa lateralis.. Gray, Cat. Spec. Lizards in Coll. Brit. Mus., 1846, 

p. 83. 
Oligosoma laterale, Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 
I., No. 5, 1883, p. 40; Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 

Small; total length about four and a quarter inches. Body 
cylindrical. Head small; snout short: superciliary region con- 
vex. 'Ear-opening large, exposing the tympanum. Scales 



200 Illinois State Laboyatorij of Natural History. 

about equal on dorsal and ventral surfaces; much smaller on 
the sides; largest on the ventral surface of the tail. Seventy 
scales in a row from the occipital plates to a point opposite the 
vent. Twenty-six scales in a tranverse row midway behind 
the fore and hind legs. Frontal plate contracted to a point 
behind where the supraciliaries of opposite sides are but 
slightly separated. Supraciliaries in two series, the inner of 
four large plates, the outer of many very small ones. The 
two transverse prefrontals separated by the frontal or touch- 
ing at their inner angles. Internasal large. No supranasals. 
A single nasal; no postnasals. Two loreals, Supralabials seven, 
the sixth largest. Six infralabials. 

Color above light chestnut-brown, with a lateral dark 
brown or black stripe extending from the snout nearly to the 
tip of the tail, or terminating in older examples immediately 
behind the posterior legs. The brown of the middle of the 
back with a few serially disposed dark spots. Legs brown, 
marked with dark brown or black above. Beneath yellowish 
on the body; bluish on the tail. 

Length of body to vent, 1.75; tail beyond vent, 2.50. 

Southern Illinois; not common. Cave in Rock. 

This is our rarest lizard. It frequents wooded regions and 
is found under rocks and among leaves. It is not known to 
ascend trees. 

ORDER OPHIDIA. 

Body greatly elongated and covered with horny imbricated 
(in a few cases granular and not imbricated) scales. Limbs 
wanting (rudiments of hind limbs present in the boa-con- 
strictor, pythons, and a few others). Shoulder girdle never 
present. Eyelids and external organs of hearing wanting. 
Mouth very dilatable, the bones of the Jaws being loosely ar- 
ticulated. No urinary bladder. Oviparous or ovoviparous. 

Because of the superstitions associated with them serpents 
possess a peculiar interest for most people. The almost uni- 
versal dread in which they are held has probably been ac- 
quired in the majority of cases, having been instilled into the 
childish mind by fancied encounters of imaginative and igno- 
rant travelers in the tropics. Certain children, at any rate, who 



Reptiles and Amphibians of Illinois. 261 

have not had such fictious recounted to them by nurse; or 
parent, or playmate, show no fear when serpents are first 
brought into their presence. The truth is that the number of 
poisonous species of a given region is not often large. In 
Illinois we have but four poisonous serpents in a total of about 
forty species; and the proportion of noxious to innoxious spe- 
cies is probably not much greater anywhere in the country. 
At the same time it must be acknowledged that the prevalent 
fear of snakes serves a very useful purpose in keeping children 
from being bitten by species really poisonous. The harmless 
kinds take advantage of the feelings they inspire, and simulate 
the behavior of their formidable relatives by coiling, striking, 
and even producing a semblance of the noise of the rattlers 
by causing the tail to vibrate rapidly in contact with dead 
vegetation. All, or nearly all, will use the teeth when pressed, 
but the bite is not followed by serious consequences. 

We have no very large species. Certain of the boas and 
pythons of tropical countries reach a great length — as much 
as fifty feet or more, it is asserted. The smallest, among which 
are our species of Carphophis, are not above a foot long. 

The food consists of living animals, generally swallowed 
alive, but sometimers picked up after having been killed by 
other agencies. The teeth serve merely as organs of prehen- 
sion, and the fangs, when present, are used only in striking. 

The young hatch from eggs, which are commonly deserted 
after being placed among decaying vegetable matter; but some 
species are known to guard them until the young come forth. 
Some are, it is believed, habitually ovoviparous; and from ob- 
servations made on our common species it is evident that many, 
at least occasionally, produce living young. 

Without fangs. Pupil of eye round. No pit between eye and 
nostril. Two series of subcaudal plates CoLmmiD.^. 

With fangs. Pupil of eye vertical. A pit between eye and 
nostril. Some or all of subcaudals united .... Crotalid^. 

Family COLUBRID^. 

Teeth numerous, used only for prehension, the posterior 
ones sometimes larger than the others and grooved. With- 



'^62 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural II /story. 

out fangs or poison glands. Head generally slender, always 
lacking the lateral pits which characterize our poisonous spe- 
cies. Pupil of eye round. Cephalic plates covering most of 
the head. Dorsal scales carinated or smooth. Subcaudal 
plates in two series. Tail ranging from long to short, always 
without a rattle. 

This family contains most of our serpents. All are per- 
fectly harmless to man, but when cornered they often show 
considerable spirit in defending themselves. The slight 
wounds which they are able to inflict with their teeth heal 
almost as readily as scratches from a needle. The spreading 
adder, a dark form of which is known as the king snake, ap- 
proaches the moccasin and rattle snakes in shape of head and 
body, and is very generally believed to be poisorous, — a belief 
which it encourages by extravagant behavior when disturbed. 
The food consists of fishes, frogs, mice, birds, and insects. 
Our species spend most of their time on the ground among 
vegetation. A few are expert climbers, while many of the 
common terrestrial species swim and dive readily when com- 
pelled to enter the water. The species of Nerodia and Regina 
are constantly found about water, where they depend upon 
fishes for sustenance. The eggs are often placed in loose de- 
caying vegetable matter, where their development is accelerated 
by the warmth due to the process of decomposition. Many of 
our species, perhaps most, or even all, may produce young alive. 

A SYNOPSIS OF ILLINOIS GENERA OF COLUBRID^. 

1 (15). Dorsal scales carinated. 

2 ( 0). Anal plate entire. 

3 (22). Rostral not wedged between internasals. 

4 ( 5), Two nasals Eutainia. 

& ( 4). A single nasal, grooved below nostril. 

Tropidoclonium. 

6 ( 2). Anal divided. 

7 (14). Loreal present. 

8 (12). Two nasals. 

9 (26). Rostral normal in shape. 

10 (27). Anteorbitals present, loreal not reaching orbit. 

11 (23). Scales strongly carinated Nerodia. 



Reptiles and Aiiij)/i/l)/(()is of lUinois. 



'im 



12 


( 8) 


18 


(18) 


14 


( ') 


IT) 


( 1) 


16 


(28) 


17 


(19) 



IS 

19 
20 
21 

22 

23 



i:}). 

17). 
24). 
25). 

11). 



24 


(20). 


25 


(21). 


26 


( 9). 


27 


(10). 


28 


(16). 


20 


(31). 


:{() 


(32). 


;{1 


(21J). 


32 


(30). 



One nasal. 

Nasal grooyed below nostril Regina. 

Loreal absent Storeria. 

Dorsal scales smooth. 

Anteorbitals present. Loreal not reaching orbit. 

One nasal, not grooved below nostril. Color 
green Cy(;l()phi8. 

One nasal plate, not grooved below nostril. Color 
green Phylluphilophis. 

Two nasal plates. 

Anal divided. 

Upper anteorbital large, lower small. No pale 
ring on neck Coluber. 

Rostral wedged between internasals. Two pre- 
frontals PiTYOPHIS. 

Dorsal scales feebly carinated. Size large. 

Elaphis, 

Anal entire Ophibolus, 

Anteorbitals about equal in size. A pale ring at 

base of head Diadophis. 

Rostral plow-shaped. With an azygos plate. 

Heterodon. 
No anteorbitals. Loreal reaching the orbit. 

Haldea. 
No anteorbitals. Loreal reaching the orbit. 
One nasal. 

Nasal grooved below nostril. Dorsal rows 10-21. 

Hydrops. 

Two nasals. Dorsal rows 15 or 17 Virginia. 

Nasal not grooved below nostril. Dorsal rows 13. 

Carphophik. 



EUTAINIA, Bl). AND GiR. 

]}d. and (Jir., Cat. X. A. Kept. Pt. I., 1858, p. 24. 

Dorsal scales carinated, in from nineteen to twenty-one 
rows. Rostral normal. Two internasals. Two prefrontals. 
Two nasals, the nostril between. Loreal present. One anteor- 
bital. Three postorbitals. Anal entire. Body moderately 
4 



'ifil TUinois State Lahoratonj of Natural Histonj. 

slender, with more or less evident yellow or greenish longitu- 
dinal stripes. Often ovoviparous. 

Lateral stripes on the third and fourth rows of dorsal scales. 

Dorsal scales in 19 rows. The dark color of the back uni- 
form. Body slender E. saurita. 

Dorsal scales in 21 rows, with more or less distinct black 
spots between the stripes. Stouter than E. saurita. 

E. RADIX. 

Lateral stripes on the second and third rows of scales. 

Dorsal scales in 19 rows E. sirtalis. 

Dorsal scales in 21 rows E. vagrans. 

Eutainia saurita, Linn. Ctakter Snake, Riband Sjjake. 
Var. saurita. 

Colvher s(i/irit(i, Linn., iSyst. Nat., ed. 12, I7HB, I., p. 'iiHo. 
Enfdivid sdurifa, Bd. and Gir., Cat. N. A. Rept., Pt. I., 1853, p. 24. 
liJutaiiui saiiritd, Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist., 

I., No. 5, 1883, p. 38; Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 
'r/iqiidoiMtus sduritd, S. Garman, Mem. Mus. Comp. ZoOl., 1883, 

pp. 23, 137, pi. 3, fig. 2. 

Var. faireyi. 

Eutdint'it fdueiji,Bd. and Gir., Cat. N. A. Rept., Pt. I., 1853, p. 25. 
Evtit'ulit faireyi, Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist, 

I., No. 5, 1883, p. 39; Bull. Chicago xlcad. Sci., 1883. 
7'/'t/>i(Joiu)tus sdurita. var. falrei/f, S. Garman, Mem. Mus. 

Comp. Zool., 1883, p. 137. 

Var. proximus. 

CiilnlHr i>r(i.vinnis,':^-Ay, Long's Exped. to Rocky Mts., 1823, I., 

p. 187. 
Eutdiuidpro.ci/iid.Bd. and Gir., Cat. N. A. Rept.,Pt. I., 1853, p. 25. 
Euifrnid ■proxima, Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. 

Hist., I., No. 5. 1883, p. 39. 
'rropidonotiis suuritd. var, prn.vinids, S. Garman, Mem. Mus. 

Comp. Zool., 1883, pp. 24, 137. 

Body slender. Head distinctly marked off by the more 
slender neck. Tail long, tapering. All the dorsal scales cari- 
nated. Frontal elongate, hexagonal, sides generally incurved. 
One anteorbital. Three postorbitals. Seven or eight suprala- 
bials; sixth and seventh largest. Ten infralabials; fifth and 



Reptiles and Amphibians of Illinois. 265 

sixth largest. Dorsal rows of scales nineteen. Ventrals about 
160-175. Subcaudals about 100-115. Anal entire. 

Color above from light brown to black, uniform or with 
short whitish lines between the stripes. All three stripes green 
or yellow, or the dorsal stripe yellow and the two lateral green. 
Lateral stripes on the third and fourth rows of scales of each 
side. Beneath green or whitish, uniform. Black or brown 
below the lateral stripes. Head brown above with two white 
or yellow spots at the inner margins of the parietals. Anteor- 
bital with a wide pale stripe next the eye. Generally with one 
or more of the postorbitals pale. Supralabials pale, all, or only 
the anterior, narrowly margined with black above. 

Total length of example of \a,r. fairetji, 27.50; tail, 8.25. 

Throughout the State. Not common. Chicago (Nat. 
Mus.), Cook county (Kennicott), Peoria (Brendel), Normal, 
•Jersey county, Mt. Carmel (Ridgway), Union county. 

The three varieties occur in the State. Saurita is not 
represented by Laboratory collections, and is probably rare. It 
is included on the authority of Messrs. Davis and Rice and the 
National Museum list. 

Variety saurita. 

Color above light chocolate-brown. Stripes yellow. Tail 
more than a third of the total length. Ventrals about 157. 
Subcaudals 115-118. 

Variety faireyi. 

Color above black. Stripes greenish. Tail less than a 
third the total length. Ventrals about 174. Subcaudals about 
105-115. 

Variety proxima. 

Color above black. Dorsal stripe brownish yellow. Lateral 
stripes whitish green or yellowish. Tail much less than a third 
of the total length. Ventrals about 170-180. Subcaudals 
100-108. 



'2fi6 Ul'Dioii^ Staff Lahorfiiori/ of Xnfural Illsfori/. 

Eutainia, radix, Bd. and Gir. 

h:nl<iiiii,i nidi.v, r>d. and Gir., Cat. N. A. Kept., Pt. 1., 1858, p. ;^4. 

— Kenn., Trans. 111. State Agr. 8oc., 18r)3-r)4, I., p. 592. 
Efitdiila nuU.v. Davis and Rice, Hull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist., 
I., No. 5, 1883, p. 39; Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 

Head rather small, wider than the neck. Tail moderately 
long, tapering. Dorsal scales all carinate. Frontal hexagonal 
or pentagonal. Two nasals. One large anteorbital. Three 
postorbitals. Seven supralabials; fifth and sixth largest. Nine 
or ten infralabials: fifth and sixth largest. Dorsal rows twenty- 
one; sometimes twenty or nineteen. Ventrals 150-160. Anal 
entire. Subcaudals about ()5-75. 

Color above brown, with three longitudinal yellow stripes 
and six longitudinal series of black spots: the black color often 
predominating. Dorsal stripe on one and two half rows of 
scales, becoming decidedly orange towards the head. Lateral 
stripes on the third and fourth rows of each side. There are 
two series of the black spots on each side between the dorsal 
and lateral stripes, and a single row of spots below the lateral 
stripe. Beneath greenish, with two series of black spots, one 
on each side near the edges of the ventral scutes. Head plain 
brown above, with a pair of small yellow spots at the inner 
margins of the parietals. Iris brassy immediately about pupil, 
but extensively black before and behind. Posterior margin of 
all the supralabials marked with black. Infralabials and under 
side of the head yellowish. 

Length, 12; tail, 6. 

Occurs in all parts of the State, but is more common north. 
Cook county (Kennicott), Freeport, Milan, Colona, Galesburg, 
Normal, Mt. Carmel (Ridgway). 

Eutainia sirtalis, Linn. Gakteu Snake. 

Var. sirtalis. 

Co/ II her sirtalis, Limi., Syst. Nat., ed. lU, 1758, p. 222. 
TropidoNot/is sirtaiis, Ilolbr., N. A. Herp., 1842, IV., p. 41, pi. 11. 
Kataiuia sirtalis. lid. and ( Jir., Cat. N. A. Kept., Pt. 1. 1853, p. 30. - 

Kenn., Trans. 111. State Agr. See, 1853-54, 1., p. 592. 
'rri>i>i(i<>n<i1 Its sirtalis, subsp. sirtalis. olisi-iira, and dorsalis, Davis 

and Rice, Hull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist., I, No. 5, 1883, 

pp. 39. 40; liull. Cliicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 



Reptiles and Amphibian)^ of' Illinois. 'KM 

'rnipidoiiotiis sirtitlis, y. Garman, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool... 1888, 
pp. 24, 138, pi. 3, fig. 3. 

Var. parietalis. 

('(tliihcr ixiiii'tdlis^ Say, Long's Exped. to Rocky Mts., 1823, 1., p. 

186. 
Ki(t<iiiii<t [uirif^talis, Bd. and (iir., ('at. N. A. Kept., Pt. I., 1853, 

p. 28. 
Eiitii'iud sirtdUs, subsp. jxirletalift, Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. 

State Lab. Nat. Hist., I., No. 5, p. 40; Bull. Chicago Acad. 

Sci., 1883. 
TropidonoiKs sirtalis, var. [xtfii'talis^ S. Garman, Mem. Mus. 

Zo(U., pp. 25, 139. 

Body moderately slender. Head distinctly wider than 
neck. Tail slender, tapering. Dorsal scales all carinated. 
Frontal hexagonal. Two nasals. A single large anteorbital. 
Three postorbitals. Supralabials seven; fifth and sixth largest. 
Ten infralabials; fifth and sixth largest. Dorsal rows nine- 
teen. Ventrals about 140-170. Anal entire. Subcaudals 
about 60-80. 

Colors extremely variable. From light olive-brown to 
blackish brown above, with three longitudinal green or yellow 
stripes. Head olive-brown above, white below. Pupil with a 
narrow brassy ring about it. Iris blackish with some copper- 
color above and below. Tongue red, black-tipped. The dorsal 
stripe occupies one and two half rows of scales. The lateral 
stripes occupy the second and third rows of each side. The 
ground color may be nearly uniform, or with two series of 
black spots ou each side. Black spots are generally present on 
the side, beneath the lateral stripes. Green beneath, with a 
series of black spots on the scutes at each side. Head brown 
above, with a pair of small yellow spots at the inner edges of 
the parietals. Supralabials greenish, uniform, or with black 
posterior margins. 

Total length, 40.25; tail, 8. 

Throughout the State. Abundant. Freeport, Oregon, 
l*eoria. Normal, Bloomington, Champaign, Anna. 

Variety parietalis. 
In addition to the typical form of the species this variation 
is quite frequently met in the eastern part of the State. It is 



2»)S Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

marked along the lateral stripes, between head and tail, with 
obscure red spots; and the skin, when the dorsal scales are 
drawn apart, shows short whitish marks in about three series 
on each side, the two lower in pairs, and the upper composed 
of single spots at the margin of the dorsal stripe. 

The species is extremely common everywhere, and with the 
other striped species is known as the garter snake. It is not 
so strictly terrestrial as is supposed, being most commonly 
found near water in the dry part of summer; and in spring, 
when just awakened from hibernation, it may occasionally be 
seen lying in the water as if trying to moisten the dried-out 
skin. It feeds on fishes and insects, and, when it can get them, 
gorges itself with tadpoles. 

Eutainia vagrans, Bd. and Gir. Large-headed Striped 

Snake. 

Eutainia vagrans, Bd. and Gir., Cat. N. A. Rept., Pt. 1., 1853, 
p35. 

Eiita Ilia vagnnis. Baird., U. S. Pac. R. R. Expl., 1859, X., Reptiles^ 
p. 19, pi. 17.— Cooper, U. S. Pac. R. R. Expl., 1860, XII., Rep- 
tiles, p. 297.— Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. 
Hist., I., No. 5, 1883, p. 39; Bull. Chicago Acad. !Sci., 1883. 

7'ropiclonotas sirtatis. var. vagrans. S. Garman, Mem. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 1883, p. 139. 

Body long and slender. Head short and broad. Dorsal 
scales all carinated. Supralabials eight; sixth and seventh 
largest. Twenty or twenty-one rows of dorsal scales. Ven- 
trals 161-179. Anal entire. Subcaudals in 70-90 pairs. 

Color above light olive-brown, with two series of blackish 
brown spots on each side, the spots of the upper series encroach- 
ing on the dorsal stripe. Lateral stripes on the second and third 
rows of dorsal scales of each side. Beneath slate color. 

A single specimen of this species collected near Chicago by 
Mr. E. W. Nelson is the only one known to have been found 
in the State. 

Nbrodia, Bd. and Gir. 

Bd. and Gir., Cat. N. A. Rept., Pt. I., 1853, p. 38. 

Dorsal scales carinated, in from twenty-three to thirty - 
three rows. Rostral normal. Two internasals. Two pre- 
frontals. Loreal present. Two nasals. One or two anteor- 



Reptiles and Amphibians of Illinois. 'ifiU 

bitals. Two or three postorbitals. Anal divided. Aijuatic 
serpents of medium size, spotted with black or dark brown. 

Dorsal scales in 23-25 rows. No suborbital plates present. 

N. SIPEDON. 

Dorsal scales in 29-33 rows. Suborbital plates present. 

N. OYCLOPIUM. 

Nerodia sipedon, Linn. Spotted Water Snake. 

Var. sipedon. 

Coluber si2)edoi), Linn., Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1758, I., p. 219. 
TroiH/Joriot us sipedon, Holbr., N. A. Herp., 1842, IV., p. 29, pi. 6.— 

De Kay, Nat. Hist. N. Y., I., Zool. III., Kept, and Amph., 

1842, p. 42, pi. 14, tig. 31. 
Nerodia sijyedou, Bd. and Gir., Cat. N. A. Rept., Pt. I., 1853, p. 38(3. 

— Kenn., Trans. 111. State Agr. Soc, 1853-54, I., p. 592. 
Tropidonotus sipedon, Dum. et Bibr., Erp. Gen., 1854, Til., p. 568. 
T ropidonotus sipedon . subsp. sipedon. Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. 

State Lab. Nat. Hist., I., No. 5, 1883, p. 42; Bull. Chicago 

Acad. Sci., 1883. 
Tropidonotus sipedon, S. Garman, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 1883, 

pp. 25, 140, pi. 2, fig. 3. 

Var. fasciatus. 

( 'oluher fasriatus. Linn., Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1766, 1., p. 378. 
Nerodia fasciata, Bd. and Gir., ('at. N. A. Rept., Pt. I., 1853, p. 39. 
Tropidonotus fasciatus. Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. 
Nat. Hist., I.. No. 5, 1883, p. 42: Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci, 1883. 

Var. erythrogaster. 

Coluber erythroijaster. Shaw, Gen. Zool., III., 1804, p. 458, 
Nerodia erytTirogciKter. Bd. and Gir., Cat. N. A. Rept., Pt. I., 1853, 

p. 40, 
Tropidonotus sipedon. subsp. eriithroijaster. Davis and Rice, 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist., I., No. 5, 1883, p. 42; Bull. 

Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 
Trojiidonotus sipedon. var. ( rulhrogaster. S. Garman, Mem. 

Mus. Comp. Zool., 1883, pp. 26, 141. 

Var. rhombifer. 

Tropidonotus rhombifer. Ilallowell. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 

VI., 1852, p. 177. 
Nerodia rhombifer, Bd. and Gir,, Cat. N, A. Rept., 1853, p. 147. 
Tropidonotus rhombifer. Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. 

Nat. Hist,, I., No. 5, 1883, p, 43; Bull, Chicago Acad. Sci.. 1883. 
Tropidonotus sipedon. var, rhontbifer. S, Garman. Mem. Mus. 

Comp. Zool., 1883, pp, 26, 141. 



:i7(l lU'niois Slate I Aihonitonj of Natural llistonj. 

Body moderately slender. Head distinctly marked off by 
the more slender neck. Tail cylindrical, tapering, of moderate 
length. Rostral wider than high, excavated below. Frontal 
much larger than wide, pentagonal. Parietals very large. A 
single nasal, with a groove below the nostril, sometimes appar- 
ently two plates with the nostril between. Loreal rhoraboidal. 
A large vertically elongate anteorbital. Two or three postor- 
bitals. Supralabials eight, sixth and seventh largest. Ten in- 
fralabials, the fifth and sixth largest. From twenty-three to 
twenty-five rows of dorsal scales, the carinae on the outer scales 
a trifle less prominent. Ventrals one I80-iri(). Anal divided. 
Subcaudals in 40-80 pairs. 

Color extremely variable; from yellowish brown through 
various shades of brown and red to blackish brown, sometimes 
uniform, but generally with a dorsal series of dark spots and on 
each side a series of smaller squarish spots which alternate 
with those of the dorsal series. Generally some of the spots of 
the three series, on the anterior part of the body and on the tail, 
fuse, forming transverse bands; sometimes all are thus fused. 
The number of the spots varies with age. Beneath yellowish, 
with subtriangular blackish or brown spots on the scutes, be- 
coming larger posteriorly and giving the prevailing color; 
sometimes uniformly reddish. Posterior margins of labial 
plates generally dark. Young, and some adults, with a pair of 
small pale spots on the parietals, as in the Euttenia?. 

This water snake is one of the commonest species within 
our limits. It feeds largely on small fishes. 

Throughout the State. Cook county, Ogle county, Gales- 
burg, Peoria (Brendel), Pekin, Normal, Anna. 

Variety sipedon. 

Grayish brown, with three series of squarish dark spots, 
those of the lateral series alternating with the dorsal spots. 
Beneath thickly blotched with black posteriorly, becoming 
paler towards the head. Dorsal rows twenty-three. Common 
everywhere. 



Bepfih'S and Amphibians of Illinois. 271 

Variety fasciatus. 

Dark brown, with transverse lozenge-shaped spots on the 
back, and from thirty to thirty-eight red spots on each side. 
Reddish white beneath. Dorsal scales in from twenty-three to 
twenty-five rows. Anna, Union county. 

Variety erythrogaster. 

Uniform reddish brown or blackish above, bright reddish 
or yellow beneath. Dorsal rows from twenty-three to twenty- 
five. Peoria, southern Dlinois, Anna (C. W. Butler). 

Variety rhombifer. 

Brown above, with a series of rhomboid dark spots on the 
back, which touch by their apices. More or less blotched with 
black beneath. Dorsal rows twenty-five (Hallowell gives this 
number in his original description; later vrriters have given 
twenty-seven as the proper number). Two specimens are in 
the collection of the Northwestern University at Evanston, 
one from Cook county, and the other from Union county. 

Nerodia cyclopium, Dum. et Bibr. 

Tropldoiiotiisciicloplon, Dura. etBibr., Erp. Gen. 1854, VII., p. 576. 
Tmiiidoiintiis cychyphitu, Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. 

Nat. Hist., I., No. 5, 1883. p. 43.— S. Garman, Mem. Mus. 

Comp. Zool., 1883, pp. 26, 142, pi. 2, fig. 4. 

Body moderately stout. Head swollen at the cheeks, nar- 
rowed forward. Tail tapering, rather short. All the dorsal 
scales carinate, those of the outer row less strongly, those of 
the back very strongly, becoming sharp longitudinal keels on 
the tail. Rostral about twice as broad as high. Nasal large, 
nostril near the upper margin, but not quite dividing it into 
two plates. Loreal large, widest below. One large anteorbital, 
widest above. Two postorbitals and from two to three subor- 
bitals. Supralabials greatly developed, eight in number; the 
sixth and seventh much the largest. Infralabials from ten to 
twelve; fifth and sixth largest. Dorsal rows from twenty- 
seven to thirty-three. Ventrals about 144. Anal divided. 
Subcaudals about 65 pairs. 



"i72 Illinois State Laburatori/ of Nntund History. 

Color brown above, obscurely marked with black, this 
color being mostly confined to the bases of the scales and indi- 
cating vertical lateral bands and dorsal spots as in T. sipedon. 
Brownish beneath posteriorly, paler anteriorly; in an Illinois 
example yellowish below, with a small black spot on each side 
of most of the abdominal scutes, and with a few similar irreg- 
ularly placed spots on the under side of the tail. 

Total length, 41.25; tail, USA). 

Southern Illinois. Bluff Lake, Union county. 

The only example of this species in the Laboratory collec- 
tion from Illinois differs in some respects from the typical forms 
of the species as described. On one side there are two subor- 
bitals, on the other but one; on neither side is the anteorbital 
in contact with the suborbitals; the latter crowd the labials 
away from the eye, leaving an unoccupied space above the 
fourth labial. The dorsal scales are in twenty-nine rows. The 
ventrals number one hundred and forty; the subcaudals, sixty. 

Regina, Bd. and Gir. 

J3d. and Gir., Cat. N. A. Kept., Ft. I., 1853, p. 45. 

Dorsal scales carinated, in from nineteen to twenty-one 
rows. Rostral normal. Two internasals. Two prefrontals. 
A single nasal, grooved beneath the nostril. Loreal present. 
One or two anteorbitals. Two or three postorbitals. Anal 
plate divided. 

Dorsal scales in 19 rows. Colors in longitudinal bands. With 
two approximated blackish bands on the abdomen. 

R. LEBERIS. 

Dorsal scales in 20 rows. Colors in longitudinal bands. No 
longitudinal bands on ventral surface R. grahami. 

Dorsal scales in 19 rows. Brown above, spotted with black. 
Red below, with a series of round black spots on each 

side R. KIRTLANDI. 

Regina leberis, Linn. 

fo/vber leberis. Linn.. Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1758, 1., p. 21(5. 
Tropidnnotvs Jel,eris, Holbr., N. A. Herp., 1842, IV., p. 49, pi. 13. 

-De Kay, Nat. Hist. N. Y., I.. Zool. Ill,, Kept, and Amph., 

1842, p. 45., pi. 11, fig. 23. 



Reptiles and Amphihians of Illinois. 273 

Regina leheris, Bd. and Gir., Cat. N. A. Kept., Pt. I., 1853, p. 45.— 

Kenn., Trans. 111. State Agr. Soc, 1853-54, 1., p. 592. 
Tropidonotiis lehf^rin, Dam. et Jiibr., Erp. Gen., 1854, VII., p. 579. 

— Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist., I., No. 5. 

1883, p. 41; Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883.— S. (Jarman, Mem. 

Mus. Comp. Zool., 1883, pp. 27, 142, pi. 2, fig. 1. 

Body moderately slender. Head small. Tail rather short. 
Dorsal scales all carinate, the outer very faintly, in nineteen 
rows. Rostral wide and low, excavated beneath. One ( !) nasal, 
grooved below the nostril, sometimes also above. Two anteor- 
bitals. Two postorbitals. Snpralabials seven or eight; fifth 
and sixth largest. Infralabials nine or ten; fourth and fifth 
largest. Dorsal rows nineteen; scales of outer row widest. 
Ventrals 140-149. Anal divided. Subcaudals 64-81. Tail 
about three tenths the length of the body. 

Color above brown, with a blackish line occupying the 
median row of dorsal scales, and on each side similar lines 
occupying the fifth row. On the sides a straw-colored band 
occupies the upper half of the outer row and the whole of the 
second dorsal rows. Lower half of outer dorsal row and outer 
margins of the abdominal scutes occupied by a brown band. 
Beneath yellowish, with two longitudinal bands of brown. 
Labials and lower part of rostral yellowish. A small brown 
spot beneath the angle of the mouth. 

Throughout the State. Cook county, Geneva, Galesburg. 

Similar to B. grahami in the number of dorsal scales and 
number and form of the head plates, but differing in color, the 
average number of ventral and subcaudal scutes, and the pro- 
portional length of the tail. 

Ventrals, 147. Subcaudals, 72. Total length, 12.50; tail, ;^>. 

Ventrals, 141). Subcaudals, 7U. Total length, S.aO: tail, 
2.()2. 

Regina grahami, Bd. and Gir. 

Regina grahamii, Bd. and Gir., Cat. N. A. Rept., Pt. I., 1853, p. 

47.— Kenn., Trans. 111. State Agr. Soc, 1853-54, I., p. 592. 
Trnpidonotifs gnthdnii, Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. 

Hist., I., No. 5, 1883, p. 41; Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 
Tropidonotiis leheris, var. gni/nanii, S. Garman, Mem. Mus. 

Comp. Zool., 1883, pp. 28, 142. 



274 Illinois State Labnrafori/ of Natnvid Histori/. 

Body moderately slender, tapering towards the extremities. 
Head small, not much wider than the neck. Tail rather short. 
All the dorsal scales carinate, Rostral low and broad, dis- 
tinctly excavated below. Parietals very large. Frontal 
elongate, pentagonal. A single (!) nasal plate on each side, 
obliquely grooved below the nostril. Two anteorbitals. Two 
postorbitals. Seven or eight supralabials; the fifth and sixth 
largest. Ten infralabials; fourth and fifth largest. Dorsal 
rows nineteen; the scales of the outer row of each side less 
strongly carinate than the others, and about as wide as long. 
Ventrals loO-lTH. Subcaudals hA-iu) pairs. Anal divided. 
Tail about two tenths the length of the body. 

Color above brown, with a pale brown dorsal stripe about 
three scales wide: on each side of this stripe a wide brown or 
gray band edged with blackish, and about five scales wide; and 
outside these on each side a straw-colored band occupying 
the three outer rows of scales. Edges of the outer dorsal rows 
and sides of the abdominal scutes black, producing on each 
side of the abdomen a zigzag line. Beneath straw-color, 
uniform, or with a median dusky band beneath the tail, and be- 
fore the vent a series of blackish spots. 

Total length, 31.75; tail, 5.50. 

Throughout the State. Cook county ( Kennicott), Normal, 
Pekin, Champaign. 

In the original description of this species the number of 
dorsal rows of scales is given as twenty. Illinois examples 
have nineteen without exception, as far as I know. Besides 
the differences of color, this species differs from R. leberis in 
the number of ventral and subcaudal scutes, and in the length 
of the tail as compared with that of the body. 

Ventrals, 173. Subcaudals, 65. Total length, 27.25; tail, 
4.75. 

Ventrals, 15S. Subcaudals, 54. Total length, 31.75: tail, 
5.50. 

Ventrals, 15<). Subcaudals, 58. Total length, 26.75; tail, 
5.25. 

Ventrals, H)0. Subcaudals, 61. Total length, 14; tail, 2.50. 



Reptiles (ind Aniphibiaus of Illinois. 275 

Regina kirtlandi*, Kenn. 

Hti/iiH/ kirtldiidii. Kenn., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 185(5. 

p. Its. 
TrDitlddcloiiiiiiii kirthiiidi. Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. 

Nat. Hist., I., No. o, 18H3, p. 41; Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 

1883. 
'l'n>[)hloii<>ttis kirtlandii. S. Garman, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 

1883, pp. 28, 143, pi. 1, fig. 3. 

Body tapering towards the extremities. Head small, 
scarcely wider than the neck. Tail short, tapering, in adults 
abruptly more slender than the body. Dorsal rows of scales 
nineteen, all carinated. Rostral low and wide. Frontal hexag- 
onal. Supraciliaries small. One nasal, grooved below the eye. 
One anteorbital. Eye small. Two postorbitals. Six suprala- 
bials, fifth and sixth largest. Seven infralabials, fifth largest. 
Dorsal rows of scales nineteen. Ventrals 131-i;^;i Anal 
divided. Subcaudals in 52-56 pairs. 

Color above brown, with two dorsal series of black spots, 
and on each side a series of larger round black spots, some- 
times with a series of small spots beneath the last. Flanks 
gray. Ventral surface, between two submarginal series of 
round black spots, bright red, almost carmine beneath the tail, 
gradually fading to a dull yellowish white on throat and under 
side of head. Labials yellowish. Young are almost uniform 
brown above, and frequently are speckled with black between 
the round spots of the ventral scutes. 

Total length of an adult, 17; tail, 3.25. 

Formerly common in the north half of the State; rare at 
present. West Northfield (Kennicott), Normal, Champaign. 

A handsome snake, which ten years ago was not un- 
common along prairie brooks, in the central part of the State. 
Tiling, ditching, and cultivation of the soil have destroyed its 
haunts and nearly exterminated it. Mr. Kennicott found it 
in northern Illinois under logs. I have never seen it else- 
where than on the open prairie, [t has a peculiar habit of 
flattening its body and remaining motionless to escape de- 
tection. 



* Prof. E. D. Cope has recently established the genus Clonophis 
for this species. 



",'76 fiflnois State fjihoratorij of Ndtiiral History. 
TROPIDOOLONIUM. Coi'E. 

Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. .Sci. Phila., IHtK), p. 76. 
Microps (preoccupied in Coleoptera), Hallowell, Prec. .Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., VIII., 1856, p. 240. 

Dorsal scales cariuated. Rostral plate normal. Two in- 
ternasals. Two prefrontals. One nasal, grooved below the 
nostril. Loreal present. One anteorbital. Two postorbitals. 
Head small, not distinct. Teeth small, isodont. Anal not 
divided. Tail short. 

The genus is here restricted to the species for which it 
was originally proposed. 

Tropidoclonium lineatum, Hallowell. 

Miarops tineatus, Hallowell, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., VIII., 
1856, p. 241. 

Tropidodoiuon liitmtunt. Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1860, p. 76. 

sioiTi-id lineata, S. Garman, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 1888, pp. 
32, 143. 

Head small, not distinct. Tail short, tapering abruptly. 
Dorsal scales in nineteen rows; the two outer rows on each 
side larger than the others, smooth and shining; first row 
without carinse, second row with a faint carina at the base of 
each scale; third row with the outer halves of scales polished 
but with distinct carinse. Frontal plate longer than wide, the 
sides parallel. One anteorbital. Two postorbitals. Eye small, 
above the third labial. Supralabials six or seven, third and 
fourth largest, fifth crowded away from the margin. Ventrals 
150. Subcaiidals 26. 

Color above brown, with a yellow-gray median stripe one 
and two half scales wide extending from the occiput to the tip 
of the tail, and with three outer rows of dorsal scales of the 
same color on each side. A distinct black spot at the base of 
each scale of the outer row. Head above olive-brown; supra- 
labials yellow-gray. Ash-gray beneath, becoming yellowish on 
the head and tail. Each ventral plate with a transverse black 
spot on the middle of its base. The spots behind the first ten 
each with a median posterior notch, the notches becoming 
gradually deeper posteriorly and for a short distance before 



Reptiles and Amphibians of Illinois. 277 

the vent dividing the spots into two. Subcaudals each with a 
basal black spot. 

Total length, 15.12; tail 1.37. 

Described from a single example* from Urbana, 111., col- 
lected April 4, 1889, the only representative of the species 
which has thus far been found within our limits. The species 
is said to occur from Kansas to Texas, and is not included in 
any of the accounts of species of this region. In Dr. Yarrow's 
catalogue of North American reptiles in the National Museum, 
T find record of an example taken at Hughes, Ohio, April, 1879, 
a record which seems to have escaped the attention of recent 
writers. The Illinois example differs from Hallowell's descrip- 
tion of the type in several respects, and does not agree exactl}' 
with other descriptions with which it has been compared. 
Thus the abdominal plates are said to vary from 138 to 145, 
the subcaudals from 32 to 35 pairs, while the eye is said to rest 
on the third and fourth supralabials. In none of these char- 
acters does our example agree exactly, as may be seen by the 
above description. The colors also of the Illinois specimen 
seem to be darker than usual. 

Storeria, Bd. and Gir. 

Bd. and Gir., Cat. N. A. Kept., Pt. I., 1853, p. 135. 

Dum. et Bibr., Ischnognathus, Erp. G(5n., VII., 1854, p. 50H. 

Dorsal scales carinated, in fifteen to seventeen rows. 
Anal plate divided. Rostral normal. Two internasals. Two 
prefrontals. Two nasals, or one with a groove beneath the 
nostril. One or two anteorbitals. One or two postorbitals. 
Ovoviparous. Small, obscurely-colored species. 

The nostril is commonly said to open between two nasal 
plates in species of this genus. This is not always so, occa- 
sional specimens showing a single plate on one side of the 
head with a groove beneath the nostril, while there are two 
plates on the opposite side, or the plates of both sides may be 
united. In a perfect example of S. occipitomaculata in the 
Laboratory collection there is but one large postorbital plate. 

* Other examples of the species from the same locality were 
examined after this was written. See Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist., 
ni., p. 187. 



27(S Illinois State Labonttory of Nafiinil I/ls/ori/. 

Dorsal scales in 15 rows S. occipitomaculata. 

Dorsal scales in 17 rows S. oeka vi. 

Storeria occipitomaculata, Storer. 

'/'i<i/)i(f(iii(itiis occ//>it(i-iii(irii/(/fns. s>torer, Hep. liept. Mass., 1889, 

p. 2;;o. 
Coliihcr ()ci-//iH(i-iii(/rii/at>is. atorev, J3ost. Jour. Nat. Hist., 1H40, 

III., p. 33. 
Cohiht^r rciinstiis. Ilallowell, Proc. Acad. Nat. 8ci. Phila., 184^5-47, 

III., p. 278. 
Stori'i-id i>cclj)lt()-i/i((cn/(it</,lid. and Gir., Cat. N. A. Kept., Ft. 1., 

1853, p. 137.— Kenn., Trans. 111. State Agr. Soc, 1853-54, 1., 

p. 592. 
Storeria (Jcei2Jit<tiiH>c/itat<f. D'dYis and Rice, JiuU. 111. State Lab. 

Nat. Hist. I., No. 5, 1883, p. 40: Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 

1883.— S. Garman, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zor.l., 1883, pp. 30, 143, 

pi. 1, fig. 2. 

Small. Body tapering to the extremities. Head small. 
Tail short. All the dorsal scales carinated. Rostral plate ex- 
cavated below; its anterior face convex. Frontal hexagonal, 
sides converging posteriorly. Two anteorbitals. Two postor- 
bitals. Six or seven supralabials. Seven infralabials; the 
fourth and fifth largest. Dorsal rows fifteen. Ventrals 117- 
128. Anal divided. Subcaudals 43-52. 

Olive or chestnut-brown above, uniform, or with a dorsal 
ash-gray stripe, and a similar stripe on the outer rows of dorsal 
scales, the latter more obscure than the dorsal stripe, or want- 
ing altogether. Beneath salmon-red, fading anteriorly into light 
gray. External margins of the ventral scutes gray; the ante- 
rior scutes with distinct blackish submarginal spots, forming a 
longitudinal series for each side. Head above reddish brown, 
faintly iridescent, with three occipital pale spots, the median 
much the largest. Fifth supralabial pale. 

Total length of an adult female, U.-U; tail, 2,44. 

Occurs everywhere within oar limits. Not common. Cook 
county (Kennicott), Peoria (Brendel), Normal, Belleville 
(Nat. Mus.), Anna. 

Storeria dekayi, Holbr. 

Tropldoiiotn.s dekdni, Holbr., N. A. llerp., 1842, IV., p. 53, pi. 14.— 
De Kay, Nat. Hist., N. V., I., Zoul. III., Kept, and Amph.. 
1842, p. 46, pi. 14, fig. 80. 



Beptilefi and Amphibians of Illinois. 279 

:^t<>nri(i (lrk(tjii. Bd. and (iir., Cat. N. A. Kept., Ft. I., 1858, p. 
135.— Kenn., Trans. 111. State Agr. Soc. 1853-54. p. 592. 

Tschnognathiis deJiai/i. Dum et Bibr.,Erp. Grn., VII., 1854, p. 507. 

Storeria dckayi,. Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist., 
I., No. 5, 1883, p. 40; Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883.— S. Gar- 
man, Mem. Mas. Comp. Zool., 1883, pp. 31, 143, pi. 1, fig. 1. 

Small. Body tapering to both extremities. Head small, 
but clearly marked off by the slender neck. * Tail short. Ros- 
tral excavated below, its anterior face convex. Frontal hexag- 
onal, wide. Two nasals. One large anteorbital. Two post- 
orbitals, sometimes one. Seven small infralabials, the fourth 
and fifth much the largest. Seventeen dorsal rows of scales, 
the outer rov.- of each side widest. Ventrals about 120-128, 
Anal divided. Subcaudals about 48-60. 

From ash-gray to chestnut-brown above, with a pale dorsal 
stripe, on each side of which is a series of brown spots; the 
latter may encroach upon the median stripe, and occasionally 
unite across the middle line: sometimes they are wanting. 
Beneath pale gray, with one or two small black specks near 
the outer margins of each ventral scute. Head brown above, 
with a faint iridescence. On each side of the neck, at the base 
of the head, is an obliquely-placed black or brown bar, the two 
occasionally meeting above. Smaller black bars across the tem- 
porals and superior labials of each side extend to or slightly be- 
yond the angle of the mouth. Posterior margins of the third 
and fourth supralabials black. Infralabials pale, or touched with 
black at the margins. 

Total length, 12.75; tail, 2.50. 

Occurs in all parts of the State, but is not very common. 
Englevvood, Chicago, Piano, Peoria (Brendel), Kappa, Normal, 
Belleville and Mt. Carmel (Nat. Mus.). 

Hydrops, Wagler. 

Wagler, Syst. Amph., 1830, p. 170. 

S. (larman, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zo()l., 1883, p. 34. 

Scales smooth and shining, in from fifteen to twenty-one 
rows. Anal plate divided. Uostral normal. One or two inter- 
nasals. Two prefrontals. One or two nasals. A large elongate 
loreal, with the jirefrontal forming the anterior rim of the orbit. 



2N() ]IIi}iois Sf'tfe Lahoratonj of Nafiinil llistonj. 

No auteorbitals. Two postorbitals. Body moderately stout. 
Head scarcely distinct from the body. 

Two internasal plates. With several longitudinal red stripes 
above H. erythrogrammus. 

One internasal plate. Uniform blue black above. 

H. ABACURUS. 

Hydrops erythrogrammus, Daudin. Rkd-i.inkd Horned 
Snake, Hoop Snake. 

(Joliihtr ciuthrognimniiis, Daudin, Hist. Nat. Ilept.. 1799, VII., 

p. 93, pi. 83. fig. 2. 
Helimps erythroiini nun IIS. Holbr., N. A. Herp.. 1842, III., p. 107, 

pi. 25. 
Ahdstor eii/f/iro(//(ininiiis. Dd. and (iir.. Cat. N. A. Kept., Pt. I., 

1853, p. 125. 
('(ilopisma i^i-yfliroijidinnnis, Dum.et liibr., Elrp. (Jen., 1854, VII., 

p. 33i). 
Ahastor eri/f/iiu(jniiui/iii.s, Davis and Rice*, Bull. 111. State Lab. 

Nat. Hist., I., No. 5, 1883, p. 32; Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 

1883. 
Hydrops <fi'ijHir(i<jntiiniii(s.'6. (larman, Mem. Mus. Comp. ZoiU., 

1883, pp. 35, 144. 

Body moderately stout. Head scarcely wider than the 
neck, slightly depressed. Tail short. Dorsal scales smooth. 
Rostral plate very wide. Two small internasals. Prefrontals 
large, forming part of the anterior rim of the orbit. Frontal 
plate hexagonal, its lateral margins nearly parallel, except 
between the parietals. Supraciliaries large. One nasal plate, 
grooved below the nostril. Loreal elongate, forming part of the 
anterior rim of the orbit. No anteorbital. Two postorbitals, 
the lower small, Supralabials seven, sixth largest. Infrala- 
bials seven or eight, the fourth or fifth largest. Dorsal scales 
in nineteen rows, all smooth and polished. Ventrals 167-185. 
Subcaudals in ^JS-oO pairs. 

Color above bluish black, with five longitudinal red stripes. 
Of these, one on each side occupies the two outer rows of scales, 
excepting the bases of the scales of the inner row: three 
scales above these stripes, on each side, is another, occupying but 
one scale in width: while the fifth stripe occupies the median 
dorsal row of scales. Beneath carneous, with round black 



Reptiles and Amphibians of TUinois. 2S1 

spots near the outer margins of each ventral scute, forming 
two longitudinal series. Sometimes with a broken median 
series of spots. Cephalic plates faintly margined with yellow. 
Labials and scales of the under side of the head, each with a 
black central spot. 

Attains a length of more than 86 inches. 

Southern Illinois. " Found north to Mt. Carmel at least." 
(Ridgway.) 

Hydrops abacurus, Holbr. Red-bellied Horn Snake. 

Coluber uhdcitnis, Holbr., N. A. Herp., 1836, 1., p. 119, pi. 23. 
Htlicoj)ft ahacarns; Holbr., N. A. Herp., 1842, III., p. Ill, pi, 26. 
Faranr-ia ahactirns, Bd. and Gir., Cat. N. A. Rept., Pt. I., 1853, 

p. 123. 
(Uilopisnia abavanini. Dum. et Bibr., Erp. G^n., VII., 1854, p. 342. 
Hydropa abacurus, Dum. et Bibr., Erp. Gen., Atlas, pi. 65. 
Farancia nhacura, Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat, 

Hist., I., No. 5, 1883, p. 32; Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 
Hudrops abacurus. S, Garman, Mem. Mus.Comp. Zool., 1883, pp. 

36, 144, pi. 1, fig. 5. 

Body tapering very slightly toward the extremities. 
Neck thick, as wide as the head. Head small. Tail of mod- 
erate length, maintaining its diameter well toward the tip and 
tapering suddenly, the tip covered by a conical nail. All the 
scales smooth and shining. Rostral plate wide. But one in- 
ternasal. Two large prefrontals, each forming a part of the 
boundary of the orbit of its side. Frontal large, elongate. 
Supraciliaries small. One nasal, grooved below the nostril. 
A single elongate loreal which forms part of the anterior boun- 
dary of the orbit (some authors consider this an anteorbital 
and describe the species as without a loreal). No anteorbitals. 
Two postorbitals, the lower much the smaller. Parietals large, 
bounded exteriorly by two elongate temporals. Six or seven 
supralabials, the eye above the third and fourth, fifth and sixth 
largest. Infralabials eight or nine, the fifth largest, those fol- 
lowing it becoming rapidly smaller, the last smallest of all. 
Dorsal scales in nineteen rows, large, the outer scales wider 
than long. Ventrals 168-203, the one preceding the anals 
divided. Subcaudals in 35-49 pairs, a few of those behind the 
vent sometimes united. 



282 Illinois Stitfe L<ih<)r<itoni of Xofunil llixfonj. 

Color above uniform bluish black. Beneath bright brick- 
red, with broken or complete transverse bluish black bands 
which are continuous at the sides with downward extensions 
of the black of the dorsal surface. The red of the ventral sur- 
face extends upward on the sides between the black bars to 
the third or fourth row of dorsal scales. Head olive-brown 
above, uniform or marked with red. Posterior supralabials 
reddish brown with black central spots. Inferior surface of 
the head brownish anteriorl}^ becoming pale salmon-red be- 
hind, many of the plates with black central spots. The trans- 
verse black bars alternate on the posterior part of the tail, and 
are wanting toward the tip. 

Total length of an example from Union Co., 88.50; tail, 
6.25. 

Southern Illinois. Frequent. Wabash \' alley (llidgway), 
J31uff Lake, Union Co. 

This is a beautiful serpent with the scales of the dorsal 
surface like polished ebony. " Not uncommon as far north as 
Vincennes. A living female with eggs was sent to the Na- 
tional Museum from Wheatland, Ind." (liidgway). "Com- 
mon around the Bluff Lakes [Union Co. J during August and 
September." (C W. Butler.) 

Oyolophis, Gunther. 

Giinther, Cat. Coll. Serp. in iirit. Mus., Ft. I., 1858, p. 119. 
Bd. and (iir., Chlorosoma, Cat N. A. Kept., Pt. 1., ISoS, p. 108. 

Dorsal scales perfectly smooth, in fifteen rows. Anal 
plate divided. Rostral normal. Two internasals. Two pre- 
frontals. One nasal, nostril opening in its middle. Loreal 
present. One anteorbital. Two postorbitals. Small, slender; 
bead distinct from body; tail moderately long. 

Cyclophis vernalis, Harlan, (tkekn Snake. 

cohilx-r n^n/olls, Harlan, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., ^^, 1827, 
p. 3()1.— Holbr., N. A. Herp., 1842, 111., p. TU, pi. 17.— De Kay, 
Nat. Hist. N. Y., I., Zool. III., Kept, and Amph.. 1842, p. 40, 
pi. 11, fig. 22. 

('hlnrofinvKt nriin/is. J5d. and (iii\, Cat. N. A. Kept., Pt. I., 1853, 
1'. 108.— Kenn., Trans. 111. State Agr. Soc, 1853-54,1., p. 592. 



Reptiles and Amphibians of Illinois. 283 

L/')p(^Jtis nriKtlis. Smith, (leol. Surv. Ohio, Zoi)!. and Hot., IV., 

1882, p. 695. 
Cjirlophis cerna/ls, Davis and liice, liull. 111. State Lab. Nat. 

Hist., I., No. 5, 1883. p. 36; Hull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883.— 

8. (rarman, Mem. Mas. Comp. Zool, 1883. pp. 39, 146, pi. 3, 

flg.4. 

Small. Body slender. All the dorsal scales smooth. Ros- 
tral plate angulate between the internasals. Frontal elongate, 
narrowed behind, pentagonal. One or two anteorbitals. Two 
postorbitals. Seven supralabials; middle of the eye above the 
third and fourth. Eight infralabials, the fifth largest. Dorsal 
scales in fifteen rows. Ventrals about 148 in adults (125 or 
more in younger examples). Subcaudals about SO (()9-95). 

Color above uniform pale green; whitish below. Head 
olive above. Iris pale yellow about pupil, more extensively so 
above; elsewhere dark. Supralabials pale. Young examples 
are more brownish. 

Total length of an adult female, 10.25; tail, 5.25. 

Occurs in all parts of Illinois. Common. Cook county, 
Galesburg, Peoria (Brendel), Normal, Monroe county (Nat. 
Mus.) 

A handsome small species occurring everywhere in mead- 
ows and pastures. It feeds upon insects. A female before me 
which was captured at Normal, July 6, contains fully developed 
eggs. 

Phyllophilophis, S. Garaian. 

S. Garman, Mem, Mus. domp. Zool., 1883, p, 40. 

Dorsal scales carinated, in seventeen rows. Anal plate 
divided. Rostral normal. Two internasals. Two prefrontals. 
One nasal plate, with the nostril opening in its middle. Loreal 
present. One anteorbital. Two postorbitals. Small, slender; 
head distinct; tail long. 

Phyllophilophis sestivus, Linn. Green Snake. 

Coluber astimis, Linn., Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1766, 1., p. 387. 
Le2)tophis nstiom; Ilolbr., N. A. Ilerp., 1842, IV.. p. 17, pi. 3.— 

Bd. and Gir., Cat. N. A. Kept., Pt. I., 1853. p. 1()6. 
Lr-ptophis iiiajalls. 13d. and (Jir., 1. c, p. 107. 



2N4 Illino'iPi Sfdfe Laboratory of Natural Hisfori/. 

ffcfpftoilri/u.s (istiviis, Uuin. et Bibr., Erp. Gt'n., VII., 1854, p. 209. 
ci/c/ophU- (istirns, Davis and Kice, Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. 

Hist., I., No. 5,1883, p. .%; Bull. Chicago Acad., 1883.— S. 

Garman, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zoul., 1883, pp. 40, 140, pi. 3, tig. 1. 
J^hyJhyphilopliis (istinis.S. Garman, List N. A. Rept. and Batr. 

Essex Inst., 1884. 

Small. Body long and slender. Head long, wide behind, 
narrowing forward. Neck slender. Tail long, slender and 
tapering. Dorsal scales, excepting the two outer rows of each 
side, distinctly carinated. Rostral plate large, convex, with a 
lunate impression below, obtusely angulate between the inter- 
nasals. Frontal plate elongate, pentagonal, narrowed behind. 
Loreal quadrangular. One anteorbital (three on each side in an 
example from southern 111.). Twopostorbitals. Seven or eight 
supralabials; center of the eye behind the line of junction of 
the third and fourth, sixth largest. Eight iufralabials, fourth 
and fifth largest. Ventrals 150-165. Subcaudals 111-135. 

Color above pale green. Supralabials and entire under 
surface greenish white. 

Total length, 27.25; tail, 9.75. 

Southern Illinois, common. Mt. Carmel (Ridgway), 
Anna (Butler), Pine Hills, Union county. 

Easily distinguished from Cycloj)]iis vernalis. From the 
strong resemblance of this small serpent to some of the tree-in- 
habiting species of the tropics one would infer that its habits 
were similar, but instead, as observed by Prof. Cope in an 
example kept by him in confinement, it remains under-ground 
most of the time with the head and neck exposed and motion- 
less, a habit which may serve it in eluding its enemies or bring- 
ing the insects on which it feeds within its reach. Those we 
have collected were found among herbage, in situations similar 
to those in which Cyclophis vernalis occurs. 

Coluber, Linn. 

Linn., Syst. Nat., 1748, p. 34. 

Bd. and Gir., Bascanion, Cat. N. A. Rept., Pt. I., 1853, p. 93. 

S. Garman, (in part) Mem. Mus. Comp. Zoiil., 1883, p. 40. 

Dorsal scales smooth, in seventeen rows. Anal plate 
divided. Rostral normal. Two internasals. Two prefrontals. 



Reptiles and Amphibians of Illinois. 285 

Two nasals. Loreal present. One large superior and a, very 
small inferior anteorbital. Two postorbitals. Eye large. Body 
long, slender; head distinct; tail long. 
Large active species. 

Coluber constrictor, Linn. Black Sn.\ke, Blue Racer. 

( '(iliilx-r roust rictor, Liun., Syst. Nat., 1758, ed. 10, 1., p. 216.— Storer 

Best. Jour. Nat. Hist,, 1840, III., p. 27.— Holbr. N. A. Herp.' 

1842, III., p. 55, pi. 11.— DeKay, Nat. Hist. N. Y., I., Zoul! 

III., Kept, and Amph., 1842, p. 35, pi. 10, fig. 20. 
Based II ion const tictoi: Bd. and Giv., Cat. N. A. Rept., Pt. I., 1853, 

p. 93.— Kenn., Trans. 111. State Agr. .Soc, 1853-54, 1., p. 592. 
< 'orjljiliodoii const r/ctoi\ Duin, et Bibr., Krp. Gen., VII., 1854, 

p. 183. 
liosfuniiiini constrictor. Davis and Rice, IJuU. 111. State Lab. Nat. 

Hist., I., No. 5, 1883, p. 38; Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 
CoJtihtr constrictor.^. Garman, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 1883, 

pp. 41, 146, pi. 4, fig. 3. 

Large. Body long and slender. Head elongate, clearly 
marked off from the body, front convex, sides channeled. Eye 
large. Tail long and tapering. Rostral plate strongly convex, 
angulate between the internasals. Frontal large, elongate, its 
lateral margins incurved. Supraciliaries jutting over the eyes. 
Nostril large. Two nasals of about equal size. One or two 
loreals. Two anteorbitals, sometimes but one, the superior very 
large, vertically elongate and expanded above; inferior plate 
small. Two postorbitals. Seven supralabials, the fourth, sixth 
and seventh largest. Nine infralabials, the fifth much the 
largest, the eighth and ninth very small. Dorsal scales in 
.seventeen rows: large, all perfectly smooth. Ventrals, 172-1 UO. 
Anal divided. Subcaudals in 89-110 pairs. 

Color above uniform deep blue-black or olive-brown, slate- 
gray or greenish white beneath. Inferior portions of all the 
supralabials pale. Head olive-brown above. Pupil with a nar- 
row coppery ring. Iris nearly all black. The colors of the 
young are entirely different. In specimens of a foot long there 
is a dorsal series of dark brown blotches, and below these on 
each side numerous small brown spots. Beneath gray, with 
numerous round or lunate black spots toward the sides. Head 
olive-brown above, the plates edged and marked with black. 
Tail uniform brown above, paler below. 



286 Jlli)i(>/s Sfiife Laboratory of Natural History. 

Total length of an example from southern Illinois, 4r).r)0; 
tail, 11.50. 

Throughout the State. Common south. Cook Co. (Ken- 
nicott), Galesburg, Peoria (Brendel), Normal, Trbana, Cob- 
den, Anna. 

Formerly a common species, but it has been exterminated 
in the better agricultural regions, and is not common at present 
except in localities where there are extended tracts of unculti- 
vated land to afford it retreats. The pilot snakes and this 
species are not commonly discriminated, and accounts of the 
habits of the black snake as frequently refer to one as to the 
other. This is one of the largest species of our fauna, reach- 
ing a length of seven feet or more. It is perfectly harmless, but 
will occasionally pursue one whom it recognizes as more cow- 
ardly than itself. It is a great coward, however, and ordinarily 
takes to flight at the first sound of one's approach. It is an invet- 
erate robber of birds' nests, climbing trees for this purpose with 
great facility. Besides young birds, its food consists of frogs 
and field mice. The form known as the Blue Racer seems to 
to be the more common in central Illinois. 

PiTYOPHIS, HOLBR. 

Holbr., N. A. Herp., 1842, lY., p. 7. 

Bd. and Gir., Cat. N. A. Kept., Pt. I., 1853, p. fi4. 

Median rows of dorsal scales slightly carinated, outer rows 
smooth, in from twenty-five to thirty-five rows. Anal plate 
entire. Rostral plate produced upward and backward be- 
tween the internasals. Two internasals. Two pairs of pre- 
frontals or one pair; sometimes with a small intermediate extra 
plate — the anterior frontal. Two nasals. Loreal present. One 
or two anteorbitals. Two to five postorbitals. Includes large, 
spotted species. 

Pityophis catenifer. Blainville. Bull Snake. 
Var. catenifer. 

f'nJtihrr (■(/t<nif(r, Blainville, Nouv. Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat., III., 

1834, pi. 26, fig. 2, 2a, 2b. 
rituophis vatenifer, Bd. and (Jir., Cat. N. A. Kept., Pt. I., 1853, 

p. 69. 



Beptiles (ind Amphibians of Illinois. 28"^ 



Var. sayi. 



ro///&^r .«///«. Schlegel,Essai Phys. Serp., 1837, p. 157. — Bd. and 

Gir., Cat. N. A. Kept., Pt. I., 1853, p. 151. 
Pitjldphis sdf/i. subsp. s(n/l, Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. 

Nat. Hist., 1., No. 5, 1883, p. 38. 
Pityojtliis i-< fit II if If. var. .stti/L S. (Jarman, Mem. Mus. Comp. 
' Zool., 1883, pp. 52, 150. 

Var. bellona. 

VInirehilliii htlloiKi. Bd. and Gir., Stansbury's Explor. and Surv. 

(ireat Salt Lake, 1853, p. 350. 
Fitnophis bdfoiui. Bd. and Gir. Cat. N. A. Rept., Pt. I., 1853, 

p. 66. 
Fityiyphis cateiilfei; var. Jiellona, S. Garman, Mem. Mus. Comp. 
' Zool.,1883,'pp. 53, 151. 

Large. Head large, wide behind, snout somewhat pointed. 
Outer dorsal scales smooth, the median rows carinate. Rostral 
plate wedged between the internasals, sometimes reaching the 
prefrontals. Prefrontals in a transverse series of one or two 
pairs. Sometimes with a small extra plate in advance of the 
frontal. Frontal large, its lateral margins parallel or conver- 
gent posteriorly. Parietals large, with a linear impression, as 
if mutilated. One or two loreals, one or two anteorbitals; if 
two, the inferior is much the smaller. From two to four post- 
orbitals. Supralabials eight, the fourth or fifth reaching the 
orbit, seventh largest. Eleven to thirteen infralabials, gradu- 
ally increasing in size to the seventh, thence diminishing. 
Rows of dorsal scales from twenty-five to thirty-five. Ventrals 
2011-243. Subcaudals 52-71. 

Color above froQi yellowish white to reddish brown, with 
a dorsal series of large black or brown spots, and with two or 
three series of smaller spots on each side. Beneath yellow, 
more or less blotched with black. A black bar, arched for- 
wards, generally extends from orbit to orbit across the head. 
Another black bar extends from the supraciliary plate to the 
angle of the mouth, crossing the seventh and eighth upper 
labials. Labials more or less widely edged with black. 

Total length, (U.75; tail 8. 

Prairies in all parts of the State. Rockland (Nat. Mus,), 
Normal, southern Illinois (Nat. Mus.). 



28S Illinois Sfdfc Lahoratory of Natural Histor;/. 

Variety sayi ( ? ) 

Illinois examples of the species are referred to this variety 
with a good deal of doubt. If the published descriptions of 
the variety are complete, our snakes certainly do not belong to 
it. In many respects the central Illinois examples are inter- 
mediate between var. Sftiji and var. bellotia, and, judging from 
descri))tions alone, are as properly referable to the latter as to 
the former. The description following is based upon six 
examples from the prairie region of central Illinois. 

Rostral plate wedged between the internasals above, in one 
example reaching the prefrontals. Two pairs of prefrontals. 
A small anterior frontal present in four examples. Frontal 
large, wide in front, emarginate for the accommodation of the 
anterior frontal when the latter is present, sides slightly in- 
curved and approaching posteriorly. Parietals large, impressed 
as if from an injury. Loreals one or two. Anteorbitals one in 
live examples, two in the remaining one, the inferior plate in 
the latter very small. Postorbitals two, three, or four; in one 
example three on one side and four on the other. Supralabials 
eight, the fourth alone reaching the orbit; fourth, sixth, and 
seventh largest. Eleven infralabials. Dorsal scales in from 
thirty-one to thirty-three rows, from seven to nine outer 
smooth. Ventrals 201)-228. Subcaudals 51-60 pairs. 

Color above straw-yellow, faintly brownish in some 
examples, with a dorsal series of large black or brown spots 
numbering from forty-two to fifty-five to the vent, and from 
nine to thirteen on the tail. On the dorsal scales of each side, 
are one or two additional series of black or brown spots *vhich, 
anteriorly, are elongate longitudinally, and on the tail fuse with 
the dorsal spots, forming transverse bars. Beneath pale yellow, 
with brown or black blotches confined to the sides of the ven- 
tral scutes or uniformly distributed. Head with a black bar 
extending from orbit to orbit on the supraciliaries, frontal 
and prefrontals. An oblique black bar extends from the 
orbit to the angle of the mouth, crossing the seventh and 
eighth supralabials. Most of the labials are edged with black. 
The black spots, in some examples, encroach upon the yellow 
ground color to such an extent that only narrow lines of yellow 
appear between them. 



Reptiles and Amphibians of Illinois. 289 

In an attempt to find where the Illinois examples of the 
species belonged, the published descriptions of American species 
of the genus have been tabulated, and those characters of each 
in which any one of the six examples described agreed were 
checked. It was found that most of them agreed most closely 
with var. hellona. The descriptions of var. sayi are, however, 
not complete, and the result is consequently unsatisfactory. 

The bull snake is not an uncommon species in Illinois, 
occasionally even occurring in door yards. When offended it 
will strike, as do most other harmless snakes, and utter a hiss- 
ing sound accompanied by a humming noise bearing a very 
remote resemblance to the bellow of a bull, hence the com- 
mon name. While holding one of these snakes over a table 
a short time since, the rapid vibration of the tail on the 
smooth surface of the table gave forth a hissing sound bearing 
resemblance to the noise made by the rattle of members of the 
genus Crotalus. The resemblance would doubtless be increased 
where the tail struck against grasses and leaves, and may serve 
these snakes as a protection against enemies. The humming 
noise which accompanies the hissing is due to a vibration of a 
peculiar flattened and freely movable epiglottis. 

Elaphis, Aldrovandi. 

Aldrovandi, Serpentum et Draconum, 1640, p. 267. 

Bd. and Gir., Scotnplns. Cat. N. A. Kept., Ft. I., 1853, p. 73. 

S. Garmaa, Mem. Mus. ( lomp. Zool., 1883, p. 53. 

A few median dorsal rows with faintly carinated scales; 
dorsal rows twenty-three to twenty-nine. Anal plate divided. 
Rostral normal. Two internasals. Two prefrontals. Two 
nasals. Loreal present. Anteorbitals one. Postorbitals two 
or three. Body long, slender; head distinct; tail long. In- 
cludes the largest and most active of our Ophidia. 

General color black, uniform, or with obscure blotches. 

E. OBSOLETUS. 

(ieneral color brown, with chestnut blotches E. guttatus 



290 Illinois State Laboraloyij of Natiirul Hisfonj. 

Elaphis obsoletus, Say. IMlot Sxakk, Hlack Snake. 
Var. obsoletus. 

(U)hiber ohso/etus, Say, Ijong's KxpeiJ. to Rocky Mts., 1823, I., 

p. 140. 
Georgia ohsnJefa, Bd. and Gir., Cat. N. A. Kept.. Ft. I., 1853, p. 158. 

fSrotopJu's ohsn/t'fns, Kenn., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Pliila., IS'iO. 

p. 330. 
('<)/nl)('r olisojrtiis, siibsp. ohsohtiis and coiijiiiis, Davis and Rice, 
Hull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist., I., No. 5, 18S3, pp. 3H. 37; 
Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 
. Eld phis itbsnlftiis, S. (larman, Mem. Afus. Comp. ZotU., 1883, pp. 
54, 151, pi. 4, fig. 2. 

Var. lindheimeri. 

Scot'tp/iis liii(lh(^imfrii, Bd. and Gir. Cat. N. A. Rept. Pt. I., 1853, 

p. 74. 
Scotophis ettinri/i, lid. and Gir., I.e., p. 157. 
Coluber emoryi and ('. liitdhniiiK^ri, Davis and Rice, Bull. State 

Lab. Nat. Hist., I., No. 5. 1883, p. 3ti; Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 

1883. 
' Elaphis obsoletus,yni\ liiidtirimerii, S. Garman, Mem. Mus. Comp. 

Zool., 1883, pD. 54, 152. 

Body elongate, slender, slightly compressed, ventral sur- 
face flattened. Head large, elongate, clearly separated by the 
narrower neck. Only the median dorsal scales carinate. Ros- 
tral plate wide, excavated below. Prefrontals very large. 
Frontal pentagonal, nearly or quite as wide in front as long. 
One large anteorbital. Two or three postorbitals. Eight su- 
pralabials, the middle of the eye above the line of juncture of 
the fourth and fifth. Thirteen infralabials, the sixth and 
seventh or fifth and sixth largest. Dorsal scales in from twenty- 
five to twenty-nine rows, the two or three outer rows of each 
side smooth, the carinae of remaining rows becoming more 
prominent above. Ventrals 217-239. Sabcaudals 72-85. 

Color above brown or black with a silken gloss, or a gray 
ground color, and black or brown dorsal and lateral blotches. 
Beneath, straw-yellow in the young, with squarish or elongate 
blackish blotches, mostly confined to the sides in front, but 
gradually fusing toward the tail and giving a uniform dark 
slate-color on the under side of the latter. In adults most of 
the ventral surface is dark slate or black; in all stages on the 



Reptiles and Amphibians of Illinois. *il)l 

under side o£ the head the color is uniform yellow, and this 
color occupies the middle of the scutellse for some distance be- 
hind the head. Labials mostly yellow, some of them with faint 
dusky margins. 

Total length, 64.50; tail, 10. 

Throughout the State. Most abundant in southern Illi- 
nois. Rashville, (xalesburg, McLean county, Mt, Carmel 
(J. Schneck), Union county. 

Variety obsoletus. 

Dorsal scales in twenty-five to twenty-nine rows. Ven- 
trals 231-239. Subcaudals 76-85. Color above black or 
brown, sometioies with a gray ground color and black or brown 
dorsal and lateral spots. Beneath dark slate-gray posteriorly, 
becoming paler forward. 

Variety lindheimeri. 

Dorsal scales in twenty-nine rows. Ventrals 217-234. 
Subcaudals 72-85. Ground color gray, narrowly separating 
dorsal and lateral black or brown blotches. 

Southern Illinois, 

With material representing this species from various local- 
ities in the State, I find it impossible to separate the variety 
ronfinis from obsoletus. A complete series maybe selected con- 
necting the darkest with the palest individuals of the species. 
The rows of dorsal scales vary from twenty-five to twenty- 
seven in both black and light-colored examples. This is a fine 
large species which bears a superficial resemblance to the com- 
mon black snake (Coluber constrictor) and this latter species is 
occasionally credited with traits which belong to the pilot 
snake. The pilot snake is said to climb trees in search of birds' 
nests as does the true black snake. Dr. J. Schneck, of Mt. 
Carmel, in a note to the American Naturalist for 1880, states 
that one of the forms of this species has the habit of moving the 
tail rapidly when excited, and thus producing a bu/zing sound. 
Mr. Chas. Aldrich makes a similar statement concerning an- 
other form which he collected in Iowa. 



'liyl Illinois Stale Lahorntorii of Natural History. 

Elaphis guttatus, Linn. Fox Snake, Cokn S.vake. 

Var. guttatus. 

Cn/nhcr (/iiffdfiis, Linu.,Syst. Nat , ed. 12, ITWJ, p. 385.— Holbruuk, 

N. A. Herp., 1842, III., p. (55, pi. 14. 
Sr<,t<,j,/ii.s!/iitti/'tns, Bd. and Gir., Cat. >^. A. Kept, Pt. I., 1853, p. 78. 
EIrtphis i/iiftdtiis, Diirn. et Bibr. Eip. Gt^n., VII., 1854, p. 273. 
Cohihi^r guttaius, Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist., 

I., No. 5, 1883, p. 37 ; Bull, Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 
Eld phis ovttdtiis, 8. Garman, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 1883, pp. 

55,152, pi. 4,lig. 1. 

Var. vulpinus. 

Hcotopliis Tdipiiids, Bd. and Gir., Cat. X. A. Kept., Pt. I., 1853, p. 

75.— Kenn., U. S. Pac. R. R. Expl., 1853-55, XII., Book II., p. 

299. 
fJoltiber tulj)liius. Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist., 

I., No. 5, 1883, p. 36 ; Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 
/iJ/((p/iif! r/dftdtiis, var. vnljiirids, S. (Jarman, Mem. Mus. Comp. 

Zool., 1883, pp. 56, 153. 

Body moderately slender. Head large. Carina^ of dorsal 
scales faint, several outer rovers smooth. Rostral plate wider 
than high, emarginate beneath and with a lunate impression 
above the emargination. Frontal plate about as wide as long. 
One large anteorbital. Two postorbitals. Supralabials eight, 
eye over the fourth and fifth, seventh largest. About eleven 
infralabials, tifth and sixth much the largest. Dorsal scales in 
from twenty-five to twenty-seven rows, seven or more outer 
smooth on the neck, farther back only two perfectly smooth. 
Ventrals 200-235. Subcaudals 65-70. 

Ground color above grayish yellow or brownish, with a 
dorsal series of large hazel blotches and on each side two or 
three series of smaller blotches, the blotches of the lowest 
series extending upon the abdominal scutella? ; all the spots 
obscurely margined with black. Beneath yellowish, checkered 
with black. Head brown above, uniform or with a dark bar 
reaching from orbit to orbit across the prefrontals and with 
others from the eye to the mouth. Two elongate brown spots 
on the neck, behind the head, may unite anteriorly upon the 
parietals. 

Total length 25.50 ; tail, S.25. 



Reptiles and Amphibians of Illinois. 2'j;> 

Throughout the State. Cook Co. (Mus. N. W. Univ.), 
Peoria (Brendel), Normal, Wabash Valley (Ridgway). 

Ophibolus, Bi). AND GiR. 

Bd. and Gir., Cat. N. A. Kept., Ft. I., 1853, p. 82. 

Dorsal scales smooth, in from seventeen to twenty-five 
rows. Anal plate entire. Rostral normal. Two internasals. 
Two prefrontals. Two nasals, occasionally but one. Loreal 
present or, rarely, wanting. One anteorbital. Two or three 
postorbitals. Body moderately stout. Head not well sepa- 
rated from the body. 
Dorsal scales in 25 rows. Spotted with olive-brown above. 

Obsoletely blotched below 0. calligaster. 

Dorsal scales in 21 rows. Spotted with chestnut-brown or with 
red above. Blotched with black below. . . .0. triangulus. 
Dorsal scales in 21 rows. Light chestnut-brown above, with 
obscure blotches. Uniform reddish yellow beneath or ob- 
soletely blotched 0. rhombomaculatus 

Dorsal scales in 21 rows. Chiefly black above, with narrow 
transverse yellow lines which bifurcate on the flanks or not. 
Most of the dorsal scales with a yellow spot in some ex- 
amples 0. GETULUS 

Dorsal scales in 19 rows. Loreal plate present. Red, with 
black rings 0. doliatus. 

Dorsal scales in 19 rows. Loreal plate wanting. Red, with 
black rings 0. elapsoidea. 

Ophibolus calligaster, Harlan. 

Colnhir ((illicjKstcr, Harlan, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Fhila.. IN27, 

v., Pt. II., p. 359. 
ophihohis trdiisii, Kenn., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1859, p. 99. 
f.tfnijinipcHls mUii/dsft^r, Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 18W, 

p. 255. 
(tjtfiib'ihis <-(illi<i<islir, Davis and Rice, lUill. HI. State Lab. Nat. 

Hist., I., No. 5, 1883, p. 34; Bull. Cliicago Acad. .Sci. 1883. 
oji/iiho/iis fii(i/i(/ii/iis, var. cdlJhjKsti r, s. Garman, Mem. Mus 

Comp. Zoul., 1883, pp. ))6, 185. 

Rather large. Body tapering gradually to the extremi- 
ties. Head of moderate size, not noticeably wider than the 



"itlt f//ino/s Sf(df> fjabordforij of Xdfiinil Ilislonj. 

iieck. Tail cylindrical, tapering, short. All the dorsal scales 
smooth. Rostral plate wider than high, strongly convex, dis- 
tinctly but obtusel}^ angulate on each side at the line of union 
of the anterior nasal and first labial plates, faintly angulate on 
each side between the anterior nasal and the internasal, and 
with an evident obtuse angle between the internasals. Frontal 
rather short and wide, its anterior margin nearly straight, late- 
ral margin converging posteriorly, acutely angulate behind. 
Loreal plate quadrangular. One large anteorbital. Eye small. 
Two postorbitals (three on one side in one example studied). 
Two elongate temporals wedged between the parietals and the 
fifth and sixth supralabials. Seven supralabials, the eye above 
the third and fourth, fifth and sixth largest. Nine infralabials, 
fifth largest, fourth next. Dorsal scales in twenty-five rows. 
Ventrals 199-207. Subcaudals 43-47. 

Color above olive-brown, with a dorsal series of from fifty- 
three to fifty-nine transverse dorsal brown blotches, each mar- 
gined with three, or, where the spots fuse, two, series of small 
brown spots. Beneath yellowish white (in alcohol), with ob- 
solete dusky blotches. A brown band, edged with blackish 
brown extends backwards on the neck from the outer margin 
of the parietal of each side. A brown spot on the frontal and 
parietals includes a small pale spot which lies partly upon the 
tip of the frontal. An obscure dark brown bar extends from 
orbit to orbit on the posterior portions of the prefrontals. 
Another bar extends from the eye to the angle of the mouth. 
The spots of the median dorsal row are about two and a half 
scales long and eleven wide. Posteriorly some of them are 
emarginate before and behind. Described from two examples 
in the Laboratory collection. 

Total length of example from Pekin 40.7") ; tail 5.25. 

Occurs on prairies throughout the State. Not very com- 
mon. Pekin, southern Illinois (Mus. N. W. Univ.), Mfc. Car- 
mel (Nat. Mus.). 

This species bears a very strong resemblance in the char- 
acter of the plates of the head and the character and disposition 
of the spots to ElapJiis (juttatus. It has the same small eye 
the same transverse band between the orbits, the oblique band 



Reptiles and Amphibians of Illinois. 295 

from the eye to the coruer of the mouth and the elongate 
bands on the neck and back part of the head. 

Ophibolus triangulus, Boie. Milk Snake, Chicken Snake, 
House Snake, Thunder and Lightning Snake, King 
Snake, Chequered Adder. 

Var. triangulum. 

Coluber triangulum, Boie, Isis, 1827, p. 537. 

Coluber €ximius,E.o\h\:., N. A. Heip., 1842,«I1I., p. (59. pi. 15.- 

De Kay, Nat. Hist. X. Y., I., ZoOl. III., Kept, and Amph., 

1842, p. 38, pi. 12, fig. 25. 
Opliibolus eximius, Bd. and Gir., Cat. N. A. Kept., Pt. I., 1853, p. 

87.— Kenn.,'Trans. 111. State Agr. See, 1853-54, 1., p. 592. 
Ablahes trianguJuin, Dum. etBibr., Erp. Gen., VII., 1854, p. 315. 
Opliibolus doliatus, subsp. triangulus; Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. 

State Lab. Nat. Hist. I., No. 5, 1883, p. 34 ; Bull. Chicago 

Acad. Sci., 1883. 
Ophibolus triangulus, S. Garman, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zoiil., 

1883, pp. 65, 155, pi. 5, fig. I. 

Var. doliatus. 

opliibolus doliatus, Bd. and Gir., Cat. N. A. Kept. Pt. I., 1853, 

p. 89. 
Ophibolus doliatus, subsp. doliatus, Davis andiRice, Bull. 111. 

State Lab. Nat. Hist., 1., No. 5, 1883, p. 34 ; Bull. Chicago 

Acad. Sci., 1883. 
Ophibolus triangulus, var. doliatus, S. Garman, Mem. Mus. 

Comp. Zool., 1883, pp. 6G, 155. 

Body cylindrical, maintaining its diameter well toward 
both extremities. Head of medium size. Neck rather thick 
in adults. Eye small. Tail short. All the dorsal scales per- 
fectly smooth. Rostral plate wider than high. Loreal quad- 
rangular. One anteorbital. Two postorbitals. Seven suprala- 
bials, eye above the third and fourth, lower postorbital resting 
in a notch between the fourth and fifth. Nine infralabials, 
the fifth much larger than the others. Dorsal scales in twenty- 
one rows, the scales of the median rows differing less in size 
from those of the lateral rows than usual. Ventrals about 21 1 . 
Subcaudals about 52 pairs (a few occasionally united). 

Color above pale brown or gray, with large dark brown or 
reddish brown dorsal blotches edged with black, and low down 
»; 



:JU() Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

on the flanks a series o£ small black spots with pale centers : 
some of the latter spots alternate with the brown dorsal 
blotches, while others are opposite them and may fuse with 
their black margins. Sometimes there are two series of spots 
on the flanks. Iris red. Tongue red, black-tipped. Yellowish 
beneath, checkered with black, paler anteriorly, often mostly 
black posteriorly from fusion of the black marks, spots some- 
times confined to the sides. Head brown above posteriorly, 
sometimes with a cordiform or triangular pale spot behind the 
parietals ; generally with a more or less distinct dark bar on 
prefrontals, reaching from one orbit to the other. A black 
dash extends from the eye to the corner of the mouth. Labials 
edged with black. The anterior dorsal brown spot generally 
includes the pale spot behind the parietals and extends upon 
the head ; it frequently also fuses with the spot following. 

Total length of example from Galesburg, 36 ; tail, 5.12. 

Throughout the State. Moderately common. Freeport, 
Galesburg, Peoria (Brendel), Pekin, Hudson, Normal, Urbana, 
Mt. Carmel (Nat. Mus. ), Cobden, Anna. 

Variety triangulus. 

With large chestnut-brown, black-margined dorsal spots 
separated by a gray or yellowish brown ground color. Check- 
ered with black beneath. Everywhere common. 

Variety doliatus. 

With large red black-margined dorsal blotches and white 
or gray interspaces. The approximation of the black margins 
of adjacent blotches gives the effect of pairs of transverse 
black lines embracing pale bands. Beneath yellowish, with 
most of the black at the sides, or the surface mostly black. 

Southern Illinois. 

Farmers frequently find this species in their cellars, where 
it is supposed to be attracted by the milk. Its food, according 
to De Kay, consists of frogs and toads. 

Ophibolus rhombomaculatus, Holbr. 

Coronella rhDinhonidciiIaUi, Uolbr., N. A. Herp., 1842, III., p. 
103, pi. 23. 



Reptiles and Amphibians of Illinois. 2^1^ 

(}j)/ilh()his rhoinJiniwK-iihitiis. Hd. and Gir., Cat. N. A. Rept. Pt. I., 
1853, p. 86.— Davis and Rice, liull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Flist., 
I., No. 5, 1883, p. 34; Ball. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 

OpfiUiohi.s triaii(/ii/(is, var. rhoinhinndcnhilits, S. Garman, Mem. 
Mus. Comp. Zoiil., 1883, p. loC). 

Dorsal scales in twenty-one rows. 

Light brown above with a large dorsal and two small 
lateral series of dark-margined reddish brown blotches. Salm- 
on-red beneath, with very obscure dark blotches. A dark 
stripe extends from the eye to the corner of the mouth. Dorsal 
blotches about fifty-two (ten of which are on the tail), each 
about seven scales wide and from one and a half to two and a 
half scales long. Ventrals about 211. Subcaudals about 45. 

Southern Illinois (Davis and Rice). 

Ophibolus getulus, Linn. Chain Snake, King Snake. 
Var. getulus. 

(Juhiber yetalus, Linn., Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1766, L, p. 382. 
Coromlia getula, Holbr., N. A. Herp., 1842, III., p. 95, pi. 21. 
Coluher getulm, Be Kay, Nat. Hist. N. Y., I., Zool. III., Rept. 

and Amph., 1842, p. 37, pi. 10, fig. 21. 
Ophihohis (letnlns. Bd. and Gir., Cat. N. A. Rept., Pt. 1., 1853, 

p. 85. 
(Juronella getuhi, Dum. et Ribr., Erp. Gen., VII., 1854, p. 616. 
OpJiiboJus rjetiilus, sahs'p.!/('fN/iis\ Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State 

Lab. Nat. Hist., I., No. 5, 1883, p. 33. 
Ophibolus getulus, S. Garman, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zo(')l., 1883, pp. 

68, 156, pi. 5, fig. 3. 

Var. sayi. 

(Coromlia sayL Holbr., N. A. Herp., 1842, III., p. 99, pi. 22. 

('oluber myi, De Kay, Nat. Hist. N. Y., I., Zool. III., Rept. and 
Amph., 1842, p 41. 

Ophibolus sayi, Bd. and Gir., Cat. N. A. Rept., Pt. I., 1853, p. 84. 

Coroii'Masayi, Dam. et Bibr.. Erp. G6'i., VII., 1851. p. 61!). 

Ophibolus (/etuJus, var. sayi, Davis and Rice. Bull. 111. State Lab. 
Nat. Hist., L, No. 5. 1883, p. 34; Bull. (Chicago Acad. Sci., 
1883.— S. Garman, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 1883, pp. 68, 156. 

Body moderately stout. Width of the head but little 
greater than the diameter of the neck. Tail rather short, 
tapering. All the dorsal scales smooth, liostral plate but 
little wider than high, convex, angulate between the interna- 



'398 Illinois State Lahoratory of Natural History. 

sals. Frontal pentagonal or subhexagonal. Loreal present. 
One large anteorbital. Two postorbitals. Eye moderate in 
size. Seven supralabials, eye over the third and fourth, sixth 
largest, the succeeding plates rapidly decreasing in size. Dor- 
sal scales in twenty-one rows. Ventrals 200-224. Subcau- 
dals 41-52. 

Color above black, with transverse yellow lines, which may 
be very narrow and not extend downwards on the flanks, or 
may be so wide as to give the prevailing color and bifurcate on 
the flanks, thus producing a dorsal series of large black or 
brown areas and another smaller lateral one for each side. 
Sometimes with a yellow dot on most of the dorsal scales. 
Beneath yellow, with squarish blotches of black. Mostly de- 
void of black beneath the head and neck; sometimes nearly 
black posteriorly from union of the blotches. Head black 
above, dotted with yellow. Supralabials and infralabials black- 
edged. 

Throughout the State. Rare north, moderately common 
in the south part. Peoria (Brendel), Wabash and Richland 
counties (Ridgway), Anna and Dug Hill in Union county. 

Variety getulus. 

With from twenty-five to thirty-five transverse yellow 
lines which bifurcate on the flanks and divide the black of the 
dorsal surface into several series of large blotches. Most of 
the scales of the blotches uniformly black. This variety has 
not, to my knowledge, been found in Illinois. 

Variety sayi. 

Black, with more than sixty transverse yellow lines, some- 
times mostly lacking, which, as a rule, do not bifurcate on the 
flanks. Sometimes most of the dorsal scales have a central 
yellow dot. This variety represents the species in the State. 
The young may be taken occasionally under logs in southern 
Illinois. I have not collected it north of Union county, but Dr. 
Brendel reports it from Peoria, and Dr. Hoy has taken it in Wis- 
consin, so that it may be looked for anywhere within our 
borders. 



Reptiles and Amphibians of Illinois. 'JV)V< 

Variety niger, Linn. 

Mr. Ridgway reports this variety froQi Mt. Carmel. It is 
unknown to me. 

Ophibolus doliatus, Linn. 

roluher doliatus, Linn.. Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1766, 1., p. 379.— Harlan, 

Jour. Acad. Nat. «ci. Phila., 1827, V., p. 362. 
Corondla doliata, Holbr. (not of Dum. et Hibr.), N. A. Herp., 

1842, p. 105, pi. 24. 
Optiiholus doliatus, subsp. coccwetis, Davis and Kice, Bull. 111. 

State Lab. Nat. Hist, I., No. 5, 1883, p. 34; Bull. Chicago 

Acad. Sci., 1883. 
Ophibolus doliatus, S. Garman, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 1883, 

pp. 64, 154, pi. 5, fig. 2. 

Body slender, cylindrical. Tail short. Dorsal scales smooth. 
Rostral plate wide. Frontal wide and short. One anteorbital. 
Two postorbitals. Loreal present. Supralabials seven. Infra- 
labials eight. Dorsal scales in nineteen rows. Ventrals 
169-176. Subcaudals 81-43 pairs. 

Color above light red, with from twenty to twenty-five 
pairs of transverse black bauds which are continuous about the 
body, or are interrupted on the abdomen. Between each pair is 
a yellowish band. 

Occurs in southern Illinois according to Davis and Rice. 
It is probably rare. I have not seen it. 

This species may be known from the variety doliatus of 
0. triancfidns by the fewer rows of dorsal scales and the char- 
acter of the transverse black lines. 

Ophibolus elapsoideus, Holbr. 

Calamaria elapsoidea, Holbr., N. A. Herp., 1842, III., p. 119, pi. 28. 
Osceola elapsoidea, Bd. and Gir., Cat. N. A. Rept., Pt. I., 1853, p. 

133.— Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist., I., No. 5. 

1883, p. 33; Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 
Op/iiholus doliatus, var. dapsoideus. S. Garman, Mem. Alus. 

Comp. Zool., 1883, pp. 65, 155. 
Ophibolus elajjsoideus, S. Garman, List. N. A. Rept. and Batr., 

Ball. Essex Inst., 1884. 

Small. Body slender. Tail short. Rostral plate wide. 
Frontal wide and short, subhexagonal. Loreal absent, its place 



300 lUinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

occupied by a downward extension of the prefrontals. One 
auteorbital. Two postorbitals. Supralabials seven, sixth 
largest, eye above the third and fourth. Infralabials seven, 
fifth largest. Dorsal scales in iiiiietpfn rows, the outer scales 
of each side a tritle the largest. V'eutrals 175-180. Subcau- 
dals 44-54. 

Bright red above, with eighteen to twenty-five pairs of 
transverse black bands, each pair enclosing a white band. 
Head red in front, marked with black posteriorly, and with a 
yellow band bounded by black bars on the occipital region. 
The black bands may be continuous around the body, or be 
interrupted on the ventral surface. 

Anna; not uncommon (C. W. Butler). 

DiADOPHIS, Bd. and Gik. 

Bd. and Gil., Cat. N. A. Kept., Ft. 1., 1853, p. 112. 

Dorsal scales smooth, in fifteen to seventeen rows. Anal 
plate divided. Rostral normal. Two internasals. Two pre- 
frontals. Two nasals. Loreal present. Two anteorbitals. Two 
postorbitals. Moderately slender. Head distinct from the body. 
Small species. 

Diadophis punctatus, Linn. King Snake. 
Var. punctatus. 

Coluber pandatus, Linn., iSyst. Xat., ed. 12, lT»it), I., p. 376.— 

Holbr., N. A. Herp., 1842, III., p. 81, pi. 18.— De Kay, Nat. 

Hist. N. Y., I., Zool. III., Kept, and Amph., 1842, p. 39, pi. 

14, fig. 29. 
Diadophis punctaiit^, Bd. aud Gir., Cat. N. A. Kept., Pt. I., 1853, 

p. 112. 
Ab tabes pit nctatas, Dum. et Bibr., Erp. Gen., VII., 1854, p. 310. 
Diadophis pwudatus, subsp. purictatas, Davis and Rice, Bull. 

111. State Lab Nat. Hist., I., No. 5, 1883, p. 35; Bull. Chicago 

Acad. Sci., 1883. 
Diadophis 2')nn(!tatus. S. Garman, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zoiil., 1883, 

pp. 72, 138, pi. 2, fig. 2. 

Var. amabilis. 

hiadopliis amabiUs, Bd. and Gir., Cat. N. A. Rept., Pt. I., 1853, 
p. 113. 



Beptiles and Amphibians of Illinois. 3Ul 

Bladophis jiunctotns, subsp. amuMlis. Davis and Rice, Bull. 
111. State Lab. Nat. Hist., I., No. 5, 1883, p. 35; Bull. Chi- 
cago Acad. Sci., 1883, 

T)iadoj)7ils panctdt/is, var, anHihilis, S. (xarman, Mem. Mas. 
Com p. Zool., 1883, p. 159. 

Var. arnyi. 

Di(i(7oj)his arnijL Kenn., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1859, p. 
99.— Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist., L, 
No. 5, 1883. p. 35; Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 

Diddophin pifjictatii.^, var. arni/i. S. Garman, Mem. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 1883, pp. 72, 158. 

Small. Head depressed. Tail short. Dorsal scales smooth. 
Rostral plate much wider than high. Frontal wide, the width 
well maintained posteriorly. One nasal, the nostril opening in 
its middle, or two nasals, with the nostril opening mainly in the 
anterior plate. Two anteorbitals and two postorbitals. Supra- 
labials seven or eight, the third and fourth or the fourth and 
fifth beneath the eye. Supralabials eight or nine, the fifth 
large. Dorsal scales in from fifteen to seventeen rows. Ven- 
trals about 141-198. Subcaudals 36-59 pairs. 

Color above black or blackish brown, with a yellow band 
across the base of the head. Beneath yellowish, with a single 
median series or with numerous irregularly distributed spots of 
brown or black. Supralabials dark or yellow, Tnfralabials 
and other plates on the under side of the head uniform yellow- 
ish or each with a small brown spot. The yellow band of the 
base of the head varies in width from a single scale to three or 
even four scales, and may be interrupted in the middle; it is 
in most examples bordered before and behind with black. 

Throughout the State. Mot common. Rock Island (Nat. 
Mus.), Warsaw, Union county (Mus. N. W. Univ.). 

Variety punctatus. 

Fifteen rows of dorsal scales. Uniform yellow below or 
without a median longitudinal series of dark spots on the ab- 
dominal scutellae. Ventrals 148-160. Subcaudals 36-56. 

Variety amabilis. 

Fifteen rows of dorsal scales. Yellow beneath, with 
numerous small black spots. Ventrals 182. Subcaudals 59. 



302 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

Variety arnyi. 

Seventeen rows of dorsal scales. Yellow beneath, thickly 
spotted with black. Occipital band from one to one and a half 
scales wide. Veutrals KiO. Subi-audal-s ")0 pairs. 

A specimen of this species in the Laboratory collection 
from Warsaw, Hancock county, has the lower part of the ros- 
tral and, excepting a narrow superior border, all the supralabial 
plates but the last yellow. In some respects it resembles the 
form described by Prof. E. D. Cope as var. sficfogenys. 

Hetbrodon, Beau v. 

Eeauv., Latreille, Hist. Nat. Kept., 1799. 

Bd. and Gir., Cat. N. A. Kept., Pt. I., 1853, p. ol. 

Dorsal scales carinated, in twenty-three to twenty-seven 
rows. Anal plate divided. Rostral plate plow-shaped, with a 
a keel above. Two internasals, with a small azygos plate be- 
tween them or separated by numerous small plates. Two pre- 
frontals, in contact or separated by small plates. One or two 
loreals. Short and stout, with large, wide head and short tail. 
The species possess the power of expanding the body. 

Internasals and prefrontals in contact with the azygos. 

H. PLATYRHINUS. 

Internasals and prefrontals separated from the azygos by small 
plates H. siMUS. 

Heterodon platyrhinus, Latreille. Spreading Adder, Hog- 
nose Snake, Blowing Viper. 

Var. platyrhinus. 

Heterodon, pfatyr/ihias, Latr., Hist. Nat. Kept., 1802, p. 32, pi. 
28, fig. 1-3.— Holbr., N. A. Herp., 1842, IV., p. 67, pi. 17.— De 
Kay, Nat. Hist. N. Y., I., Zool. III., Rept. and Ampli., 1842, 
p. 51, pi. 13, lig. 28.— Bd. and Gir., Cat. N. A. Kept., Pt. I., 
1853, p. 51.— Kenn., Trans. 111. State Agr. Soc, 1853-54, I., p. 
592.— Dum. et Bibr., Erp. G^n., VII., 1854, p. 766.— Davis 
and Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist., I., No. 5, 1883, p. 
43; Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883.— S. Garman, Mem. Mus. 
Comp. Zuo]., 1883, pp. 75, 159, pi. 6, fig. 5. 



Reptiles and Amphibians of Illinois. ;{(>;{ 

Var. niger. 

Ht^terodoN iiii/ii; Troost, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., III., 1833, 
p. 18G. 

Body stout. Head large. Snout recurved. Tail short 
and tapering. Dorsal scales, with the exception of the outer 
row of each side, carinate. Rostral plate produced forward, 
slightly recurved, anterior margins sharp, keeled above. Azy- 
gos plate elongate, bounded anteriorly by the rostral, at the 
sides by the internasals and prefrontals, and posteriorly by the 
prefrontals. Vertical longer than wide, hexagonal. Nine or ten 
anteorbitals, postorbitals, and suborbitals, with the supraciliary 
completely encircling the eye. Nostril valvular, situated in the 
posterior part of the nasal. A single loreal. Supralabials eight, 
increasing in size from first to seventh, eighth equal to fifth. 
Nine or ten infralabials. Dorsal rows of scales twenty-five. 
Ventrals about 140. Subcaudals 37-60. 

Color above from grayish brown to black, in the lighter- 
colored examples with about thirty brown or black dorsal spots, 
with one or more series of smaller spots on each side, or with 
a series of squarish pale dorsal spots, margined before and be- 
hind with black and with a round black spot at each side. 
Often unifor.n brown above, sometimes blue-black. Beneath 
uniform whitish in adults, in young blackish or nearly uniform 
black. A dark bar, including the anterior margins of the 
supraorbitals and frontal and the posterior half of the ])re- 
frontals, extends from orbit to orbit. A bar on the head, be- 
hind the orbit, is continuous with a black bar which extends 
backward upon the neck. A short black vitta extends from 
the eye to the angle of the mouth. 

Total length, 27.87: tail, 3.62. 

Throughout the State; common south. Cook Co. (Kenni- 
cott), Peoria (Brendel), Tazewell Co., Belleville, Mt. Carmel, 
Union Co. 

Variety platyrhinus. 
Color above grayish to reddish brown, with dark bands. 



3(U lUinois State Laboratori/ of Natural History. 

Variety niger. 

Nearly uniform brown, or bluish black, laro;e. 
Southern Illinois. Belleville, Mt. Carmel (Nat. Mus.), 
Saratoga. 

A singular species known everywhere as the spreading 
adder from its habit of expanding the head and neck wheal 
disturbed. From its threatening behavior it is thought to be 
poisonous, but it has no fangs and is consequently perfectly 
harmless. I have seen the variety niger when suddenly 
exposed by turning over a log under which it was concealed, 
lash the body about violently and cast a yellowish ma- 
terial from its mouth, at the same time hissing and expanding 
to its greatest capacity. This variety when struck a sharp 
blow, will sometimes pretend to be mortally wounded, casting 
itself upon its back and persistently returning to that position 
when placed belly downward. 

Heterodon simus, Linn. How-nose Snake. 

Var. simus. 

Culnher simus, Linn., Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1766, 1., p. 375. 
HHenxloN simus, Holbr., N. A. Herp., 1842, lY., p. 57, pi. 15.— 

Bd. and Gir., Cat. N. A. Kept., Pt. I., 1853, p. 59. 
Heterodon simus, subsp. simus; Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State 

Lab. Nat. Hist., L, No. 5, 1883, p. 44; Bull. Chicago Acad. 

Sci., 1883. 
Heterodon simus, S. Garmau, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 1883, pp. 

16, 160, pi. 6, fig. 4. 

Var. nasicus. 

Heterodon nasicus, Bd. and Gir., Stansbury's Expl. and Surv., 
Val. Great Salt Lake, 1853; Cat. N. A. Rept., Pt. I., 1853, pp. 
61, 157. 

Heterodon simtm var. nasicus, S. Garman, Mem. JVIus. Comp. 
Zool., 1883, pp. 77, 160, pi. 6, fig. 6. 

Small. Body stout. Head large, convex above. Tail 
very short, cylindrical, tapering. Dorsal scales all carinate ex- 
cepting the outer row of each side; scales of the row next the 
outer with very faint carinse on their basal portions. Rostral 
plate produced forward and upward, its. anterior face flat, 



Reptiles and Amphibians of Illinois. ;)05 

keeled above, with sharp anterior margin. Azygos plate 
minute, surrounded by small plates which separate the interna- 
sals from the nostril. Prefrontals small, separated by small 
intervening plates. Nostril large, valvular, in posterior part of 
nasal. Two or three loreals. From ten to thirteen small oculars, 
with the supraocular encircling the eye. Supralabials eight, 
sixth largest. Infralabials ten to thirteen. Submentals short. 
Dorsal rows twenty-three to twenty-seven. About 146 ven- 
trals. Subcaudals about 40. 

Color above yellowish brown, with a dorsal and two or three 
smaller lateral series of brown spots. Beneath yellowish, more 
or less blotched with squarish black marks, these sometimes 
giving the prevailing color. Throat and neck uniformly pale 
beneath. A brown band extends from orbit to orbit, arching 
slightly forward. Behind this a pair of bars, one on each side, 
extend from the upper posterior rim of the orbit toward the 
middle line. A wide brown band extends from the eye to the 
angle of the mouth. Wide bands extend from the parietals 
downward and backward on each side of the neck; a short 
band on the middle line meets them at the posterior margin of 
the parietals. 

Total length of small Illinois example, 7.62; tail, 1. 

Rare in Illinois. Pekin. 

Variety simus. 

About thirty-five spots in the dorsal series. Dorsal scales 
in twenty-five rows. From five to eight small plates about the 
azygos. Frontal plate as broad as long. 

Credited to Illinois by Davis and Rice. 

Variety nasicus. 

About fifty spots in the dorsal series. Dorsal scales in 
twenty-three rows. Azygos encircled by many small plates. 
Vertical plate slightly broader than long. 

The only example of the species in the collection of the 
State Laboratory represents this variety. 



3()<) Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

Haldea, Bd. and Gir. 

Bd. and Gir., Cat. N. A. Rept., Pt. I., 1853, p. 122. 

Dorsal scales in seventeen rows. Anal plate divided. 
Rostral normal. One internasal. Two prefrontals. Two na- 
sals. Loreal elongate, with the prefrontal forming the anterior 
rim of the orbit. No anteorbitals. One postorbital. Small. 

Haldea striatula, Linn. 

Colnljrr striatuhis, Linn., 8yst. Xat., ed. 12, 1766, I., p. 375.— 

Harlan, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1S27, V., p. 354. 
r.alamaria strintnla, Holbr., N. A. Herp., 1842, III., p. 123, pi. 29. 
Haldea striatula, Bd. and Uir., Cat. N. A. Kept., L*t. I., 1853, p. 

122. 
(U))ior;ephalHS striatuln i. Dam. et Bibr., Erp. Gon., VII., 1854, p. 

140. 
Haldea striatula, Baird, U. S. Pac. R. R.Expl., 1859, X., Rept., pi. 

32, fig. 91.— Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist.. 

I., No. 5, 1883, p. 32; Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 
Vir(/iiiia striatul((, S. Garman, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zoi)!., 1883, pp. 

97, 166, pi. VII., fig. 2. 

Small. Moderately slender. Head scarcely wider than 
the neck. Tail short. Dorsal scales carinated. Rostral plate 
narrowed above. But one internasal, subtriangular. Prefron- 
tals reaching the orbit. Nostril opening in the posterior mar- 
gin of the anterior nasal plate. Loreal elongate, reaching the 
orbit. No anteorbitals. A single postorbital. Supralabials 
six, fifth largest. Dorsal scales in seventeen rows, the outer 
row of each side obsoletely, the rest distinctly carinate. Ven- 
trals 119-130. Subcaudals 25-46 pairs. 

Color above grayish or reddish brown. Beneath yellowish 
or reddish. A light chestnut band across the parietals; some- 
times wanting. 

Length about 10 inches. 

Southern Illinois. 

This species is reported from Wisconsin and other points 
to the north of us, and we may therefore look for it anywhere 
in the State. 



Reptiles and Amphibians of Illinois. 307 

Virginia, Bd. and Gir. 

Bd. and Gir., Cat. N. A.. Rept., Pt. I., 1853, p. 127. 

Dorsal scales smooth, in fifteen or seventeen rows. Anal 
plate divided. Rostral normal. Two internasals. Two pre- 
frontals. Two nasals, nostril in the posterior edge of the an- 
terior plate. Loreal large, with the prefrontal bounding the 
orbit in front. No anteorbitals. Two postorbitals. Small. 

Dorsal scales in 17 rows V. elegans. 

Dorsal scales in 15 rows V. valeri.1;. 

Virginia elegans, Kenn. 

Virginia elegans, Kenn., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1859, p. 
99.— Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist., I., No. 
5,1883, p. 31; Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883.— S. Garman, 
Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 1883, pp. 98, 166. 

'^ Resembles V. valerice ; vertical and occipital plates nar- 
rower. Dorsal scales very narrow and elongated, much more 
so than V. valerice., disposed in seventeen rows. Color uniform 
light olivaceous brown above; dull yellowish white beneath." 

"Readily distinguished from the nearly allied V. valerice 
by the narrower dorsal scales in seventeeu rows instead of 
fifteen as in that species." 

"Heavily timbered regions of southern Illinois'' (Kenni- 
cott), Mt. Carmel (Ridgway). 

Virginia valerise, Bd. and Grir. 

Virginia Valeria;, Bd. and Gir., Cat. N. A. Rept., Pt. I., 1853, p. 
127.— Bd., U. S. Pac. R. R. Expl., 1859, X., Rept., pi. 33, fig. 94. 
— Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist., I., No. 5, 
1883, p. 31; Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. —S. Garman, 
Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 1883, pp. 98, 166, pi. 7, fig. 3. 

Small. Head scarcely wider than neck. Tail short, taper- 
ing. Rostral about as high as wide. Internasals present. 
Prefrontals reaching the orbit. Frontal hexagonal. Nostril 
opening in posterior edge of anterior nasal plate. Loreal elon- 
gate, reaching the orbit. No anteorbitals. Two postorbitals. 
Supralabials six, fifth largest, lufralabials six. fourth largest. 



MOM Illinois State Lnhoratorij of Natural History. 

Dorsal scales in fifteen rows, all smooth. Ventrals 117-128. 
Subcaudals, 24-37 pairs. 

Grayish or yellowish brown, uniform, or with from two to 
four longitudinal series of black spots. Uniform yellow be- 
neath. Spots of the back sometimes irregularly distributed. 

Not common. Cook Co. (Nat. Mus.), Union Co. (Mus. N. 
VV. Univ.). 

Oarphophis, Gerv. 

Gerv., D'Orb. Diet. Nat. Hist., 1843, III., p. 1*)1. 
8. Garman, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 1883, p. 99. 

Dorsal scales smooth, in thirteen rows. Anal plate divid- 
ed. Rostral normal. Internasals present or absent. One 
nasal. Loreal large, reaching the orbit. No auteorbitals. One 
postorbital. Very small. Head not distinct from the body, 
depressed. Tail short, terminating in a single acute nail. 

No internasals C. helen^. 

Internasals present C. am(ENA. 

Oarphophis helenae, Kenn. Worm Snake. 

Celuta heleiiw, Kenn., Proc. Acad. Nat. 8ci. Phila., 1869, p. 100. 
CarpJiophiops helenw, Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. 

Hist., I., No. 5, 1883, p. 31; Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 
(Jarphophis lidtiur, 8. Garman, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zocil., 1883, 

pp. 100, 166. 

Small. Body cylindrical, maintaining its diameter well 
toward the extremities. Head small, depressed, no wider than 
the neck. Tail moderately long,, its tip covered by a sharp 
conical nail. A single pair of prefrontals, each of which forms 
part of the anterior boundary of the eye of its side. No inter- 
nasals. One nasal, the nostril opening in its middle. An 
elongate loreal, forming part of the anterior rim of the orbit. 
No anteorbitals. One postorbital. Supraciliary unusually smaU. 
Frontal large, wide. Supralabials five, the fifth largest and 
elongated. Six infralabials, fourth largest. Dorsal scales in 
thirteen rows, all smooth and polished. Ventrals 120-125. 
Subcaudals 30-36. 

Color above from pale to dark olive-brown. Supralabials, 
outer row of dorsal scales of each side, and entire ventral sur- 
face, flesh-color. 



Reptiles and Amphihians of Illinois. 309 

Total length of an example from Cobden, 9.62; tail, 1.68. 
Southern Illinois. Not uncommon. Mt. Carmel (Ridg- 
way), Cobden, Dug Hill, Union county. 
Occurs under logs in the woods. 

Oarphophis amoenus, Say. Ground Snake. 

Var. amoenus. 

Co/iiber aniijentis. Say, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Fhila., 1825, IV., p. 

237.— Storer, Best. Jour. Nat. Hist., 1840, III., p. 28. 
J) rfichyorrliofi aiiioui /IS. Kolbr., N. A. Herp., 1842, III., p. 115' 

pi. 27. 
Celnfa amoena, Bd. and Gir., Cat. N. A. Rapt., Pt. I., 1853, p. 129. 
('(irp/i(>2>/tls aiiuniid, Dum. et Bibr., £rp. Gen., VII., 1854, p. 131. — 

Allen, Proc. Best. Soc. Nat. Hist., 1869. p. 182. 
('(irj>/i<)phiojM amoeiiiis, Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. 

Hist., I., No. 5, 1883, p. 31; Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 
Carplwphis amcena, S. Garman, Mem. Mus. Comp. ZoOl., 1883, 

pp. 100, 167, pi. 7, fig. 1. 

Var. vermis. 

Celata vermis, Keun., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1859, p. 99. 
Carplio2)hiop.s vermis. Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. 

Hist., 1., No. 5, 18S3, p. 31; Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 
Carpliopliis amaiiia.y^x. rermis. S. Garman, Mem. Mus. Comp. 

Zoo]., 1883, pp. 101, 167. 

Small, cylindrical. Head small, not wider than the neck. 
Tail of moderate length, terminating in a point. Rostral wide. 
Internasals present. Prefrontals forming part of the anterior 
rim of the orbits. One nasal. Loreal large, elongate, reaching 
the eye. No anteorbitals. One postorbital. Supraciliaries 
very small. Supralabials five, the fifth largest. Tnfralabials 
six, third largest. Dorsal scales in thirteen rows, all smooth 
and shining Ventrals 112-13L Subcaudals 24-36 pairs. 

Lustrous brown or black above. Flesh-color beneath. 

Reaches a length of about 12 inches, with the tail 1.50. 

Occurs throughout the State. Not common. Cook Co. 
(Kennicott), Mt. Carmel (Ridgway). 

Variety amoenus. 

Brown above. Outer row of dorsal scales and ventral 
surface, flesh-color. 



310 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

Variety vermis. 

Black above. Two outer rows of dorsal scales and the 
ventral surface flesh-color. Larger than var. amoenus. 

Family OROTALID^. 

With poison glands and erectile fangs, ordinary teeth fev^. 
Head wide and deep, with a deep pit between the eye and nos- 
tril. Cephalic plates crowded forward, or the frontal and two 
parietals wanting. One or two nasals. Loreal present or ab- 
sent. Pupils of the eye vertically elongate. Most of the dor- 
sal scales strongly carinated. Some or all of the subcaudal 
scutellae united. Tail short, with or without rattle. 

This family includes the rattlesnake, water moccasin, and 
copperhead. All are venomous, but not so dangerously so as is 
commonly supposed. They may be known from most of the 
non-venomous species from their stouter bodies, wider heads, 
and the pit between the eye and nostril. No harmless snake 
of this country has this pit. In regard to these depressions 
Owen writes : "Secreting follicles of the skin in serpents are 
chiefly confined to certain depressions or inverted folds of the 
derm. These in Crotalus and Trigonocephalus constitute a pit 
between the nostril and the eye on each side of the head." 
A few harmless species, such as the spreading adder, resemble 
the members of this family in stoutness of body. With the 
exception of members of the genus Elaps, the family contains 
the only venomous serpents in the United States. The four 
described below are the only poisonous species which occur in 
Illinois. 

With a rattle. Frontal and parietals lacking. Supralabials 
separated from the eye by more than two series of small 
plates. Most of the subcaudal scutellse entire. .Crotalus. 

With a rattle. Frontal and parietals present. Supralabials 
separated frem the eye by two series of small plates. The 
posterior subcaudal scutellae divided Sistrurus. 

Without a rattle. Frontal and parietals present . . Ancistrodon . 



Reptiles and Ampliihians of /lllnoLs. Bll 

Orotalus, Linn. 

Linnuius, Ace. Mus. Adolph. Frid., 1751, p. 39. 
Bd. and Gir., Cat. N. A. Kept, Ft. I., 1853, p. 1. 

Head deficient in cephalic plates, the frontal and parietals 
being absent and their place being occupied by small scales 
like those on the body. Pit between the eye and nostril large. 
Fangs and poison glands well developed. Supralabials sep- 
arated from the orbit by three or more series of small plates. 
Dorsal scales in from twenty-one to thirty-one rows, carinated. 
Subcaudals entirft or with one or two posterior divided. Rattle 
present. Body moderately stout. Tail short. 

Orotalus horrid us, Linn. Timber Rattlesnake. 

Crotalns horridus, Linn., Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1758, 1., p. 214. 

Crotalns durissiift, Holbr. N. A. Herp., 1842, III., p. 9, p]. 1. — De 
Kay, Nat. Hist. N. Y., I., Zool. III., Kept, and Amph. 1842, p. 
55, pi. 9, fig. 19.— Kenn. Trans. 111. State Agr. .See, 1853-54, 
I., p. 592.— Bd. and Gir.. Cat. N. A. Rept., Ft. I., 1853, p. 1. 

Cavdisona Jiorrida, Cope, Free. Acad. Nat. Sci. Fhila., 186(5, p. 309. 

Crotalus horridus, Davis & Rice, Bull. Ill State Lab. Nat. Hist., 
I., No. 5, 1883, p. 27 ; Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883.— S. Gar- 
man, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 1883, pp. 115, 174, pi. 9, fig. 1. 

Large, reaching a length of six feet. Body moderately short. 
Neck contracted abruptly behind the head. Tail short, com- 
pressed, not tapering. Rostral plate small, narrowed above. 
Two nasals, the anterior larger. Two or more loreals. Two 
anteorbitals, the superior larger, the inferior smaller and form- 
ing the superior margin of the pit. About five postorbitals and 
suborbitals, the latter separated from the supralabials by two 
rows of scales. Supralabials fourteen, first and fifth (fourth in 
some examples) largest. Fifteen infralabials. A pair of large 
elongate submentals. Dorsal scales carinate, excepting the 
outer rows, which are smooth or obsoleteiy carinate in front, 
in from twenty-three to twenty-five rows. Ventrals 165. Sub- 
caudals 23, the first and last paired. 

Color above brownish yellow to almost black, posteriorly 

with transverse z;ig'/'ag bands of chestnut-brown, edged with 

black and bordered outside the black with yellow, anteriorly 

with three series of brown spots bordered in the same manner. 

7 



312 J/liiiois Sf'iie [Aihoni/orij of N<(tnt<ti I/islori/. 

Beneath yellow, more or less blotched and s[)eckled with black 
at the sides. Head uniform brown above, with a wide brown 
band extending from the eye obli(|uely downward and back- 
ward over the angle of the mouth. Tail black in adults, banded 
in young. 

Total length of specimen from Mt. Vernon, 40; tail, with 
nine rattles, 4.r)(). 

Throughout the State in hilly forest regions, but being 
rapidly exterminated. Cook Co. ( Kennicott), Peoria (iirendel), 
Wabash Valley (Ridgway), Mt. Vernon, Union Co. 

SiSTRURUS, S. Garma-N. 

S. Garman, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 1883, pp. 110, 176. 

Wagler, Caudisona, 8yst. Amph. 1830, p. ITC). 

Bd. and Gir., Crotalophorus, Cat. N. A. Rept., Pt. I., 1853, p. 11. 

With large symmetrical cephalic plates. Loreal present. 
Pit between eye and nostril large. Fangs and poison gland 
well developed. Supralabials separated from the orbit by two 
series of small scales. Dorsal scales in twenty-three to twenty- 
five rows, from one to three outer rows smooth. Subcaudals 
entire or but few divided. Rattle present. Body stout. Tail 
short. 

Sistrurus catenatus, Raf. Massasauga, Prairie Rattle- 
snake. 

Crotalinus catenatus, Raf., Am. Month. Mag., 1818. IV., p. 41. 
CrotaJox)1iorns tergeniuws, Rolhr. N. A. Herp., 1842, III., p. 29, pi. 

5.— De Kay, Nat. Hist. N. Y., I., Zool. III., 1842, Rept. and 

Amph. p. 57.— Bd. and Gir., Cat. K. A. Rept., Pt. I., 1853, p. 14.— 

Kenn., Trans. 111. State Agr. Hoc, 1853-54, 1., p. 592. 
Crotdloj'Jiorns klrtlandii, Kenn., 1. c— Dum. et Bibr., Erp. Gen. 

VII., Pt. II., 1854, p. 1482. 
Crotalus tergemimis, Dum. et Bibr., Erp. Gc'm., VII., Pt. II., 1854, 

p. 1479. 
Caudisona ter(jemina, Davis & Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. 

Hist., I., No. 5, 1883, p. 28; Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 
' Crotalus catenatus, S. Garman, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 1883, p. 

118, pi. 9, fig. 2. 
Sistrurus catenatus, idem, 1. c, p. 176. 

Small. Body fusiform. Head moderately wide. Neck 
slender. Tail short, scarcely tapering. Dorsal scales carinate 



Reptiles and Amphibians of Illinois. 313 

except the two outer rows of each side. Rostral plates exca- 
vated below. Anterior nostril much the larger, reaching the 
posterior nasal and in contact above with prefrontal and su- 
praciliary. Inferior anteorbital about half as wide. About 
four postorbitals and suborbitals. Supralabials small, about 
thirteen. Infralabials thirteen. Dorsal rows twenty-five. Ven- 
trals 140. Subcaudals 28, generally a few posterior plates 
divided. 

Color above gray to blackish brown, with a dorsal series 
of about forty chestnut-brown spots edged with black, and 
outside the latter color narrowly margined with white. On 
each side two or three series of smaller brown spots similarly 
margined. First dorsal spots w^ith two arms which extend 
forward to the parietal plates. A wide brown band extends 
from the eye over the angle of the mouth and terminates on 
the side of the neck ; it is margined above with pale yellow 
and below by a yellow bar which extends from the inferior 
anteorbital across the angle of the mouth. Superior labials 
mostl}'^ brown. Beneath thickly blotched with black, paler 
anteriorly. 

Total length, 25.50 ; tail, with four rattles, 8 inches. 

Prairies throughout the State. Cook Co. (Kennicott), 
Galesburg, Peoria (Brendei), Pekin, Normal, Farmer City. 

Anoistrodon, Beauv. 

Beauvais, Agkistrodon, Trans. Am. Fhil. Soc, 1799, p. 381. 
Dum. et Bibr., Trigonocephalus, Erp. Gen., 1854, VII.. p. 1488. 
S. Garman, Ancistrodon, Mem. Mus. Comp. ZoOl., 1883, p. 120. 

With symmetrical plates on the head. Loreal present or 
absent. Pit between the eye and nostril large. Fangs and 
poison glands well developed. Dorsal scales in from twenty- 
three to twenty-five rows, all strongly carinated. Posterior 
subcaudal plates divided. No rattle. Body short. Tail short, 
terminating in three elongate plates. Terrestrial or aquatic. 

Includes the poisonous copperhead and the water moccasin. 

Scales in 23 rows. Loreal present. Terrestrial . . A. contortrix. 
Scales in 25 rows, Loreal wanting. Aquatic ... A. i-iscivorus. 



314 l/i/)i()'S !>f(if(' Ijibontforij (>f Nitiund ll/sfori/. 

Ancistrodon contortrix, Linn. Coiterueai). 

( 'dliiher rontortri.v, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 1758, p. 21(j. 

Trlr/oiiocejihdlns contortrix, Ilolbr. N. A. Ilerp., 1842, III., p. 39, 
pi. 8.— De Kay, Nat. Hist. N. Y., I.. Zool. III., Kept, and 
Amph., 1842, p. 53, pi. 9, tig. 18. 

Aijkistnxiiiii coDlortri.v, Bd. and (lir., Cat. N. A. Kept., Pt. I., 
1853, p. 17. 

Triijonoecphahis rnuiortri.v, Dum. et Bibr., Erp. Gen., 1854, VII., 
rt. II., p. 1494. 

Ancistrodon contorlri.v. Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1859, 
p. 336.— Davis and liice, Bull. III. State Lab. Nat. Hist., 
L, No. 5, 1883, p. 28; Ball. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883.— S. Gar- 
man, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 1883, pp. 120, 178, pi. 8, fig. 1. 

Body moderately stout. Head wide. Neck slender. Tail 
short and tapering. All the dorsal scales carinate. Ros- 
tral large. Frontal pentagonal. Generally three prefrontals, 
the median very small. Loreal present, separating the pos- 
terior nasal from the superior anteorbital. Anteorbitals three, 
inferior minute. Postorbitals from four to six. Supralabials 
eight, the third nob reaching the orbit. Infralabials ten. 
Dorsal rows of scales twenty-three. Ventrals about 150. 
Subcaudals about 45, the posterior in pairs. 

Color above light chestnut-brown, with a series of inverted 
Y-shaped brown marks on each side. Color beneath yellowish, 
with a series of black blotches on each side. Head uniforni 
brown above, each parietal with a small brown spot with a pale 
margin ; sides with a yellowish white band which posteriorly 
rounds the angle of the mouth and extends forward on the in- 
fralabials. 

Length from two to three feet. 

Throughout the State ; rare north, frequent south. 
Peoria (Brendel), Anna (C. W. Butler). 

This species is very rare in northern Illinois, if it occurs 
there at all. Dr. Brendel reports having seen but two 
speciuieus at Peoria, and these more than twenty years ago. 
It is not uncommon in the southern part of the State, and 
Messrs. Boyer and Strode report it as not rare in Pulton county. 



lieptiles and Aiiipliihuniff of Il/inois. 315 

Ancistrodon piscivorus, Lac. Water Moccasin. 

Crotdlus 2)l.scivi)rus, Lac, liuftoii's Hist. Nat., (iuad. Ovip. et 

Serpens, 1789, II., pp. 180, 424. 
Tri</(>noc('j)haIus jn.sc'lcorns, Holbr., N. A. Ilerp., 1842, III., p. 33, 

pi. 7. 
Toxio<yphis j^iseivorns, Bd. and Gir., Cat. JS. A. Kept., Pt. I., 

1853, p. 19. 
Tri<jono(<q)ltalns jjisciooriis, Dum. et 13ibr., Erp. Gt'n., VII., Pt. 

2. 1854, p. 1491. 
Ancistrodon pisciconis, Cope, Proc Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1859, 

p. 336. 
Ancistrodon ■piscivoriis, subsp. 2^is<'ivor/is, Davis and Rice, Bull. 

111. State Lab. Nat. Hist, I., No. 5, 1883, p. 28; Bull. Chicago 

Acad. Sci., 1883. 
Ancistrodon piscii'orns, S. Garman, Mem. Mus. Coinp. Zool., 

1883, p. 121. pi. 8, fig. 2. 

Body short and stout, tapering toward both extremities. 
Head large, deep, wide. Neck slender. Tail short, compressed, 
tapering, abruptly more slender than the body. All the dorsal 
scales carinate. Rostral plate large, truncate above. Inter- 
nasals triangular, the outer margin arcuate. Frontal large, 
longer than wide, hexagonal. Parietals large, their posterior 
extremities nearly or cjuite separated by transverse sutures. 
Nasals two. No loreal. Three anteorbitals, the superior large, 
elongate, and reaching the posterior nasal. Three small post- 
orbitals. Seven or eight supralabials, the third reaching the 
orbit Ten infralabials. Dorsals in twenty-five rows. Ven- 
trals 136 Subcaudals about 45, often the first, and generally 
from ittr-'^n to twenty-five posterior, paired. 

Color above brown or blackish, with about eleven trans- 
verse black bands alternating with as many brown bands, the 
latter vvidening on the back and with a dusky center, the black 
bands widening at the sides and often with a brown area in the 
expanded lateral portions. Sometimes nearly uniform blackish 
brown, often mostly brown with narrow transverse lines of 
black. VV^ith numerous black blotches beneath, black pos- 
teriorly. Head uniform brown or black above, with a wide 
black band, edged above with brown and below with yellow, 
extending frc m the eye over the angle of the mouth and ter- 
minating on the neck. Tail uniform black, or with a few pale 
spots beneath posteriorly, sometimes banded. 



316 //////()/.<> Sfafr L((hnr<(U)ni of Naiural Hisforij. 

Total length of a very large specimen from Bluff Lake, 
40 ; tail, 6.25. 

Shallow lakes and bayous of southern Illinois, abundant. 
Bluff Lake, Union Co., Mt. Carmel (Bidgway). 

The water moccasin is very abundant in the lakes of the 
southern part of the State. Mr. llidgway of the National Mu- 
seum states that it occurs as far north as Mt. Carmel, and thinks 
possibly even to Vincennes. During July it may be seen in 
great numbers coiled up on partly submerged loi^s, where it lies 
for hours basking in the sun. If disturbed it hisses and vibrates 
its tail after the manner of its relatives, the rattlesnakes, but 
always retreats into the water when approached too closely. 
Sometimes it makes its way up an inclined tree to a distance of 
six or eight feet above the water, but tumbles headlong into 
the water when alarmed. Mr. Peery, who lives at the edge of 
Bluff Lake, in Union Co., tells me that in the fall of the year 
this serpent leaves the water and resorts to the bluffs for hi- 
bernation. A female kept in confinement by Mr. C. W. Butler, 
of Anna, gave birth to young in the fall of the year. Dogs 
are occasionally bitten by this species, but generally recover 
after a spell of severe sickness. 

All the Illinois examples of the species belong to the va- 
riety piscivorus. The variety pngnax may be known from 
the position of its second labial, this plate being crowded up- 
ward from the margin of the jaw. It has not been observed 
within our limits. 

CLASS AMPHIBIA. 

Exoskeleton generally wanting. Two occipital condyles. 
Mandible of several pieces. No true diaphragm. Respiration 
during a part or whole of life by means of branchiae. Heart 
in the adult with three chambers. Two aortic arches. Blood 
not warm, red corpuscles nucleated. Alimentary canal termi- 
nating in a cloaca. Oviparous. 

Illinois members of the group belong to the two orders 
characterized below. Our species all have naked skins. A 
group (order Gymnophiona) represented by a few genera occur- 



'Reptiles and Ain})h/hi<nis of TH'nioh. 317 

ing in Africa, South America, and Ceylon lias small embedded 
scales, and is further characterized by absence of limbs and 
tail. 

Body of adult stout, short. Hind legs suited to leaping and 
swimming. No tail. Frogs and toads Order Anura. 

Body long and slender. Hind legs not enlarged for leaping 
and swimming, sometimes wanting. Tail and sometimes 
branchi;e persistent. Salamanders Order Urodela. 

ORDER ANURA. 
(Amphibia Ecaudata, Theriomorpha, Batrachia.) 

Body stout, short, more or less depressed. With two pairs 
of legs, the anterior of which bear four, and the larger posterior 
pair five, digits. Mandible generally toothless. Adults tailless. 
Vertebral column composed of but few vertebras and terminat- 
ing in along solid coccyx — the urostyle. Sternal arch complete. 
Radius and ulna fused. Tibia and fibula also fused. The two 
proximal tarsal bones very long and often fused at their 
extremities. 

The adults are known as frogs and toads. They move on 
land by leaps, the structure of the posterior legs being specially 
suited to this mode of locomotion. In water they use the same 
legs for swimming. The food consists chiefly of small inverte- 
brates, insects constituting the greater part of it. The young 
are known as poUywogs and tadpoles. They are fish-like, liv- 
ing in water, in which they swim with the aid of a tail, and 
breathing by means of branchia). Instead of teeth they pos- 
sess horny jaws. At this stage of their lives they subsist 
chiefly on vegetable substances, such as filamentous Alga3, 
diatoms, desmids, etc. 

SYNOPSIS OF THE FAMILIES REPRESENTED IN ILLINOIS. 

1 (2). Fingers and toes with no evident discs at their tips. 3. 

2 ( 1 ). Fingers and toes with evident discs 7. 

3 (4). Upper jaw with teeth. No overlapping sternal 

cartilages ; omosternum and sternum present. 
Transverse processes of sacrum subcylindrical. 

Uanid.h. 



81(S Illinois State Lahoratonj of Natural History. 

4 (8). No teeth 5. 

5 (6). No parotid. Omosternum wanting, clavicle and 

precoracoid sometimes wanting. Transverse pro- 
cesses of sacrum expanded Engystomid.'!<:. 

(5). Parotid present. Sternal arch with clavicles, pre- 
coracoids and overlapping cartilages; omosternum 
wanting Bufonid.^e. 

7. With teeth. Sternal arch with overlapping carti- 
lages ; omosternum and sternum present. Trans- 
verse processes of sacrum expanded Hylid^:. 

Family RANID^. 

No parotids. Fingers and toes generally without discs ; 
the former without webs, the latter webbed ; basal portions of 
fourth and fifth toes not bound together. Teeth on the upper 
jaw, and generally on vomers also. No fontanel between pa- 
rieto-frontals. Omosternum and sternum present. Coracoids 
expanded, in contact with each other and narrowly separated 
from the precoracoids by cartilage. No epicoracoids. Trans- 
verse processes of sacrum subcylindrical. Urostyle articulated 
to two sacral concavities. Liver with three lobes. 

A large and widely distributed family, including many 
large species. It is represented in Illinois by the single genus 
Ran a. 

Rana, Linn. 

Linnjeus, Systema Natune. ed. 10, 1758, 1., p. 210 (S. Garman). 
Hoffmann, Bronn's Thier-Reich, VI., Amphibien, p. CIS. 
Holbrook, N. A. Herp., IV., p. 77. 

Fingers and toes very slightly or not at all expanded at 
their tips, the former without webs, the latter more or less 
webbed. Tongue wide, free and deeply excised behind. Tym- 
panum distinct. Skin smooth or slightly tubercuiate. Gland- 
ular folds present or absent. Vomerine and maxillary teeth 
present. No fontanel between the parieto-frontals. Males 
with two lateral vocal sacs. 

This genus includes all the large active frogs of swamps 
and meadows. Seven species occur in the State. 



Reptiles und Amphibians of Illinois. 
SYKOPSIS OF THE ILLINOIS SPECIES. 



;5h» 



With distinct dark spots above, arranged in more 
or less perfect longitudinal rows 3. 

Spots, when present, obscure and not arranged in 
longitudinal rows 9. 

With more than two complete rows of spots be- 
tween the glandular folds of the back. 

R. AREOLATA. 

With but two complete rows of spots between the 
glandular folds 5. 

Spots oval or nearly round; glandular folds narrow 
and elevated 0. 

Spots isolated, anterior of the three on the head 
small or wanting; males with saccular dilations 
behind the angles of the mouth. 

R. UTRICULARIA. 

Spots not isolated, anterior of the three on the 
head about equal to the others ; males without 
saccular dilations R. pipiens. 

Spots squarish ; glandular folds wide and depressed. 

R. PALUSTRIS. 

11). With distinct glandular folds on the sides of the 
back; size small or medium 10. 

12). Tympanum large. No distinct dark spot extending 
from the nostril through the eye and including 
the tympanum R. clamitans. 

No, or very indistinct, glandular folds. Size very 
large R. catesbiana. 

10). Tympanum very small; a distinct dark spot extend- 
ing from the nostril through the eye and includ- 
ing the tympanum. R. silvatica. 



Rana areolata, Bd. and Gir. 

liana areolata, Bd. and (Jir., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1852, 

VI., p. 173. 
Rana rajyito, LeC. Proc, Acad. Nat. Sci. l'hila.,lS5r),VIIL,p. 425. 



H2() //(/iioiti S/(ifr Ldhorafori/ of Ntthinil Itisfori/. 

lidiKi iirvitldtii, Hiiird, Mex. JJound. Siirv., \KA), III., Reptiles, 

p. 28, pi. ;{<•>, lig. 11 iiiid 12. 
Riina (trcohitd, subsp. (■(/jiilo, Cope, (Iheck J^ist N. A. IJatr. and 

llept, 1875, p. 115. 
R(ina circiilosd, Kice and Davis, Jordan's Man. Vert., 2d ed., 

1878, p. 355. 
Romt areo/ata, JJoulenger, Cat. Hatr. Sal. in Coll. JJrit. Mus.,2ded., 

1882, Sal. Ecaudata,p.4I. 
liana areolata, subsp. capito, Mice and Davis, Bull. 111. State 

Lab. Nat. Hist., I., No. 5, 1888, pp. 22, 23. 
liana arcolata, subsp. circiilosa, Kice and Davis, Bull. Chicago 

Acad. Sci., 1883. 

Body about two and a half inches long, rather stout. Glan- 
dular folds conspicuous. A saccular dilation at the corner of the 
mouth in males. Skin tuberculate and punctate above, smooth 
below ; femora granulate posteriorly. Head large, obtuse, 
with a marked concavity between the nostril and the eye. 
Fingers with slight web. Web of toes small and with deeply 
incurved margins. 

Color above dark gray or slate-color, with about six longitu- 
dinal rows of round dark spots margined with yellowish. Sides 
marked with numerous spots and specks of black. Yellowish 
white beneath, with dark markings of irregular size and 
shape on the throat, Irides golden mingled with black. An- 
terior and posterior legs gray, the former with spots and the 
latter with alternating wide and narrow bands of black. Inter- 
spaces between larger markings speckled with dusky. 

Length of body, 2.33; width of head, .89; femur, 1.06; 
tibia, 1.06 ; tarsus and fourth toe together, 1.64. 

Rare. Northern Illinois. 

The only specimen known to have been taken in Illinois 
was collected years ago by Robert Kennicott, and is now in the 
collection of the National Museum at Washington. In 1878 
Messrs. Rice and Davis secured a specimen from northern In- 
diana and described it as a new species {R. chridosa), which, at 
a later date, they reduced to the rank of a variety. Kennicott's 
specimen was examined by them and pronounced identical with 
the Indiana specimen. The specimen at Washington is labeled 
R. areolata capito^ and a study of more material from this region 
will probably show this name to be the right one for Illinois 
examples of the species. 



tleptihs and Amphi})inns of Illinoh. H2l 

Rana utricularia, Harlan. 

Jidiia iitn'ciiJan'/is; Amer. Jour. Sci. and Arts, 1825, X., p. 00; 

Jour. Acad. Nat. ,Sci. I'hila., 1820, V., p. 337. 
Rana hahrina (in part), Dum. et JJibr., Erp. Gen., 1841, VII L, 

p. 352. 
liana berlandleri, Baird, Mex. Hound. Surv., 1859, III., Reptiles, 

p. 27, pi. 30, fig. 7. 
Rana halccina, subsp. herlandieri, Cope, Check List N. A. Batr. 

and Uept., 1875. 
Rana ntricularia, Boulenger, Cat. Batr. Sal. in Coll. Brit. Mus., 

2d ed., Sal. Ecaudata, p. 40. 

Size large; body about tbree inches long. Olive-green 
above, with isolated subcircular black spots. Legs spotted and 
banded with black. Pale below. Males with saccular dila- 
tions of the skin behind the angles of the mouth for the accom- 
modation of the vocal sacs. 

Length of body, 2.50; from tip of snout to axilla, 1.25; 
femur, 1.25; tibia, L37; tarsus and fourth toe together, 1.94. 
The above measurements are from a male taken near Phila- 
delphia, Pa. A male from Macomb, Miss., is smaller. 

Dunleith (Ridgway), Union Co. 

The major part of the description of R. pipiens will ap- 
ply to this species. The size, proportions, and the plan of 
markings are about the same in both species. The saccular 
dilations of the skin in the males of this species will readily 
distinguish them. Both sexes can probably, in most cases, be 
distinguished from those of B. pipiens by the character of the 
spots and by the general color. In this species the spots are 
fewer in number, are smaller, rounder, and more widely sepa- 
rated. The anterior of the three spots of the head is smaller 
than the other two, or may be wanting. The general color is 
more brown than green, and gives specimens a slight general 
resemblance to R. palnstris. A few immature specimens of 
RancC from Villa Ridge and Anna are referred with some hesi- 
tation to this species. One of the largest of these is a male of 
the year, and shows the distended skin at the corners of the 
mouth. The ground color of these specimens in life was slate- 
gray with a slight coppery tinge. The head, above, in males 
was pale green with a brassy tinge over the eyes and along the 
sides of the snout. I'upil of eye black; iris coppery above and 



322 llViuoi^ State Lahnratorij of Natural Historij. 

below, black anteriorly and posteriorly. Tympanum brown, 
with a pale center. Glandular folds yellow. Femora gam- 
boge-yellow ventrally, and, in a female, with a wash of the same 
color along the flanks. The largest of these specimens meas- 
ures 2.37 inches in length. 

Rana pipiens, Schreber. Leopard Fkog, Shad Fkog. 

liana jnpiens!, Schreber, Der Naturforscher, 1782, p. 182 (S. Gar- 
man). 

Eanajnpiem, Gmel., Syst. Nat., ed 13, 1788, III., p. 1052. 

Rana halecina, Dum. et Bibr., Erp. Gen., 1841, VIII., p. 352. — 
Holbr., N. A. Herp., 1842, IV., p. 91, pi. 22.— De Kay, Nat. 
Hist. N.Y., I., Zool. III., 1842, Kept, and Amph., p. ri, pi. 20, 
flg. 49.— Kenn., Trans. 111. State Agr. Soc, 1853-54, 1., p. 593. 

Iiaii(( pipiens, LeC, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Pliila., 1855, VIII., 
p. 424. 

liana halecina, Boulenger, Cat. Batr. Sal. in Coll. lirit. Mas., 2d 
ed., 1882, Sal. Ecaudata, p. 41.— Davis and Bice, Bull. 111. 
State Lab. Nat. Hist., I., No. 5, 1883, p. 24; Bull. Chicago 
Acad. Sci., 1883. 

Rana. pip) lens, S. Garman, Bull. Essex Inst., XX., 1888. p. 95. 

Body about three inches long ; slender. Males with no 
saccular dilations of the skin at the corners of the mouth. 
Skin smooth above and below, excepting that of the ventral 
posterior surfaces of the femora, which is granulate. Head 
obtusely pointed, sides scarcely arcuate. Margin of lower lip 
notched on each side of the symphysis, leaving a median knob. 
Tongue obcordate, with two small posterior lobes : free for 
half its length behind, and also extensively free at the sides. 
Nostril about midway between the tip of the snout and the an- 
terior border of the eye. Eye large. Tympanum circular in 
outline; about two thirds the longitudinal diameter of the eye. 
A well-developed glandular fold extends along each side from 
the posterior upper margin of the eye nearly to the posterior 
extremity of the body, terminating above the femora. Two 
other folds, one for each side, extend along the upper lip 
obliquely downward and backward between the tympanum and 
the angle of the mouth, and terminate above the axilla. Mar- 
gins of the webs deeply incurved between the toes, not extend- 
ing beyond the base of the penultimate phalanx of the fourth 



licptHe^ and Aiiipliihidiis of lUhtois. 323 

toe. Palms with two obscure tubercles; soles, each with a large 
and a small tubercle. 

Greeu above, with more or less perfect series of pale mar- 
gined oval black spots on the back, and with the legs spotted 
and banded with black. White or yellowish white beneath. 
Margin of the upper lip pale or green, with a dark band above 
the pale margin, often including spots of pale, extending pos- 
teriorly to the angle of the mouth. Above the dark stripe is a 
pale one which extends from near the tip of the snout posteri- 
orly and passes upon the glandular fold, which is pale to its 
posterior extremity. An obscure dark band extends from the 
nostril to the eye, but is often interrupted, or ruay be repre- 
sented by a black spot over the nostril only. Pupil of the 
eye black, iris golden. Tympanum brown, with a pale spot in 
its center. The head above is marked with three large spots of 
about equal size ; one of these lies on the middle line just in 
advance of the eyes, the other two lie one above each eye. 
Between the glandular folds of the back are two longitudinal 
series of oblong and oval black spots, with about four or five 
spots in each series. Generally there are several extra spots 
between the series. The glandular folds of the back are yellow. 
Immediately below the folds is a series of large black spots, 
and beneath these are several large spots and a number of 
smaller round black spots of irregular size. Anterior legs 
spotted with black above, and constantly with a black dash on 
the base of the humerus. Posterior legs with black transverse 
bars above and with a few spots between the bands at the mar- 
gins; sometimes only spotted. Posterior surface of femora 
vermiculate or spotted with black. Posterior surface of the 
tarsi with a more or less perfect black longitudinal band. Body 
beneath pale yellow or white, with a few small spots near the 
angle of the mouth, and sometimes with the lower lip and sides 
of the throat dusky. 

Length of body, 2.()9-3.50 ; from tip of snout to axilla, 
1.25-1.()S ; femur, 1.37-1.87 ; tibia, 1.5<)-2.(>() ; tarsus and fourth 
toe, 'i.()()-2.8l. The measurements first in order were nuide in 
all cases from a male; the higher measurements were from 
females. 



824 Illinois Sidle Lahoratonj of Natural Histonj. 

Tlie species occurs in a])imdance throughout Illinois. 
Dunleith (Kidgway), Freeport, Cook (^o. (Kennicott), Green 
R., Henry Co., Normal, Peoria (Brendel), Cairo, Grand Detour 
(Yarrow). 

This frog can generally be distinguished from its near 
ally, li. paJustris^hy the shape of the spots on the back, by the 
e(|ual size of the three spots on the head, by the narrower and 
more elevated glandular folds, and by the ground color above, 
which is green, brassy, or greenish gray, instead of brown. As a 
rule, this species has less black about the tympanum. Speci- 
mens are occasionally found which are nearly intermediate be- 
tween the two species, and the young especially are often very 
similar. There still exists a difference of opinion as to whether 
or not the males of R. pipiens have external vocal sacs. The 
fact is that the vocal sacs are as truly external in R. palusfris 
and R. pipiens as they are in R. ntricularia (R. herlandieri, etc. 
of authors), and the difference between the two former and the 
two latter, in respect to the sacs, is that the skiti behind the angle 
of the mouth is conspicuously distended to accommodate the sacs 
in R. ntricularia^ and is not thus expanded in the other two 
species. Of the many males of R. pipiens which have been ex- 
amined from central Illinois none have the skin distended, but 
all have sacs just beneath the angle of the mouth between the 
skin and adjacent muscles. The species has been described as 
having internal vocal sacs, but the latter occupy the same po- 
sition as in R. ntricularia, and differ only in being smaller. 
Next to the bull frog, this is our most familiar species. It oc- 
curs everywhere along brooks and about ponds, and in damp 
weather may be found in fields at a considerable distance from 
water. During the dry weather in August it collects in great 
numbers about pools of water on the prairies. Its food con- 
sists of insects and, at least occasionally, of mollusks. In the 
few stomachs examined by the writer, Coleoptera constituted 
the principal part of the former. The mollusks were taken 
from the stomach of a single specimen and belonged to the ge- 
nus Limnaea. 



liepfiies and Aviphibians of Illinois. 325 

Rana palustris, LeC. Pickkrkl Fkog, Marsh Fkug. 

liana palustris, LeC, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y., 1825, 1., p. 282.— 
Dum. et Bibr., Erp. Gen., 1841, YIII., p. 35H.— Holbr., N. A. 
Herp., 1842, IV., p. 95, pi. 23.— De Kay, Nat. Hist. N. Y., I., 
Zoul. III., Kept, and Ampli., 1842, p. (52, pi. 22, fig. 60.— Cope, 
Check List N. A. Batr. and Kept., 1875.— Bouleuger, Cat. 
Batr. Sal. in Coll. Brit. Mus., 2d ed., 1882, Sal. Ecaudata, p. 
42.— Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist., I., 
No. 5, 1883, p. 24; Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 

Body about two and a half inches long. Males with no 
saccular dilations of the skin at the corners of the mouth. 
Skin smooth above and below, excepting granulated areas on 
the ventral posterior surfaces of the femora. Head obtuse, dis- 
tinctly arcuate at the sides when viewed from above or below. 
Margin of lower lip notched on each side of the symphysis, leav- 
ing a median knot. Tongue obcordate, with two posterior 
lobes; free for half its length posteriorly, and also extensively 
free at the sides. Eye large. Tympanum circular in outline, 
about two thirds the longitudinal diameter of the eye. Nostril 
about midway between the eye and the tip of the snout. 
Palms with a pair of inconspicuous tubercles; soles with a large 
and a small tubercle each. Margins of webs incurved between 
the toes, not reaching beyond the penultimate phalanx of the 
fourth toe. A wide depressed glandular fold extends from the 
posterior margin of the eye along the sides of the back nearly 
to the posterior extremity of the body. Another glandular 
fold extends along the side of the head passing over the angle 
of the mouth posteriorly and terminating above the axilla. 

Color above pale brown, with four series of large, quad- 
rangular brown or black spots with pale margins. Under part 
of the body yellowish white; of the thighs bright yellow. 
Upper lips with dark irregular spots, forming in some examples 
an almost continuous stripe. Above this stripe is the yellow 
glandular fold, and above the anterior portion of the fold is a 
dark band which includes the nostril and extends to the an- 
terior border of the eye. Pupil of the eye black; iris golden. 
Tympanum pale brown with some black at its center. Be- 
tween the tympanum and the eye is a small triangular black 
spot. A black or brown bar extends from the posterior border 



32() Illinois Stdle lAihoidlonj of Ndtiiral Hisfonj. 

of the eye over the tympanum and downward behind the latter 
to the glandular fold of the side of the head. Head above 
with three dark spots, of which the anterior is smallest and is 
commonly minute. Between the bright yellow glandular folds 
of the sides of the back are two longitudinal series of squarish 
black or brown spots, sometimes united so as to form two 
wide longitudinal bands. Below the glandular fold of each 
side is another series of large dark spots, and still lower 
down on the sides are a few large spots and several 
smaller round spots. Anterior legs like the back above, with a 
dark dash at the base of the humeri and with a few other 
dark spots elsewhere; sometimes with a dark band along the 
posterior surface. Posterior legs banded and spotted with 
brown or black above, with the posterior surface of the femora 
marbled with black or with numerous small round spots. A 
black band extends along the posterior surface of the tibia. 
Lower lip more or less speckled with dark spots. 

Length of body, 2-2.62; from tip of snout to axilla, .97- 
1.25; femur, .94-1.37; tibia, 1.03-1.50; tarsus and fourth toe, 
1.37-2.06. 

Wabash Valley (Ridgway), Bluff Lake in Union Co. 

This species has been reported common throughout the 
State, but it is far from being so. It does not occur at all on 
the prairies of central Illinois, and it is doubtful if it is common 
anywhere within our limits. Two fine examples were taken 
in southern Illinois in the summer of 1883, and are the only 
ones taken during many years' collecting. These specimens 
differ from typical forms of the species from the East in 
several particulars. The spots are black and most of those of 
the two median series of the back are united so as to form 
two wide longitudinal bands. The entire throat back to the 
anterior limbs is obscurely marbled with dusky. The species 
bears a general resemblance to B. pipiens^ but it is to be readily 
separated from the latter by the arcuate outline of the sides of 
the head, by the form of the spots, and by the wide depressed 
o-landular folds. It will average smaller than U. pipiens. The 
males do possess vocal sacs, and in precisely the same situation 
as in males of the other species. The habits are much the same 
as those of the leopard frog. This species breeds a little earlier, 



Rc/jfih'S and Anipfiibifnis of fl/inois. 327 

and in life is peculiar for its strong odor. It is said to utter a 
"prolonged grating note while floating at the surface of the 
water." 

Rana clamitans, Latr. Spring Frog, Green Frog. 

Rana clamitans, Latr., 1801, Kept., 11, p. 157 (S. Garman). 
Rana clamata, Dam. et Bibr., Erp. Gen., 1842, VIII., p. 373. 
Rana cJamitan^; Holbr., X. A. Herp., 1842, IV., p. 85, pi. 20. 
Rana fontinaUs, De Kay, Nat. Hist. N. Y., I., Zucil. III., Rept. 

and Amph., 1842, p. (i2. pi. 21, fig. 54. 
Rana c/aniata, Kenii., Trans. 111. State Agr. Soc, 1853-54, I., 

p. 593. 
Rana clamitans, Cope, Check List N. A. Ba'r. and Rept., 1875. 
Rana chnnata, Roulenger, Cat. Batr. Sal. in Coll. Brit. Mus., 2d 

ed., 1882, Sal. Ecaudata, p. 36. 
Rana clamitans, Davis and Rice, Bull. Ill State Lab. Nat. Hist., 

I., No. 5, 1883, p. 24; Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 

Body about three inches long ; stout. Glandular folds on 
the side of the body evident. Males with no saccular dilations 
behind the angles of the mouth. Skin minutely roughened ; 
granulate about the vent. Head of moderate size, obtusely 
pointed. Margin of lower jaw notched on each side of the 
symphysis, leaving a median projection. Tongue obcordate, 
with two posterior lobes, extensively free posteriorly and later- 
ally. Nostrils about midway between the tip of the snout and 
the e^'e. Tympanum large, circular iu outline, more than two 
thirds the longitudinal diameter of the eye. First finger ex- 
tending beyond the second when the two are opposed. Palms 
with two indistinct tubercles, soles with but one tubercle. 
Margins of webs markedly incurved between the toes; reaching 
slightly beyond the base of the antepenultimate phalanx of the 
fourth toe. A well-defined glandular fold extends along the 
sides of the back from the posterior border of the eye nearly to 
the posterior extremity of the body. An indistinct fold also 
extends along the side of the head, lying between the tympa- 
num and the corner of the mouth and terminating above the 
axilla. 

Color above green or brown, darker posteriorly, with ob- 
scure black spots of irregular size. White beneath, throat 
yellowish. Tympanum brown. Pupil of eyes black ; iridea 



328 Illinois State Lahomtonj of Ntttural Histoyy^ 

golden. Anterior legs with a dark dash at their bases, and with 
a few dark spots elsewhere on the limbs, sometimes almost en- 
tirely black posteriorly. Posterior legs obscurely banded and 
spotted with black ; posterior surface of thighs mottled ; webs 
dusky. White below, with the lower lip dark-spotted, and in 
young specimens with the throat, flanks, and ventral surface 
of the femora mottled with dusky. 

Length of body, 2.87 ; from tip of snout to axilla, 1.87; 
femur, 1.10; tibia, 1.25; tarsus and fourth toe together, 2. 
These measurements are from a small example. 

The species occurs in all parts of the State. Ottawa, 
Champaign, Union Co. 

This is a large species more closely resembling the bull 
frog than 3,ny other. The glandular folds of the sides, the 
length of the first finger as compared with the second, and the 
incurved margins of the webs between the toes will always en- 
able one to separate the two species. The spring frog is very 
rarely found at any great distance from water. In the latter 
part of summer it may often be found on the banks of small 
woodland streams, but owing to its habit of diving headlong 
into the water when approached it is not easy to secure. Its 
flesh is frequently eaten. 

Rana catesbiana, Shaw. Bull Frog. 

Rana catesbiana, Shaw, Gen. Zool. 1800-19, III., p. 106, pi. 33. 
Rana mugiens, Dum. et Bibr., Erp. Gen., 1812, VIII., p. 370. 
Rana pipiens, Holbr., N. A. Herp., 1842, IV., p. 77, pi. 18. — 

De Kay, Nat. Hi&t. N. Y., I., Zool. III.. Kept, and Amph., 

1842, p. 60, pi. 19, fiof. 48. 
Rana catesbiana, Cope, Check List N. A. Batr. and Rept., 1875. 

— Boulenger, Cat. Batr. Sal. in Coll. Brit. Mus„ 2d ed., 1882, 

Sal. Ecaudata, p. 36.— Davis and Rice, Bull. III. State Lab. 

Nat. Hist., I., No. 5, 1883, p. 25; Ball. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 

Body six inches, or more, long; stout. No glandular folds. 
Males without saccular dilations of the skin behind the corners 
of the mouth. Skin faintly tuberculate above, distinctly 
tuberculate on the sides; granulate in the region of the vent 
and on the posterior surface of the femora. Head very large 
and wide, obtusely pointed. Margin of lower jaw notched 
on each side of the symphysis. Tongue obcordate, with two 



Reptiles and Amphibians of Illinois. 829 

small posterior lobes; extensively free posteriorly and laterally. 
Nostril about midway between the tip of the snout and the 
anterior border of the eye. Tympanum very large, its diam- 
eter equal to or exceeding the longitudinal diameter of the 
eye. First finger extending but little or not at all beyond the 
second when the two are opposed. Palms with two tubercles 
each; soles with but one. Webs between the toes very large, 
reaching a little beyond the base of the distal phalanx of the 
fourth toe and quite to the tips of the other toes. Margins of 
webs not so strongly incurved as in R. clamifans. 

Color above uniform olive-green or with obscure dusky 
spots, darker posteriorly. Head often bright green. Yellow- 
ish beneath. Pupil of the eyes black; irides golden. Tym- 
panum brown or green, with a pale center. Anterior legs 
with a few dusky spots. Posterior legs obscurely banded and 
spotted with dusky; posterior surface of thigh mottled with 
black. Under parts more or less speckled and mottled with 
blackish. 

Length of body, (>; from tip of snout to axilla, 2.06; femur, 
2 25; tibia, 2.37; tarsus and fourth toe together, 3.94. 

Common in all parts of the State in permanent waters. 
Lake Co., Peoria, Anna, Mt. Carmel (Yarrow). 

This frog is one of the largest of its kind. It is widely 
known from its peculiar bass notes, which have a fancied re- 
semblance to the expression " blood 'n' 'oun's." It rarely occurs 
away from the water and is most commonly seen at the mar- 
gins of lakes or bayous, with only the head exposed. At such 
times it may be approached to within a short distance, and is 
often caught by throwing towards it a hook biited with a bit 
of red flannel. Frogs thus captured are often seen in the 
markets and command a good price. Its food consists of in- 
sects, mollusks, young frogs, young turtles, snakes, young 
.ducks, and field mice; in fact almost anything that will pass 
between its capacious jaws. It passes more than one season in 
the tadpole state. It is extremely abundant in the shallow 
lakes in the northern and southern parts of the State. 



8'5() Jlliiiois Sfiife Lnhoratort/ <>/ Xdliiral llistonj. 

Rana silvatica, LeC. Wood Frog. 

Rdiiit sij/rafirri, LeC, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. \. Y., 182."), I., p. 282. 

— Dum. et Bibr., Erp. Gi'ti. 1841, VIU.. p. 3i)2 — Holbr., 

N. A. Herp., 1842, IV., p. 99, pi. 24. 
liana tem2)oraria, subsp. silvatica, Cope, Check List N. A. Uatr. 

and Rept., 1875. 
Rana silvatica, Boulenger, Cat. Batr. .Sal. in Coll. Brit. Mus., 2d 

ed., 1882, Sal. Ecaudata. 
Rami teniporarid, subsp. sijlmtica, Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. 

State Lab. Nat. Iliht., I., No. 5, 1883, p. 25; liull. Chicago 

Acad. Sci., 1883. 

Body about two inches long ; slender. Males with no 
saccular dilations of the skin at the angles of the mouth. 
Glandular folds present. Femora granulate beneath. Head 
small, obtusely pointed. Nostrils slightly nearer the tip of the 
snout than to the anterior border of the eye. Tympanum very 
small. Margins of webs between the toes incurved. 

Color above reddish brown, uniform in adults, more or less 
mottled with obscure dusky marks in young examples. A dark 
brown or black spot, which rapidly widens posteriorly, extends 
from the nostril through the eye, includes the tympanum, and 
is obliquely truncate above the anterior legs. Below this spot 
is a yellow band which in adults is lost in the ground color on 
the side of the snout, but in the young continues to the tip of 
the snout. Anterior legs with obscure dusky marks, with a 
distinct black dash at the bases of the humeri. Posterior legs 
with transverse dusky bands. Body white beneath, yellowish 
posteriorly, sometimes with faint dusky marks anteriorly. 

Length of body, 1.52; from tip of snout to axilla, .60; 
femur, .72; tibia, .74 ; tarsus and fourth toe together, 1.00. 

Northern Illinois, Peoria (Brendel). 

This is the most nearly terrestrial of all our Rame. Tt is 
generally found in oak woods among the fallen leaves. It is 
one of the first species to awake from hibernation in the spring 
and resorts at once to the water to breed. This accomplished, 
it leaves the water and is not again found in it during the re- 
mainder of the season. The eggs were found by Prof. Putnam 
in Massachusetts, as early as the 18th of April, attached in a 
mass to a spear of grass. It feeds upon insects. 



Reptiles find AmpJiihiaiis of Illinois. 331 

Family ENGYSTOMID^. 

No parotids. Tympaauin concealed. Fingers and toes 
not expanded at their tips, the foraier without, the latter with 
or without, webs. No teeth. Hearing apparatus fully devel- 
oped. Prefrontals fully developed, in contact with each other, 
and with the parieto-frontals. No overlapping sternal carti- 
lages. Clavicles and precoracoids sometimes wanting. Trans- 
verse processes of sacrum dilated. 

This is a small but widely distributed family containing 
eight genera and about twenty-one species. It is represented 
in North America by the single genus Engystonia. 

EngYSTOMA, Fitzinqer. 

Fitzinger, Neue Klassiflcatioa dec Reptilien, 1820. 
Dum. et Bibr., Erp. Gen. 1841, IX., p. 738. 

De Kay, Nat. Hist. K. Y., I., Zool. III.. 1842, Kept, and Amph., 
p. 65. 

Head small, pointed, continuous with the body; mouth-cleft 
small; tongue free behind, elliptical, entire. Limbs stout and 
rather short. Eustachian ossicle very small. Males with an 
internal, sub-gular vocal sac. 

The genus contains twelve species, most of which occur in 
tropical America. 

Engystoma carolinense, Holbr. Nebulous Toad. 

Eiigtjstoma carolinense, Holbr.. N. A. Herp., 1842, Vol. I., p. 83.— 
Dam. et Bibr., Erp. Geu., 1841, VIIL, p. 743.— LeC, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. rhi'a., 1855, VIII., p. 430.— Gimtlier, Cat. 
Batr. 8al. in Coll. Brit. Mus., 1858, p. 51.— Cope, ('heck List 
N. A. Batr. and Rept , 1875.— Boulenger, Cat. Batr. Sal. m 
Coll. Brit. Mus , 2d ed., 1882, Sa'. Eciudata, p. 1(52.— Yarrow, 
Check List N. A. Rept. and Batr., 1882.— Davis and Rice, 
Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist., I., No. 5, 1883, p. 18; Ball. 
Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 

Body stout, oval. Skin smooth, with a distinct fold just 
behind the head. Head depressed, flat above, triangular in 
contour. Eye small. Lower jaw incised at the symphysis, 
with a rounded eminence occupying the bottom of the incision. 
Legs rather short, but stout, the femora of the hind legs being 



832 Illinois State Laboratonj of Natural History. 

especially strong. Fingers and toes slender, cylindrical, with 
small round tubercles at the articulations below. One palmar 
and three plantar tubercles. The first or inner toe is shortest, 
the fourth very much the longest, while the two intermediate 
toes, the second and third, with the others, form a series the 
members of which regularly increase in length outward; the 
fifth toe is about as long as the second. 

Color above olive-brown or gray, marked and spotted with 
dusky; below pale yellowish, closely marbled with purplish, 
but more yellowish posteriorly on the abdomen and under side 
of the femora. Two wide, poorh^ defined pale bands begin 
at the fold of the skin behind the eyes and pass backward 
and slightly downward to the insertion of the femora; they are 
bordered above by a sinuous band of interrupted elongate dark 
spots, and below by a wider continuous dark band, which in 
front passes immediately over the fore legs, through the eye 
and around the snout, where it unites with its fellow of the 
opposite side. Two dark bands cross the tibia. The throat of 
adult males is bluish black. The colors vary with age and, to 
some extent also, at the will of the animal. Older examples 
are darker, and the markings are in them more obscure. The 
characteristic markings are consequently more apparent on 
medium-sized specimens because of the paler color and conse- 
quent greater contrast between it and the dark marks. Exam- 
ined with a lens, the skin of the body is seen to be sprinkled 
with minute dark specks, the closer aggregations of which 
form the dark spots, while their absence in numerous small 
irregular areas on the abdomens of the younger examples 
produces a fine mottling of the under side. Occasionally the 
pale bands on the sides of the back are so nearly the shade 
of the ground color as not to be apparent; and they may 
be rendered still more obscure by the absence of the dark 
band which generally bounds them above. A very young speci- 
men before me has a series of small dark spots along the mid- 
dle of the back. The feet are more or less spotted with dark 
above. A black spot over the vent seems to be constant. 

Length of body of an adult male, 1; length of head from 
tip of snout to the cervical fold, .19; vertical diameter of head, 
.12; from tip of snout to axilla, .50. 



lieptiJes and Amphibians of Illinois. 833 

Extreme southern part of the State. 

This is a small, clumsy toad, with a very small head and 
disproportionately stout hind limbs. It has been reported from 
the most southern part of the State only, and is probably very 
rare even there. It is one of the species which, like the siren, 
water-moccasin, and red-bellied horn snake, mark southern 
Illinois as a part of a southern zoological sub-region. Outside 
Illinois the species is almost confined to the Southern States; 
though Dr. Holbrook thought he recognized its peculiar note 
in the State of New York. Of its habits but little can be 
written at present, LeConte found it abundant under logs in 
Georgia, and others have collected it among weeds. The pecu- 
liar form, small immersed head, small withdrawn eyes, and 
strong hind legs, suggest subterranean habits. 

Family BUFONID^. 

Parotids present. Tympanum present or absent. Fingers 
and toes not expanded at their tips; the former perfectly free; 
the latter with small or large webs. Skin generally more or 
less warty. No teeth. Hearing apparatus fully developed. 
Superior plate of the ethmoid bone ossified, usually covered by 
the completely ossified parieto-frontals, or by these and the 
prefrontals together. Precoracoids present, divergent from the 
coracoids, the latter dilated, nearly or quite in contact, each 
connected with the former on the same side by a cartilaginous 
arch. Diapophyses of sacral vertebra dilated. Urostyle at- 
tached to two sacral condyles. 

The family contains four genera, and ninety-nine species. 
Species belonging to the family are found in all the great zoo- 
logical regions. 

BUFO, Laurenti. 

Laurenti, Synopsis Reptilium, 1768. 
Hoffmann, Bronn's Thier-lleich, VI., Amphibien, p. 643. 
Smith, Geol. Surv. Ohio, IV., Zool. and Jiot. Pt. I., Zool., 1882, 
p. 702. 

Head moderate in size, broadly rounded. Mouth rather 
large. Parotids well developed, with evident pores. Tympa- 
num more or less distinct. Short and stout; fingers and toes 



884 Illinois Slate Lahoralorij 0/ Nalitral History. 

cylindrical or depressed; toes palmate or semipalniate. Skin 
warty or smooth (subgenus Calophrynus). Two metatarsal 
tubercles, one of which is very large and is situated at the base 
of the first toe. Tongue elongate, oval, free for a part of its 
length behind and at the lateral margins. Males generally 
with an internal subgular vocal sac. Pupil of eye elliptical 
and dilatable. Eustachian tube large. 

Of the ninety-six species belonging to this genus, fifty- 
seven occur in the zoological region of v/hich South America 
forms the greater part; seven occur in the North American 
region ; and the remainder are distributed, some to each of the 
remaining regions of the globe. 

Bufo lentiginosus, Shaw. The American Toad. 
Var. lentiginosus. 

Katia lentigiiiosa, Shaw, General Zoo!., III., Amph., 1802, p. 173, 

pi. 53. 
Bufo musicm, Diim. et Bibr., Erp. Gen. VIII , 1841, p. 689. 
Telmatohins lentiginosus, LqC, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sei. Phila., 1854, 

VII., p. 426. 
Bufo Untiginosiis, subsp. lentiginosus, Cope, Check List N. A. 

BatP. and Rept., 1875. — Davis and Bice, Bull. Ill, State Lab. 

Nat. Hist., L, No. 5, 1883, p. 17 ; Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 

Var. americanus. 

Bufo (iniericanus, LeC, MS. (LeConte never printed a descrip- 
tion of this variety). — Holbr., N. A. Herp., 1st ed., 1834, I., 
p. 75, pi. 9.— Baird, U. S. Mex. Bound. Surv., 1859, Reptiles, 
p. 25, pi. 39, fig. 1-4. 

Btifo lentiginosus, sabsp. americanus, Cope, Check List N. A. 
Batr. and Rept., 1875 —Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. 
Nat. Hist., I., No. 5,1883, p. 17; Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 

Var. lentiginosus and americanus. 

Bufo lentiginosus, Boulengec, Cat. Batr. Sal. in Coll. Brit. Mus.- 
2d ed., 1882, Sal. Ecaudata, p. 308. 

Body very stout, depressed. Skin tuberculate above, gran- 
ulate below. Head not tuberculate except about the eyes, 
widely channeled longitudinally, with two ridges bounding the 
channel at the sides. Upper jaw incised at the symphysis; lower 
jaw incised on each side of the symphysis, leaving a symphy- 



Ueptiles and Amphibians of Illinois. 335 

seal knob. Eyes large. Parotids large, elongate, imperfectly 
elliptical. Tympanum circular or slightly elongate vertically, 
its diameter a trifle greater than half the longitudinal diameter 
of the eye. Vocal sac of male opening by two large slits in the 
floor of the mouth, one on each side, just within the mandible. 
Legs short and very stout. Fingers a little depressed, with a 
few small tubercles beneath. First fiuger projecting nearly at 
a right angle to the others, and more enlarged at the base than 
they ; the third finger longest. Palm with a large round 
callosity. Toes depressed, partly webbed, the first the shortest, 
the fourth' much the longest. A large flattened process arises 
on the under side of the foot at the base of the first toe; on 
the outer side of the foot is a callosity about half the size of 
that on the palm. 

The color varies with age and locality. The general color 
of adults is olive, or reddish or grayish brown above, with a 
narrow vertebral pale line and with spots of dark brown or 
black, margined with pale; pale below, immaculate or spotted 
with black. The color of the upper surface in old specimens 
is often so dark that the markings cannot readily be discerned. 
On well-colored specimens of medium size the following marks 
may be seen: Two small vertically elongate spots, one on each 
side of the middle line below and inside the nostrils; a quad- 
rangular spot below the eye; a small spot between the latter and 
the elongate spots; an elongate spot between the anterior angle 
of the eye and the nostril; a large elongate spot extending from 
the inferior posterior rim of the eye to the angle of the mouth; 
two spots on the head, sometimes united and forming a band 
between the anterior angles of the eyes; two elongate spots, 
one on each side, lying on the lid of the eye and extending 
obliquely backward across the cranial ridges nearly to the me- 
dian pale stripe; two small spots, one for each side, at the upper 
anterior margins of the parotids; two small spots near the 
median line, about opposite the middle of the parotids; two 
large spots, one for each side, near the upper posterior margins 
of the parotids; then follow several spots of different sizes on 
each side of the median line, and outside these are still others. 
All these spots on the back have a narrow pale margin. Under 
surface pale yellowish or whitish; immaculate or spotted with 



33r) lUinois St'(te Ldbofofonj of N<itny<il Itistonj. 

black. Well-defined bands are frequently apparent on the legs 
of the younger examples, but in adults are generally obscured 
by the ground color. Tubercle at the base of first toe black- 
tipped. Tips of fingers and toes also sometimes black-tipped. 
The males are much smaller than the females, adults of the 
former not l)eing more than one third the weight of a fe- 
male with ripe ova. Length of head not much more than half 
the width of the same. Depth of the head, measuring from 
the under side of the closed mandible to the highest point of 
the cranial ridges, about one half the width of the head. 
Length of head contained about four times in the length of 
the body from tip of snout to tip of urostyle. 

Length of body of an adult female, 3.62; width of abdo- 
men, 2.75; depth of abdomen, 1.37. Length of body of an adult 
male, 3; width of abdomen, 1.31; depth of abdomen, 1. 

Variety americanus 

Cranial ridges not much elevated, not specially enlarged on 
the back of the head, slightly diverging posteriorly, and, at the 
back of the head, turning at right angles to the original course 
and reaching tympanum. Body very stout. Limbs short and 
strong. Skin very coarsely tuberculate above. Color above 
olive-brown, spotted as described above; below yellowish white, 
more or less spotted with black. In this variety the ridges on 
the head are never as prominent as in the adults of the variety 
le)diginostis. Occasional examples approach the other variety 
in the prominence of the ridges, but the latter are never so 
much enlarged behind. Generally the channel of the head is 
open behind, but in a large male before me it is completely 
closed by a transverse ridge passing from the posterior end of 
one longitudinal ridge to that of the other. The colors are, as 
a rule, darker in this variety. All the Illinois examples which 
have been studied, excepting very young ones, are spotted on 
the skin of the ventral side. These spots are most abundant 
in the region between the fore legs, and are sometimes so 
aggregated there as to form a large blotch. Some young ex- 
amples have no other marks on the skin of the ventral side 
than this blotch. The throat is generally plain whitish, but 



Reptiles and Amphibians of Illinois. 337 

exceptions occur in which it is slightly spotted, and on a female 
before me are two black bands just within and parallel to the 
rami of the mandible. The posterior part of the abdomen 
and the ventral side of the thighs are generally pale. 

Abundant throughout the State. Specimens have been 
studied from Freeport, Normal, Galesburg, and Ceutralia. 

Variety lentiginosus 

Cranial ridges elevated and with a bulbous enlargement 
behind. Body less stout, limbs more slender, fingers and toes 
longer and more slender, mouth larger, eye larger, and skin 
very much less coarsely tuberculate, than in the variety ameri- 
canus. 

Two toads, now before me, from southern Illinois, differ 
from others collected in the central part of the State in so 
many particulars, and agree in many points so closely with the 
variety lentiginosus, as to warrant our including this variety in 
the fauna of the State. Attention was called to these toads by 
the peculiar note they uttered, — a note quite unlike the trill of 
toads which collect in ponds in central Illinois in the spring 
of the year. The note consists of a prolonged and rather 
shrill scream, repeated at short intervals at dusk in sum- 
mer evenings. The toads themselves were more active than 
their more northern cousins, hopping with such celerity as to 
lead one quite a chase before they could be captured. In 
markings they agree well with the northern variety, but the 
ground color is more predominant, the spots being proportion- 
ately reduced in size. The entire ventral side of the body is 
yellowish white. The ridges of the head are not so much en- 
larged posteriorly as they are on large examples of this variety 
from the Southern States, but are markedly elevated behind. 
The most noticeable difference between these specimens and 
those of the variety americanus, from central Illinois, is in the 
smooth skin and slender legs and digits of the former. The 
foot and toes are especially slender and the webs are much re- 
duced in size. The entire build of these two specimens is sug- 
gestive of the appropriateness of the name "land frog," given 
this variety by the early writers on American Herpetology. 

Length of the two specimens 2.37 and 2.12 respectively. 



''iHH J//i)i()/s Sfdtc Liihorntunj of Ndtiirnl llisfori/. 

Southern Illinois ; collected only at Anna and Villa liid^e. 

Though at other seasons of a mild and timid disposition, 
the toad throws off its mildness and timidity with the first 
warm days of April and hies to some pool or wayside ditch in 
recklessly amorous humor. Here the sexes meet and, not with- 
out some animated discussion, partners are chosen. Soon after- 
wards the spawn is to be seen suspended among dead water 
plants, or lying on the bottom as strands of translucent gelat- 
inous matter, in which at pretty regular intervals, the dark- 
colored eggs are imbedded. From these eggs small tadpoles 
or pollywogs are, a little later, excluded, and often in such 
numbers as to blacken the bottoms of pools. The tad- 
poles feed upon Algee and other vegetable matter for several 
weeks, then acquire limbs, lose their tails by resorbtion, and 
appear on land as very small toads. Henceforth they live 
on land, excepting during the breeding season, and feed on 
animal food, chiefly insects. During the summer, toads lead 
the lives of hermits in shallow holes or under boards or stones, 
and are widely scattered. They are inactive during bright 
days and remain in their retreats, but at dusk and on cloudy 
days they may be seen in gardens and fields hopping about 
in search of insects. Of these nothing comes amiss. Stink- 
bugs, tumble bugs, and even stinging Hyinenoptera may 
be taken from their stomachs. Predaceous beetles (Carabida?) 
form a conspicuous element of the food of adult toads, the 
common genera Harpalus, Evarthrus, Pterostichus, and Amara 
being most largely represented. Tn the food of young toads, 
ants take the place of beetles to some extent. Injurious insects 
are frequently eaten, among them Aphididae; but the greater part 
of the food of toads taken at random consists of insects which 
do not attract the attention of economic entomologists. Bene- 
ficial insects are perhaps as frequently eaten as injurious ones. 
The variety of species eaten at one time is astonishing. Six- 
teen genera, representing two classes of arthropods and five of 
the seven orders of one of them, have been determined from 
the contents of one stomach. The following list gives in the 
order of their importance the elements of the food of twelve 
stomachs of toads from .37 inch to 8 inches in length: 



Beptiles and AnipJiibians of Illinois. 389 

Carabidie, FormicidEe, Coleoptera (miscellaneous), Chryso- 
melid.ne, Hymeuoptera (miscellaneous), Hemiptera (Pentatomi- 
daj, Lyga3ida3, Aphidida?), Orthoptera, Lepidoptera (larvae), 
Diptera, Myriapoda, and Arachnida. 

Family HYLID^. 

Parotids generally wanting. Tympanum present. Fingers 
and toes more or less expanded at their tips; the former with 
or without webs, the latter always more or less webbed; basal 
portions of the fourth and fifth toes bound together by the 
integument. Teeth always on the upper jaw; generally on 
vomers, and in one genus (Pharyngodon) on the parasphenoid. 
With or without a fontanel between the parieto-frontals. 
Omosternum and sternum present; sternum with overlapping 
cartilages. Transverse processes of sacrum more or less ex- 
panded. Urostyle attached to two sacral condyles. Vertebrae 
procoelian. 

The three genera of this family which belong to the fauna 
of Illinois, agree in lacking parotids, in having maxillary and 
vomerine teeth, and in having a fontanel between the parieto- 
frontals. The family is represented in all the zoological regions 
except the Ethiopian. 

SYNOPSIS OF THE GENERA. REPRESENTED IN ILLINOIS. 

1 (4). Digital discs small; fingers without webs. 

2 (3). Webs reaching nearly to the tips of the toes. Tympanum 

not distinct. Transverse processes of sacral vertebra 
not much expanded AcRis. 

8 (2). Webs small, not reaching nearly to the tips of the toes. 
Tympanum distinct. Transverse processes of sacral 
vertebra widely expanded Chokophilus. 

4(1). Digital discs large; fingers and toes with webs. Tympa- 
num distinct. Transverse processes of sacral verte- 
bra widely expanded Hyla. 



340 Illinois State Lahoratonj of Natural History. 

ACRIS, DUM. ET BiBR. 

Diim. et liibr., Erp. G("n., 1841, VIII.. p. 50R. 
Iloi'fiuann, Bronn's Thier-Ileich, VI., Amphibien, 1873-78, p. 647. 
Smith, (ieol. Surv. Ohio, IV., Zool. and liot., Pt. I., Zonl.,.1882, 
p. 70r). 

Digits but slightly expanded at their tips. Toes with 
large webs; basal part of fourth and fifth toes bound together 
by the integument; fingers free. No i)arotid. Tympanum 
small and not distinct. Tongue short, cordiform, excised, and 
partly free behind. Teeth present on upper jaw and on vomer. 
Skin smooth or slightly roughened. Sacral diapophyses not 
widely expanded. Parieto-frontals embracing a fontanel. 
Males with a subgular vocal sac. The genus is peculiar to 
America. 

Acris gryllus, LeC. Crkjket-frog, Peeper, Savannah 
Cricket. 

Var. gryllus. 

Rana (jrulJits, LeC, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist , N. Y., 1824, 1., p. 282.— 

Harlan, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1827, V, p. 340. 
Acris gryllus, LeC , Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 18.54, VII., 

p.' 426. 
Acris gryllus, subsp. gryllus. Cope, Check List N. A. Batr. and 

Kept., 1875. 
Acris gryllus gryllus, Yarrow, Check List N. A. Eept. and Eatr., 

1882. 
Acris gryllus, subsp. gryllus, Davis and Rice, EuU. 111. State 

Lab. Nat. Hist., I., No. 5, 1883, p. 18; Bull. Chicago Acad, 

Sci., 1883. 

Var. crepitans. 

Acris crvplUiiis, Baird, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1854, VII., p. 

59: LeC, 1. c, p. 426.— Baird, Mex. Bound. Surv., 1859, liep- 

tiles. III., p. 28, pi. 37, fig. 14-17. 
Acris gryllus, subsp. crepitans, Cope, Cheek List, 1875. 
Acris gryllus crepitans, Yarrow, Check List, 1882. 
Acris gryllus, subsp. crepitaji'i, Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State 

Lab. Nat. Hist, 1., No. 5, 1883, p. 18; Bull. Chicago Acad. 

Sci., 1883. 
Acris gryllus, Dum. et Bibr., Erp. G6a., 1841. VIII., p. 507.— 

Boulenger, Cat. Batr. Sal. in Coll. Brit. Mus., 2d ed., 1882, 

Sal. Ecaudata, p. 336. 



lieptiles and Ampliihians of Illinois. 841 

Small, Upper surface of body and limbs with small scat- 
tered elongate or rounded warts of irregular size. Posterior 
part of skin of belly and the inferior posterior part of that 
covering the posterior femora distinctly granulate. Two large 
granules beneath the vent. Throat, chest, and the greater 
part of the limbs, smooth. A distinct fold of the skin across 
the chest between the fore legs. Tongue broad, slightly ex- 
cised behind, and free for about one fourth of its length be- 
hind. Nostrils situated in slight eminences. Eyes prominent. 
A single large palmar callosity. The first finger of the male 
but slightly swollen. Two small conical plantar tubercles. 

Color above, some shade of gray, brown, or olive-green, of- 
ten with a median longitudinal diffuse band of red or green, 
and with several black spots, of which a triangular one between 
the eyes is constant and characteristic. Beneath pale. Upper 
jaw black or dark brown, with four vertical pale lines on each 
side. A narrow pale line extends from the lower posterior part 
of the eye to the base of the fore leg. Above this line lies an 
elongate black spot which extends from the eye towards, but 
does not quite reach, the fore leg. Behind the insertion of 
the fore leg, on the side, is a large oblique black spot margined 
with white. Another similar but smaller spot lies in advance 
of, and above, the insertion of the hind leg. The triangular 
spot between the eyes is narrowly margined with white, its 
apex pointing backward. The middle of the back is often occu- 
pied by a longitudinal red or green band, and immediately on 
each side of the latter are several obscure black spots. Color 
beneath pale, sometimes tinged with yellow on the throat. 
Throat more or less speckled with dusky or brown. Lower jaw 
pale, or with a few dark specks at the symphysis, becoming 
darker towards the angle of the mouth, from which point a 
dark dash passes to and upon the base of the fore leg. Legs 
and digits dark above, with round dark spots; pale and un- 
marked below. A black spot may often be visible over the 
.vent, and generally a dark bar passes from this region along 
the posterior surface of the thigh. 

Length of body, .87-1.25; from tip of snout to axilla, 
.28-50; femur, 41-62; tibia, .r)2-.69; tarsus and fourth toe to- 
gether, .69-.94 inch. 



;ii2 Illinois Sfdic Liihoratonj n/' Natural ffi.-ifori/. 

The species is one of the most abundant meuibers of the 
family in all parts of Illinois. Specimens are in the collectioc 
of this Laboratory from Geneva, Cedar Lake, Colona, Geneseo, 
Peoria, Pekin, Normal, Urbana, Warsaw, Union county, and 
Cairo. 

Size and color are extremely variable. In most specimens 
from central and northern Illinois the markings are all very 
obscure, and often the triangular spot between the eyes is so 
indistinct as to require close looking to detect it. Others of the 
marks described above may even be wanting, and in but few 
specimens are all the marks plainly visible. The greenish and 
reddish forms seem to be more abundant in southern Illinois. 
The skin of the more northern individuals is rougher, the 
warts often being elongate and ranged so as to form short 
ridges. 

This is a rather coarsely built frog, bearing a close resem- 
blance in build to the Ranidae. It is more strictly terrestrial 
than our other Hylidse, and probably never resorts to shrubs 
and trees. It is usually found at the margins of streams or 
pools, into which it leaps when disturbed, but only to return to 
the shore a short distance from the observer. It is a good 
swimmer, as its webbed hind feet indicate. Its note is a rap- 
idly repeated grating noise, thought to resemble the trilling of 
a cricket, whence the name cricket-frog. Its food consists of 
insects, and if the habits of the frogs led them more frequently 
into cultivated grounds they would doubtless do good service 
to agriculture in destroying aphides. Among other insects, 
Chlorops, crane flies, Thyreocoris, Calocoris rapidus, numer- 
ous pupil' and wingless female Aphididae and Orthoptera, have 
been determined from the contents of their stomachs. Exam-' 
pies nearly grown were taken November 17, 1N88, under logs 
in the vicinity of a creek in Champaign county, where they 
were hibernating. 

The variety gnjilas of this species has been credited to 
Illinois and probably occurs about the shallow lakes of the 
south part of the State. LeConte's characterization of the 
two forms in the Proceedings of the Philadelphia Academy is 
the best extant, but the only difference he presents which in 
so variable a species is of varietal importance, is the size (1.4 



Reptiles and Amplnbians of Illinois. 348 

inches for variety grijUaa and 1.2 for variety crepitans). None 
of the Illinois specimens examined are more than 1.25 inches in 
length of body. 

Chorophilus, Baird. 

Baird, Proc. Acad. JSIat. Sci. Phila., 18.54, Vol. VII., p. 60. (Cho- 
rophilus and Helociictus of this reference are included in 
the genus as now used.) 

Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1865, p. 194. 

Smith, Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. IV, Zool. and JJot., Pt. I., Zool., 
1882, p. 704. 

Digits but slightly expanded at the tips. Toes with very 
small webs; fingers free. Tympanum small but distinct. 
Tongue cordiform, excised, and partly free behind. Teeth 
present on upper jaw and on vomer. Skin more or less granu- 
late. Sacral diapophyses widely expanded. Prefrontals sepa- 
rate from each other. Fronto-parietals embracing a fontanel, 
without a postorbital process. Males with a subgalar vocal 
sac. The species are all American. 

Chorophilus triseriatus, Wiedman. 

Ilyhi t riser i(tt((, Wiedman, Keise 1, 1839, p. 249. 

Uelocd'tvs triseriatus, Baird, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1854, 

VII., p. 60. 
Chorophilas triseriatus, subsp. triseriatus, Cope, Check List N. 

A. Batr. and Kept., 1875. 
Cliorophilus triseriatas, Boulenger, Cat. 13atr. Sal. in Coll. Brit. 

Mus., 2d ed., 1882. Sal. Ecaudata, p. 335. 
ClioropltiJas triseriatas triseriatas, Yarrow, Check List N. A. 

Rept. and Batr., 1882. 
Chorophilas triseriata,s, Davis and Ilice, Bull. 111. State Lab. 

Nat. Hist-. I.. No. 5, 1883, p. 19. 
Chorophilus triseriatas, subsp. triseriatas, Davis and Rice, Bull. 

Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 

Small. Small webs between all the toes. Vomerine teeth 
between, not behind, the internal nares. Dorsal surface finely, 
ventral surface coarsely, granulate. Upper surface of head, 
limbs, excepting the femora, and in males the throat, smooth. 
Tympanum circular in outline, about half the longitudinal di- 
ameter of the eye. Tongue elongate, slightly excised, and free 
behind for about a third of its length. Upper jaw very slightly 

9 



344 Illinois State Lahoratonj of Natural I/istari/. 

excised, lower rounded. Palm with numerous rounded tuber- 
cles. First finger of males greatly swollen at base. Two small 
plantar tubercles. Basal part of outer toes bound together by 
the integument. Skin of the throat greatly distended in males 
and thrown into longitudinal folds when the vocal sac is at rest. 

Color above ash-gray or dull black, marked with spots and 
longitudinal stripes of brown or black. Below whitish, with a 
few brown specks on the side, and on the belly, behind the fore 
limbs. The upper jaw is margined by a dark stripe, which is 
widest in front and becomes gradually narrower on each side 
to the angle of the mouth. Above this stripe is another pale 
one which passes just beneath the eye and extends backward, 
between the angle of the mouth and the tympanum, to the base 
of the fore leg of each side. Both these bands are continuous 
around the snout. Above the pale stripe are dark bands, one 
for each side, which include the nostrils, rapidly widen to the 
eyes, and are continued behind them to or beyond the middle 
of the sides. Two other bands begin behind the eye, extend 
along the sides of the back, and terminate a short distance 
above and in front of the femora. A median dorsal band be- 
gins on the snout, expands abruptly between the eyes, and ter- 
minates at about two thirds the distance from the snout to the 
posterior end of the body. At its posterior termination lie two 
short stripes, one on each side of the middle line, reaching 
back toward the end of the body. Legs colored like the back 
above, with dark spots; pale below. 

Length of body about 1.14; length from tip of snout to 
axilla, 5; femur of hind leg, .87; tibia of hind leg, .41; tarsus 
and fourth toe together, ^^^. 

Occurs throughout the State. Specimens have been ex- 
amined from Oregon, Piano, Normal, and Johnson county. 
Kennicott reports the species from Cook county. 

The above description will apply to most normally colored 
adults; but it is to be remembered in using it that the species 
is subject to a good deal of variation in markings, with locality, 
age, and sex. The males are. as a rule, darker colored than 
females and young, and the latter may lack the dorsal stripes 
altogether, and may be speckled with brown. The median 
dorsal stripe generally expands between the eyes, but some- 



. Reptiles and AnipJiibiaiis of lllhiois. 345 

times sends distinct branches to the latter, and in some exam- 
ples these seem to have become isolated and form dark spots 
above the eyes. The stripe is often interrupted, and may be 
continuous with one or other of the short stripes which begin 
at its posterior end. The two latter may be united for a part 
of their length across the middle line. 

With the first mild spring days, often before all the snow 
and ice of winter have disappeared, the loud trill of this small 
species may be heard from pools and ditches. The note is so 
resonant that on quiet evenings it may be heard a half mile or 
more and is commonly attributed to the larger frogs of 
the genus Rana. When the note is uttered the vocal sac is 
extended to its utmost and is larger than the head. Later 
in the season the note is not heard and the species is not often 
seen. It feeds upon insects. Hemiptera, Coleoptera, and in- 
sects of other orders may be found in its stomach. 

Hyla, Laurenti. 

Laurenti, Synopsis Reptilium, 1768. 

Hoffmann, Jironn's Thier-Reich, VI., Amphibien, p. 653; Cope, 

ibid, p. 612 (quotation). 
De Kay, Nat. Hist. N . Y., I., ZoOl. III., Kept, and Amph., 1842, 

p. 71. 

Digits expanded into evident discs at their tips. Toes 
webbed, fingers more or less webbed, or free. Tympanum dis- 
tinct. Eustachian tube well developed. No parotid. Tongue 
broad, entire or slightly excised, adherent, or more or less free 
behind. Teeth present on upper jaw and on vomers. Skin 
smooth or a little roughened. Sacral diapophysis widely ex- 
panded. A fontanel between the fronto-parietals. Inferior 
eyelid transparent. Males with one or two vocal sacs. 

This is a genus of arboreal frogs, the members of it 
spending much of the time on trees and shrubs, to which they 
cling by means of the large digital discs. They are very active, 
leaping incredible distances when alarmed, but depending for 
protection mainly on a ready power of suiting their color to the 
surroundings. The species are most numerous in the neotropic 
region. Twelve species occur in North America of which but 
three have thus far been found in Illinois. 



34(') Illinois State Lahorutoni q/' Nafural History. 

Green or gray, with a yellow stripe on each side. No dark 
markings. Body about l.T-'i inch long H. cinerba. 

With an X-shaped dusky mark on the back. Snout produced 
in front of the nostrils. Palms and soles not granulate. 
Body about .87 inch long H. pickekingi. 

With numerous irregular dark markings. Palms and soles 
granulate. Snout bluntly rounded; nostrils almost ter- 
minal. Body about l.C) inch long H. versicolor. 

Hyla cinerea, Pennant. Bull Frog, Green Tree-frog, 
Cinerf:ous Frog. 

Var. cinerea. 

Calamita cinerea, Schneider, Amph., 1, 174, 1799 (as cited by S. 
Gar man). 

Hyla lateralis, Daudin, Hist. Nat. des. Rain., Gren. et ('rap., 
1802, p. 16, pi. II., fig. 1.— LeC, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 
1825, I., p. 279.— Harlan, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1820, 
v., p. 341.— Dum. et Bibr., Erp. Gen., 1841. VIII., p. 587. 

H. carolinensls, Giintlier, Cat. Batr. 8al. in Coll. Brit. Mus., 18.58, 
p. 105.— Cope, Check List N. A. Batr. and Kept., 1875. — 
Boulenger, Cat. Batr. Sal. in.. Coll. Brit. Mus., 2d ed., 1882, 
Sal. Ecaudata, p, 377. — Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. 
Nat. Hist., I.. No. 5, 1883, p. 20; Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 

Var. semifasciata. 

Ilijla sciiiifasciaia, Hallowell, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1857, 
p 307." 

Of medium size; about 1.75 inches long. Skin smooth above, 
largely granulate below. A single plantar tubercle; surface of 
palm with none. Body moderately slender; head large. Eye 
large and prominent. Tympanum circular in outline, about 
two thirds the longitudinal diameter of the eye. Mandible 
seen from below almost angulate in front, with a symphyseal 
knob. Tongue short, obcordate, free at the sides and for about 
one third its length behind; notched behind. Vomerine teeth 
in two short transverse rows between the internal nares. Skin 
of the belly and that of the inferior posterior part of the 
femora distinctly and closely gi'anulate. Middle of throat also 
with a few small granulations. Skin elsewhere smooth. Webs 



Reptiles and Aiiipliihiinis of Illinois. 347 

of fiagers very small; discs large, that of the first digit smallest. 
Hind legs long and slender. Webs of toes extending to the 
base of the distal phalanx in all bat the fourth toe, where they 
reach the base of the penultimate phalanx; discs not as large 
as those of the fingers. 

Color above from bright pea-green through various shades 
of gray to almost black, with specks of orange on the back, and 
a wide buff or silvery stripe beginning at the tip of the snout 
and extending along the upper jaw, under the tympanum and 
along the side, to the posterior end of the body, or terminating 
on the side of the abdomen. Iris golden, pupil elongate in 
life. Color beneath yellowish or flesh-color, unspotted; throat 
at the angle of the mouth greenish. Legs green or gray above, 
pale beneath; discs and webs pale. A pale stripe extends along 
the posterior face and upon the base of the fourth finger of the 
anterior leg. A similar pale stripe extends along the posterior 
face of the tarsus and is continued upon the fifth toe of the 
posterior leg. 

Length of body, 2.06; from tip of snout to axilla, .75; 
femur, 1; tibia, 1.00; tarsus and fourth toe together, 1.44. 
The foregoing measurements are taken from a single Illinois 
example, and are above the average for the species. Typical 
examples of the species are said to average less than 1.5 inches 
in length. 

Southern Illinois. Abundant about lakes. 

An example of this species from Bluff Lake, Union county, 
conforms more closely with Hallowell's variety seniifasciata 
than with type forms of the species. It differs from the latter 
in its greater size and in that the lateral pale stripe terminates 
on the middle of the side. This stripe was, in life, bordered 
below on the snout, and both below and above on the side, with 
dusky. The pale stripe on the posterior face of the anterior 
leg was also bordered below by a dusky line. 

This is the most beautiful tree-frog of our fauna. It lives 
on the leaves of plants, frequenting especially lily pads and 
other aquatic vegetation at the edges of lakes. It occurs also, 
at times, in fields of corn. Its food consists of insects, the 
common fly being, it is said, preferred. Its note resembles the 
tone of a cow bell heard at a distance. Where abundant 



348 Jllinois Siri'e Xjaboratori/ oj Natural History. 

about water, the frogs are very noisy just before dusk, the 
chorus being broken, however, by longer or shorter inter- 
vals of silence. A single note is first heard, and, as if that 
were a signal, it is taken up and repeated by a dozen noisy 
throats till the air is resonant with the sound. After a time it 
ceases as suddenly as it began, to be again resumed after a 
period of quiet. 

Hyla pickeringi, Holbr. Castanet Tree - frog, Piping 

Tree-frog. 

HylodesinGkeringii, Holbr., N. A. Herp., 1842, IV , p. 13o, pi. 34.— 
De Kay, Nat. Hist. N. Y., I., Zool. III., Rept. and Amph., 
1842, p. 69, pi. 20. fig. 51. 

Hyla pickerinijii, LeC, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phlla.. 1854. VII., 
p. 429.— kenn., Trans. 111. State Agr. See, 1853-54, I., p. 593. 
—Cope, Check List ^^^. A. Batr. and Uept., 1875.— Boulenger, 
Cat. Batr. Sal. in Coll. Brit. Mus., 2d ed., 1882, Sal. Ecaudata, 
p. 399.— Yarrow, Check List N. A. Rept. and Batr., 1882.— 
Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist., I., No. 5, 
1883, p. 20; Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 

A small delicate species, about .87 inch long. Skin mostly 
smooth above, granulate beneath and on sides. Palms with a 
few small tubercles and one large one; base of first finger with 
a tubercle. Soles smooth, with a well-developed tubercle at the 
base of the first toe, and a minute one at the bases of the 
fourth and fith toes, the latter sometimes wanting. Body very 
slender; head large and long, flat above; limbs slender and 
weak. Snout produced, distinctly projecting beyond the nos- 
trils, somewhat angulate. Mandible seen from below rounded 
in front, the sides less divergent posteriorly than usual; not 
swollen in front so as to form a knob. Tongue large, obcor- 
date, notched, and in part free behind. Tympanum slightly 
elongate vertically, its vertical diameter about two thirds the 
longitudinal diameter of the eye. Dorsum mostly smooth, with 
a few granules above each eye. Belly and ventral surface of 
femora coarsely, throat and ventral portion of the sides finely, 
granulate. Surface elsewhere smooth. Fingers longer and 
more slender than usual, the third especially long; web wanting 
between the first and second fingers, almost imperceptible 
between the others. Toes also long and slender; webs very 



Reptiles and At}iphibi(tns of Illinois. 349 

small, minute between the first aud second toes and only reach- 
ing; the base of the antepenultimate phalanx ot' the fourth toe. 
Discs at tips of digits only moderately large. 

Color above some shade of gray or brown, with narrow 
lines of dark brown or black, the principal of which are dis- 
posed on the back in the form of a large letter X ; pale beneath. 
The ground color is usually pale brown. The anterior arms of 
the X-shaped mark converge from just behind the eyes to the 
middle of the back, where they meet; and from this point the 
two posterior arms diverge posteriorly and ventrally. Another 
mark behind this sometimes resembles an inverted letter V. A 
dark band, well defined above but fading into the ground color 
below, extends along the side of the suout to the anterior border 
of the eye. A wider band, which includes the tympanum, extends 
from the posterior border of the eye toward the base of the 
anterior leg. Two lines, one above each eye, sometimes unite 
across the median line and form a triangular spot. Iris golden, 
pupil black. The legs above are like the back in color and are 
banded with brown, two or three wide bands occurring on the 
femora and on the tibia3. A dark line is generally present on 
the posterior surface of all the legs. A dark spot overlies the 
vent. Body and legs uniformly pale beneath, or with the throat 
yellowish, speckled with dusky. 

Length of body, .87; from tip of snout to axilla, .44; femur, 
.44; tibia, .5; tarsus and fourth toe, .61). These measurements 
are from a single specimen. 

The species is sparingly distributed throughout the State. 
Cook county (Kennicott), Aux Plains River (Ridgway), Run- 
ning Lake in Union county. 

Though so delicate in appearance this tree-frog is really 
one of the most hardy of our frogs. In Massachusetts 
Mr. J. A. Allen found it the first to become active in the 
spring, and often when the weather was severely cold. The 
eggs were found by Prof. F. A. Putnam on the 17th of 
April, placed singly upon plants at some distance apart. The 
note is a clicking or piping noise. 



850 Illinois State Laborafori/ of Natural Historij. 

Hyla versicolor, LeC. Common Tuee-toad. 

Ilyla versicolor, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y.. 1H25, I., p. 281.— 
Harlan, .Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1826, V., p. 34:i— Dum. et 
Bibr^Erp.Gen. 1841,VIir., p.SOi}.— De Kay, N;<t. Hist. N. Y., 
I., Zool. III., 1842, Kept, and Araph.,p. 71. pi. XXL, fig.' 53.— 
Holbr., N. A. Herp., 1842, IV., p. 115, pi. XXVIII. — Kenn., 
Trans. 111. State Agr. Soc, 1853 54, 1., p. 592.— Cope, Check 
List N. A. J3atr. and Rept, 1875.— Boulenger, Cat. Batr. Sal. 
in Coll. J3rit. Mus., 2d ed .1882, Sal. Ecaudata, p. 372. -Yar- 
row, Check List, 1882. —Davis and Rice. Hull. Ill State Lab. 
Nat. Hist., I., No. 5, 1883, p. 20; Bull. Chicago Acad. Nat. 
Sci., 1883. 

Toad-like; of medium size, about 1.6 inches long. With 
small warts above; closely granulate over most of the ventral 
surface. Palms granulate, with a large grooved tubercle; a 
second tubercle on the basal part of the first finger. Soles 
granulate, with an elongate tubercle at the base of the first 
toe, and a very small one at the base of the fourth and fifth 
toes. Body stout; head only moderately large; limbs strong. 
Snout bluntly rounded. Mandible seen from below rounded 
or truncate in front, produced upwards at symphysis, but not 
swollen in front, as in H. cinerea, so as to form a knot. Tongue 
very short and broad, free for about one third its length be- 
hind, and with a small notch. Vomerine teeth in two short 
rows, slightly separated, between the internal nares. Eye large. 
Tympanum about two thirds the longitudinal diameter of the 
eye, beneath a rounded fold of the skin. Warts of the dorsal 
surface small and isolated; entire under surface granulate, that 
of the abdomen sharply and closely; that of the throat more 
finely and less closely; while that of a wide strip between the 
anterior legs is minutely granulate or nearly smooth. Legs 
obscurely granulate excepting the posterior surface of the 
humeri and the upper surface (proper) of the posterior feet, 
which are smooth, and the ventral surface of the femora, which 
are sharply and closely granulate. Webs of fingers small; of 
toes rather large, reaching the distal phalanx in all but the 
fourth toe, where they reach the penultimate. 

Color above ash-gray, brown, or green, variously marked 
with dark bands and spots. A pale spot beneath each eye with 
a dark one behind it, and an oblique dark band on the head 



Reptiles and Amphibians of Illinois. 351 

above each eye are coustaiit. Beneath pale, throat dusky, or 
with a few dark specks; yellow on posterior part of belly and 
ventral side of femora. Upper lip more or less dusky. A dark 
band extends from the nostril to the anterior upper angle of 
the eye. A quadrate pale spot lies between the eye and the 
angle of the mouth, and is bounded posteriorly by a dark spot, 
which extends from the posterior rim of the eye upward and 
backward, including the tympanum, toward the base of the 
anterior leg. Markings of the back brown or blackish, with 
narrow black margins. Two bands start, one on each side, 
from the dorsal margins of the eyes and extend toward the 
middle line and posteriori}^; they are sometimes united across 
the line. The spots of the back are large, of very irregular 
form, and are not just alike in any two specimens. Sometimes 
the greater part of the surface is occupied by a brown patch, 
with processes of the same, color passing out from it; often 
four smaller spots lie two on each side of the middle line; and 
various other degrees of fusion or isolation of the spots occur. 
Flanks with small brown spots. Legs and feet dark above, 
banded with brown or black; pale below. Femur with two 
dorsal transverse bands, marbled posteriorly with purple or 
brown, yellow below; tibia also with two dorsal bands; tarsus 
with one band. 

Length of body, 1.44-2; from tip of snout to axilla, .02-87; 
femur, .G9-.92; tibia, .71-.94; tarsus and fourth toe together, 
.94-1.21. 

Common throughout the State. Cook county (Kennicott), 
Aux Plains River (Ridgway), Yorkville, Rock Island, Gales- 
burg, Peoria (Brendel), Normal, Anna. 

Besides the variation in the markings of adults, noted 
above, there is great variation in the ground color, dependent 
on a number of circumstances. Young specimens taken on 
the leaves of plants are green, with few or no dark marks. 
Adults also vary in general color from greenish through shades 
of gray to almost white, but the color most common is ash-gray. 
This frog is commonly found on fences, the walls of buildings, 
the trunks of trees, or on leaves of plants. Its note is often 
heard in midsummer in the evening and just before rains. The 
voice is ventriloquous, and this, with the power which the frogs 



852 Illinois Stale Lobomfori/ of Natiind Ifisfor'/. 

possess of suiting their color to the surface they rest upon, 
makes their capture diflficult. They pass the winter in hollow 
trees and logs. The food consists of insects ; ants, moths, 
and Coleoptera (click beetles, etc.) being found in their 
stomachs. A small specimen from southern Illinois, taken on 
blackberry leaves, had stuffed its stomach with numbers of a 
small ant, Cremasfogasfer li)ieoIata. 

The "mummified frog" referred to by Dr. R. W. Shufeldt 
in "Science,'' Vol. VIII., p. 279, obtained from a lump of coal 
in Bloomiogton, McLean county, Illinois (Shufeldt writes it 
McLean Co., Penu., and later corrects to Burlington, 111.), was 
examined at the Illinois Laboratory soon after it was found. 
It was beyond doubt a dried up example of this species which, 
by some accident, had got among the coal. 

ORDER URODELA. 

(Amphibia Caudata, Icthyomorpha, etc.) 

Body elongated and more or less cylindrical. Anterior and 
posterior legs of nearly equal size (posterior pair wanting in 
the family Sirenidse). Digits varying as follows: 2-2, 8-2, 3-3, 
4-4, or 4-5, the last combination being the commonest. Man- 
dible generally with teeth (wanting in the Sirenidae). Adults 
with tails. Vertebral column composed of many vertebrae, 
with no terminal solid coccyx. Sternal arch not complete, the 
clavicles and coracoids not meeting at the ventral median line. 
Radius and ulna not fused. Tibia and fibula separate. Proxi- 
mal tarsal bones not elongate nor fused at their extremities. 

The adults are known as tritons, salamanders, and mud- 
puppies. They move on the land by walking or running, and 
swim in the water by an undulating movement of the tail and 
body. The food consists of insects, Crustacea, and mollusks. 
The young are generally tadpoles, living in the water and re- 
spiring by means of branchiae (a few never enter the water at 
any age). They possess teeth like those of the adults and feed 
mainly upon animal food, Entomostraca, Brauchiopoda, and 
Cladocera often constituting the greater part of it. They may 
be known from the tadpoles of the order Anura, by their more 
elongate bodies and the absence of horny plates on the jaws. 



Reptiles and Amphibians of Illinois. 353 

SYNOPSIS OF THE FAMILIES REPRESENTED IN ILLINOIS. 

1 ( 2). Branchial tufts persistent. Vertebrae amphicoeli- 
an 11. 

2(1). Branchial tufts lacking in adults 3. 

3(4). Vertebrae amphicoelian 7. 

4(3). Vertebrae opisthoccelian 5. 

5 ( 6). Tongue small, and free only at the sides. Palatine 
teeth in two longitudinal series. No parasphe- 
noid teeth. Occipital condyles sessile. 

Pleurodelid^. 

6(5.) Tongue rather large, free laterally and posteriorly. 
Palatine teeth in transverse series. Two para- 
sphenoid patches of teeth. Occipital condyles 
with pedicels Desmognathid^. 

7 ( 8). Tongue attached by a pedicel and all its margin 
free, or by a narrow median strip, and free later- 
ally and posteriorly. Palatine teeth transverse. 
Parasphenoid teeth present. Carpus and tarsus 
cartilaginous. Pterygoids wanting. 

Plethodontid^. 

8(7). Tongue largely attached, free in front and at the 
sides 9. 

9(10). Branchial apertures closed in adults. Palatine 
series of teeth nearly or quite transverse, on the 
posterior margin of the palatine bones. No 
parasphenoid teeth. Carpus and tarsus ossified. 
Pterygoids present Amblystomid^. 

10 ( 9). Branchial apertures open (in our species) or closed. 

Palatine series of teeth not transverse, on the 
anterior margin of the palatine bones. Carpus 
and tarsus cartilaginous Menopomid.*;. 

11 (12). With two pairs of legs. Jaws provided with teeth. 

Teeth on the roof of the mouth in an arched 
series Proteid^. 



354 Illinois State Lnhondori/ of Naturdl llisfori/. 

12 (11). Posterior leajs and the pelvic bones lacking. Jaws 
with horny plates instead of teeth. Teeth on 
the roof of the mouth in two large patches. 

SiKENIDiE. 

Family PLEURODELID^. 

Branchial opening^s closed in adults, no tufts. Fingers 
four; toes five. Palatine teeth in two longitudinal series borne 
posteriorly on processes of the palatine bones, which project 
backward beneath the parasphenoid. Eyelids present. Teeth 
on maxillaries and premaxillaries. No parasphenoid teeth. 
Tongue free at the sides. Parietals not embracing frontals. 
Pterygoids and prefrontals present. Occipital condyles sessile. 
Carpal and tarsal bones ossified. Ribs small. Vertebrae 
opisthocoelian. 

DIE3MYOTYLUS, RafINESQUE. 

Rafinesque, Ann. Nat., 1820. 

Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1859, XI., p 126. 

Smith (Notophthalmus), Tailed Amphibians, 1877, p. 103. 

Tongue small, free at the sides. Palatine teeth in two 
longitudinal series which diverge slightly posteriorly. Pro- 
cesses from the frontals and tympanic bones forming an arch 
behind the orbit. The first and fifth toes rudimentary. Tail 
strongly compressed. Skin above the eyes and on the jaws 
with large mucous pores. 

Two species referable to this genus occur in the United 
States. The following is the only one which occurs in the 
Eastern and Middle States. It is the closest ally of the 
European tritons which our fauna furnishes us. 

Diemyctylus miniatus, Raf. Newt, Eft, Evet, Red 
Eft, Spotted Teiton. 

Form miniatus. 

Trlturas )ii,lniatu.<i, Raf. Ann. Nat., 1820. 

Notophtlmlnms miniatus, Baird, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 2d 

Ser., 1849, I., p. 284. 
Salamandra symmetrica, De Kay, Nat. Hist. N. Y., I., Zool. III., 

Kept, and Amph., 1842, p. 73, pi. 15, fig. 33. 



lieptiles and Amphibians of Illinois. d^o 

Salamandra cocemea, De Kay, 1. c, p. 81, pi. 21, fig. 54 
Noto2^Mh (limns miniatus, Kenn., Trans. 111. State Agr. Soc. 

1853-54, I., p. 55t3. 
Diemyctylvs muihttiis, subsp. miniatus, Davis and Rice, Bull. 

ill. state Lab. Nat. Hist., I., No. 5, 1883, p. 15; Bull, Chicago 

Acad. Sci., 1883. 

Form viridescens. 

Triturus viridescens, Raf., Ann. Nat., 1820. 

Notoplithdlmns I'iridfsccns, Bnird, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 

2d Ser., 1849, 1., p. 284. 
Triton miilejiniictat/is, De Kay, Nat. Hist. N. Y., I., Zoo\ III., 

Kept, and Amph., 1842, p. 84, pi. 15, fig. 134. 
JS'oto2)htli(i!mns viridescens, Kenn., Trans. 111. State Agr. Soc. 

1853-54, I., p. 593. 
Diemyctylus miniatus, subsp. viridescens, Davis and Rice, Bull. 

111. State Lab. Nat. Hist., I., No. 5, 1883, p. 15; Bull. Chicago 

Acad. Sci. 1883. 
M(dye viridescf-ns, Boulenger, Cat. Batr, Sal. in Coll. Brit. Mus., 

2d ed., 1882, Sal. Caudata, p. 21. 

Length, including the tail, about three inches. Body 
somewhat irusiform. Skin smooth or scabrous. Head small, 
bluntly rounded. Tongue small. Eye small. Anterior legs 
slender, with four digits, the first of which is shortest, the 
fourth next in length, and the third longest. Posterior legs 
much larger than the anterior legs, with five digits, the first 
and fifth of which are rudimentary. Vent situated in a promi- 
nence. Tail strongly compressed. 

Color above olive-brown or brownish red, with numerous 
black specks, and on each side a longitudinal series of red spots 
enclosed in black rings. 

Beneath pale yellow or salmon-red uniformly sprinkled 
with round black spots. Upper lip pale, with a few dark 
specks. A dark band extends from the nostril through the 
eye and terminates above the base of the anterior leg. Pupil 
of the eye black; iris golden or reddish. Dorsal surfaces of 
the legs colored like the back; ventral surfaces, like the belly. 
Tail dark above, pale below, speckled with black. 

Length, including tail, 3.50; tail, 1.75. 



356 Illinois State Laboratonj of Natural llisforij. 

The species occurs throughout the State and is not uncom- 
mon in northern and southern Illinois. Cook Co. (Kennicott), 
Geneva, Delavan, Peoria (Brendel), Mt. Carmel (Ridgway), 
Cave in Rock, Grand Tower. 

Form miiiiatus. 

Skin scabrous. Tail with no, or with a very slight, fin- 
like expansion above and below. Color brownish red above, 
salmon-red below. Terrestrial, 

Form viridescens. 

Skin smooth. Tail with a fin-like membranous expansion 
above and below. Color olive-brown above, pale yellow below. 
Aquatic. 

The colors vary a good deal in both forms. The number 
of red spots of the longitudinal series varies from one to seven, 
and the number may not be the same on the two sides of the 
same animal. In nearly grown young they are, at least occa- 
sionally, wanting. In addition to the red spots of the longitudi- 
nal series there are often a few others farther down on the sides. 
The limits of the two colors of the dorsal and ventral surfaces 
are clearly defined, and they may be separated along the sides 
by an obscure dark line. A pale vertebral stripe is not uncom- 
mon. The males may be known by the enlarged posterior legs. 
These limbs are used for clasping the females during sexual 
union, and on the ventral surface of each is a series of trans- 
versely elongate corneous black tubercles, which are doubtless 
of service in maintaining the embrace. The digits are fur- 
nished with similar corneous tips. The posterior legs of the 
female are smaller than those of the other sex and lack the 
tubercles. The form miniatus occurs under stones, logs, etc, 
and appears to be strictly terrestrial. The form viridescens^ on 
the other hand, is always found in the water, either in small 
streams or quiet pools. The movements, whether on land or 
in water, are not rapid, and specimens may be captured quite 
easily with the hands. The food consists of insects, small 
moUusks, and crustaceans, the latter constituting an important 
element of the food of the aquatic form. The species eaten 



Reptiles and Amiihihians of Illinois. 357 

belonpf in the main to the groups Branchiopoda and Ostracoda. 
I have observed the sexes engaged in the reproductive act in 
July, but this was probably preparatory to a second brood, for 
I have now before me a nearly grown larva which was taken 
in southern Illinois April 20, and is probably the offspring of 
adults which met early in spring. 

Family DESMOGNATHID^. 

No branchial tufts; opening closed in adults. Fingers 
four; toes five. Palatine teeth borne on transverse processes 
of the palatine bones. Parasphenoid with two thin plates 
bearing elongate patches of teeth. Parietals not embracing 
f rentals. Prefrontals and pterygoids wanting. Occipital con- 
dyles with pedicels. Carpus and tarsus cartilaginous. Verte- 
bra? opisthocffilian. 

Peculiar to America. 

Desmognathus, Baird. • 

JJaird. Jour. Acad. Nat. Sei. Phila., 2d Ser., 1849, 1., 282. 
Cope, Proc. Acad, Nat. Sci. Phila., 1869, p. 112. 

Tongue large, free laterally and posteriorly. Palatine 
teeth in two short series on transverse processes of the palatine 
bones. Premaxillaries united, embracing a narrow fontanel. 
Parietals ossified. Tail subcylindrical at base, compressed dis- 
tally. With lateral series of mucous pores. 

An examination of the cranial bones and vertebra? is nec- 
essary to separate members of this genus from those of Pletho- 
don. There are no essential external differences between the 
two genera. Three species are known from the eastern United 
States, and two of them occur in Illinois. 

Desmognathus nigra, Green. Bi.ack Salamander. 

HahinKdidra nit/ra, Green, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1818, 1., 

p. 352. 
Triton ni<jer, De Kay, Nat. Hist. N. Y., I., Zool. III., Kept, and 

Araph., 1842. p. 8.^j, pi. 1.5, fig. 35.— Ilolbr., N. A. Ilerp., 1842, 

v., p. 81, pi. 27. 
Desntoi/natlius nicjer, IJaird, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 2d Ser., 

1849, 1., p. 285. 



358 Illinois State Lahoratonj of Natural Ilistonj. 

DesniDi/nat litis niuni, Cope, Pioc. Acad. Nat. Sci. I'hila., 18»W, 

p. 117. 
Desmo(jnathus ni'/er, Boiilenger, Cat. Hatr Sal. in Coll. Brit. 

Mus., 2d ed., 1882, Sal. Caudata, p. 19. 
Desmut/ndtJiiis nii/ra, Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State Lai). Nat. 

Hist., I., No. 5, 1883, p. 14; liull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 

Length, including tail, from four to six inches. With 
twelve costal folds. Body rather stout. Head of moderate 
size; snout rounded. Eyes prominent, with a tubercle in the 
anterior angle. Tongue nearly circular in outline. With two 
series of pores on the side, the superior of which extends from 
the eye nearly to the tip of the tail. Tail almost cylindrical at 
its base, compressed, and with a dorsal membranous expansion 
distally. 

Color above and below brown or black, slightly paler be- 
neath. Lips, palms, and soles paler. 

Length of body, (>; tail, 2.8. 

Cook county. 

A specimen of this species is in the National Museum at 
Washington, labeled as having been collected in Cook county 
by Robert Kennicott. Outside Illinois the species is chiefly 
confined to the coast states, and is especially abundant in the 
mountains of Pennsylvania and farther south. It is to be 
looked for under stones in running water. Hallowell found 
the females distended with eggs in April, and counted as many 
as seventy yellowish ova in the ovaries of one individual. 
When about one and a half inches long they lose the gills. 
The young are exceedingly active. 

Desraognathus fusca, Raf. Dusky or Painted Sala- 
mander. 

Trltnrasfuscus, Raf., Ann. Nat., 1820. 

Sdhimaiidnt pii-t<i, De Kay, Nat. Hist. N. Y., I., Zool. III., Rapt. 

and Amph., 1842, p. 75. 
i^alanumdra quadrinutctihtta, Ilolbr., N. A. Ilerp., 1842, V., 

p. 49, pi. 13. 
Desinoi/iKithiis fuscits, J3aird, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Piiila., 2d 

Ser., 1849, 1., p. 285.— Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. PMla., 1869, 

p. 115. 
Pletliodon fuscus. Smith, Tailed Amphibians, 1877, p. 69. 



Reptiles and Amphibians of Illinois. 359 

Desmognaihus fuscus, Boulenger, Cdt. Batr. ISal. in Coll. Brit. 

Mus., 2d ed., 1882, Sal. Caudata, p. 77. 
Desmognathuft /iiscti.s,suhs'p. ftisrus,l>a,v\s and Rice, Bull. Ill, 

State Lab. Nat. Hist., I., No. 5, 1883, p. 14; Bull. Chicago 

Acad. Sci., 1883. 

Length, including the tail, about three and a half inches. 
With fourteen costal folds. Body moderately stout. Head of 
moderate size, snout prolonged. Eyes prominent, with a tu- 
bercle in the anterior angle. Tongue oblong oval in outline. 
Two series of lateral pores, the superior of which is imperfect, 
or may be lacking. Tail subcylindrical at the base, compressed 
and carinate above, with a dorsal membranous expansion dis- 
tally. 

Color above brown, marbled with pink and gray, paler and 
marbled beneath and on the sides. Young with two dorsal 
longitudinal series of pink spots; old individuals uniform 
blackish. 

Length of body, 2.3; tail, 1.76. 

Mt. Carmel (Ridgway). 

This species is reported by Messrs. Davis and Rice as 
occurring throughout the State. It lives in swift flowing 
brooks, under stones. The eggs are laid embedded in strings of 
gelatinous material and are carried wrapped about the body of 
one of the adults. There are two varieties of the species, but 
only the variety fiisca has been observed in Illinois. The 
variety auriculata may be looked for in southern Illinois. Prof. 
Cope characterizes the two forms as follows: 

Above brown, with gray or pink shades; sides and belly mar- 
bled, the pale predominating; no red spots on sides. 

var. FUSCA. 

Above and sides black; the latter with a series of small red 
spots; a red spot from eye to canthus of mouth present or 
absent; belly marbled, the dark predominating. 

var. AURICULATA. 



10 



300 Illinois State Lahoratonj of Natural History. 



Family PLETHODONTID^. 

No branchial tufts; openings closed in adults. With four 
legs, fingers four, toes four or five. Palatine series of teeth 
more or less transverse. Eyelids present. Teeth on the niax- 
illaries and premaxillaries. Parasphenoid teeth present. The 
tongue attached by a slender median pedicel and free all round, 
or attached by a median strip which extends from the anterior 
margin to about the middle, the tongue being thus free at the 
sides and behind. Palatines not prolonged over the parasphe- 
noid. Pterygoids wanting. Prefrontals present, not prolonged 
and embracing frontals. Premaxillaries generally embracing 
a fontanel. Occipital condyles sessile. Carpus and tarsus car- 
tilaginous. Vertebrae amphicoelian. 

SYNOPSIS OF ILLINOIS GENERA.. 

1 (2). Tongue attached by a pedicel and free all round. One 

premaxillary bone, with a fontanel. Fingers four; 
toes five, free. Cranial bones ossified Spelerpes 

2 (1). Tongue attached by a median strip and free at the sides 

and behind. Two premaxillary bones 3. 

3 (4). Fingers four; toes five. Parietals ossified .. Plethodon. 

4 (3). Fingers four; toes four. Parietals ossified. 

Hemidactylium. 

Spelerpes, Kaf. 

Rafinesque, Atlantic Jour. 1832, 1., p. 22. 

Hoffmann, Bronn's Thier-Reich, VI., Amphibien, p. 670. 

Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1869, p. 104. 

Tongue small, circular in outline, attached by a pedicel, 
free at its margins. Vomerine teeth more or less transverse, 
interrupted medially or continuing to the parasphenoid patches; 
the latter in two large posteriorly divergent patches. Costal 
grooves well marked. Tail long, with no membranes. Species 
mostly small. 



Reptiles and Amphibians of Illinois. 361 

ILLINOIS SPKCIES. 

1 (2). Vomerine teeth continuous with the parasphenoid 

patches. Costal grooves fifteen or sixteen. General 
color red or brown with numerous dark spots and 

specks S. RUBER. 

2 (1). Vomerine teeth not continuous with the parasphenoid 

groups 3. 

3 (4). Costal grooves thirteen. Tail very long, with black 

vertical bars. General color yellow, the sides thickly 
marked with black S. longicaudus. 

4(3). Costal grooves thirteen. Tail of moderate length, with 
no vertical bars. General color yellow, with a black 
stripe on each side of the back S. bilineatus. 

Spelerpes ruber, Latr. Red Salamander. 

Salamandra rubra, Latr., Hist. Nat. des Reptiles, 1802. IV., p. 

305.— De Kay, Nat. Hist. N. Y., I., Zool. III., Kept, and 

Amph., 1842, p. 80, pi. 17, fig. 43.— Holbr. N. A. Herp., 1842, 

v., p. 35, pi. 9. 
Pseadotriton ruber, Baird, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 2d Ser., 

1849, I., p. 286. 
BoUtoglossa ruhra. Dum. et Bibr., Erp. Gen., 1854, IX., p. 89. 
Spelerpes ruber, Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1869, pp. 105, 

107.— Smith, Tailed Amphibians, 1877, p. 86.— Boulenger, 

Cat. Batr. Sal. in Coll. Brit. Mus., 2d ed., 1882, Sal. Caudata, 

p. 62. 
Spelerpes ruber, subsp. ruber, Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State 

Lab. Nat. Hist., I.. No. 5, 1883, p. 13; Bull. Chicago Acad. 

Sci., 1883. . 

Length, including tail, about five and a half inches. With 
fifteen or sixteen costal folds. Body moderately slender. Head 
not clearly marked off from the body. Gape rather small. 
Jaws strong. Snoub short. Eyes rather small and not very 
prominent. Tongue circular in outline, attached by a slender 
pedicel only. Palatine series of teeth extending outside the 
inner nares and within continuous with the sphenoidal patches. 
Tail short and strong, cylindrical at its base, compressed and 
ensiform distally; no membranous expansion. 



M2 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

Color above red or reddish brown, with numerous dusky 
specks or spots, the latter often distinct and round, or obscure 
and of irregular size and shape, sometimes even fusing so as 
to form an irregular mottling of the surface. Below pale 
orange or flesh-color, unspotted. Legs spotted above, pale be- 
low. Lower jaw generally more or less spotted. 

Length from tip of the snout to the posterior margin of 
the vent, 3,25; tail from the posterior margin of vent to the 
tip, 2.25. 

Aux Plaines River. 

A specimen of the species in the collection of the Na- 
tional Museum at Washington is the only one known from the 
State. It was collected by Robert Kennicott. This is a fine 
strong species of great activity, which occurs under stones 
both on the land and in running streams of spring water. 
The female has been observed with the body distended with 
ova in the latter part of April. Several varieties are indicated 
in the lists, but it is doubtful if they are entitled to that rank. 

Spelerpes longicaudus, Green. Long-tailed Salamander. 

Salamandra longicauda, Green, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1818, 1., p. 351.— De Kay, Nat. Hist. N. Y., I., Zool. III., Kept, 
and Amph., 1842, p. 78, pi. 17, fig. 41.— Holbr.,N. A. Herp., 
1842, v., p. 61, pi. 19.— Baird, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Thila, 2d 
Ser, 1849, p. 287. 

Cylindrosoma longicaudatum, Dum. et Bibr., Erp. Gen., 1854, 
IX., p. 78. 

Sj^elerpes longicaudus, Cope, Free. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1869, 
pp. 105, 107.— Smith, Tailed Amphibians, 1877, p. 84.— Bou- 
lenger, Cat. Batr. Sal. in Coll. Brit. Mas., 2d ed , 1883, Sal. 
Caudata, p. 64 — Davis and Rice, Bull. III. State Lab. Nat. 
Hist., I., No. 5, 1883, p. 13; Bull. Chicago Nat. Sci., 1883. 

Length, including the tail, about five inches. With thir- 
teen costal folds. Body very slender. Head of moderate size, 
slightly wider than the neck, depressed. Eyes prominent. 
Gape large; jaws weak; margin of upper lip angulate on each 
side and slightly excavate between the angulations. Tongue 
attached by a distinct pedicel. Palatine series of teeth not ex- 
tending outside the inner nares, and not continuous with the 
sphenoidal patches. Tail extremely long and slender, subquad- 



Reptiles and Amphibians of Illinois. 3(33 

rangular iu section at its base, gradually taperiug and com- 
pressed toward the tip. 

Color above and below yellowish l)rown, or l)rownish yel- 
low, or pale yellowish, with small spots or specks of black on 
the back, often consisting of a more or less perfect vertel)ral 
series and, generally, with the sides thickly marked with black, 
which on the body forms a closely mottled area with scalloped 
upper margin, and on the sides of the tail, vertical bars which 
may be angulate posteriorly. Immaculate l^elow. Legs spotted 
with black al)Ove, uniformly pale or with a few spots below. 

Length of the body from tip of snout to the posterior 
margin of the vent, 2; tail, from posterior margin of the vent 
to the tip, 3.31. 

Southern Illinois, abundant. Makanda, Cobden, Saratoga, 
Johnson Co. 

A consideral)le range of variation is presented by the 
species. The plan of coloration is that described above, i. e., 
plain belly, closely marked sides, and slightly speckled back; 
l)ut young examples and occasional well-grown ones may have 
the back uniformly marked with rather large black spots or 
with numerous fine specks. In some young the spots are 
not aggregated on the sides, but these specimens generally 
show a tendency to such aggregation in a broken row of elon- 
gate spots on the superior part of the side and in an obsolete 
mottling of the surface l)elow it. The throat may be obso- 
letely mottled with brownish. This little animal has l^een 
called the cave salamander, and is said to frequent the waters 
of deep caverns. It is one of the most aljundant of its kind 
in the extreme southern part of the State, where it is commonly 
found under logs and stones, occasionally associated with Fleth- 
odon ghdinosns. I have never seen it in water, and have 
taken l)ut one example from a cave, though caves in vari- 
ous parts of the region in which the species occurs have been 
carefully searched. It is an active little fellow, reseml»ling 
the lizards in the quickness of its movements when attempting 
to escape capture. 



3()4: Illinois State Lal>o)-tttonj of Natiiial llistonj. 

Spelerpes bilineatus, Green. 

Salamandra bisUneata, Green, Jour. Acad. iSJat. Sci. Phila., 1818, 
I., p. 352. 

Salamandra bilineaia, De Kay, Nat. Hist. N. Y., I., Zool. III., 
Eept. and Amph., 1842, p. 79, pi. 23, fig. 67.— Holbr., N. A. 
II«rp., 1842, IX., p. 55. pi. 16. 

Spelerpes hilinedta, Baird, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 2d !Ser., 
1849, 1., p. 287. 

Bolitoglossa biliueata, Dum. et liibr.. Erp. Gen., 1854, IX., p. 91. 

Spelerpes hilineatns, Cope, Froc. Acad. Nat. -Sci. Phila., 186'.t, pp. 
105, 107.— Smith, Tailed Amphibians, 1877, p. 83.— Bou'en- 
ger, Cat. Batr. Sal. in Coll. Brit. Mus., 2d ed., 1882, Sal. Cau- 
data, p. 66.— Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist., 
I., No. 5, 1883, p. 13; Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 

Total length about four inches. With fourteen costal 
folds. Small, body slender. Head small, slightly wider than 
the neck, snout rounded. Eye prominent. I^alatine teeth not 
extending outside the inner nares and not continuous with the 
sphenoidal patches. Tail long and slender, suhcylindrical at 
base, slightly compressed distally. 

Color al)Ove brownish yellow, with a distinct narrow black 
stripe extending from the posterior margin of the eye to near 
the tip of the tail. Beneath yellow, immaculate. 

Length of body to the vent, 1.42; tail, from the vent to 
the tip, 3.88. 

This small species is included on the authority of Messrs. 
Davis and Rice. Dr. Hoy has collected it at Racine, Wis. A 
form of the species originally descril)ed as Salamandra rirrigera 
possesses two barl)els on the snout. The habits, as far as known, 
are like those of S. Jongicandus. 

PlethoDON, Tschudi. 

Tschudi, Batr., 1883, p. 92. 

Hoffmann, Bronn's Thier-Reich, VI , Amphibien, p. 668. 

Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1869, p. m. 

Tongue moderately large, attached 1)y a median strip, free 
laterally and posteriorly. Palatine teeth interrupted medially. 
Parasphenoid patches of teeth in contact at the middle line. 
Costal grooves well marked. Tail rather long, with no mem- 
branous expansion. Species mostly of small size. 



Reptiles ami Amphibians of Illinois. 305 

The following will separate the two species known to 
occur in Illinois: 

With fourteen costal grooves. Palatine series of teeth extend- 
ing outside the inner nares. Color black, with gray spots, 
most numerous on the sides. Moderately stout. 

P. GLUTINOSUS. 

With from sixteen to nineteen costal grooves. Palatine teeth 
not extending outside the inner nares. Color dark gray, 
with or without a red longitudinal dorsal band. Rather 
slender P. erythrokotus. 

Plethodon glutinosus, Green. Gray-spotted Salamander. 

Salamandra glutinosa, Green, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Pbila., 1818, 
I., p. 357.— De Kay, Nat. Hist. N. Y., I., Zool. III., Kept, and 
Amph., 1842, p. 81, pi. 17, tig. 42.— Holbr., N. A. Herp., 1842, 
p. 39, pi. 1©. 

Plethodon glutinosa, Baird, Jour. Acad, Nat. Sci. Phila., 2d Ser., 
1849, p. 285. 

Cylindrosoma glutinosum, Dum. et Bibr., Erp. Gen., 1854, IX., 
p. 80. 

Plethodon glutinosus, Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 18()9, 
pp. 99, 100.— Smith, Tailed Amphibians, 1877, p. 66.— Bou- 
lenger, Cat. Batr. Sal. in Coll. Brit. Mus., 2d ed, 1883, Sal. 
Caudata, p. 56.— Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. 
Plist., I., No. 5, 1883, p. 12; Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 

Length, including the tail, about five and a half inches. 
With fourteen costal folds. Body slender. Head depressed. 
Eye prominent, no tubercle in its anterior angle. Palatine 
teeth in two series which extend outside the inner nares. 
Tongue large, nearly circular in outline, attached for al)out 
three fourths its length by a narrow strip along its middle, l)e- 
ginning near the anterior margin. Tail cylindrical at its base, 
gradually tapering to the tip, very slightly compressed distally, 
no mem1)ranous expansion. 

Color al)Ove and below bluish 1)lack in adults, l)rownish 
black above and pale brownish below in young, with numerous 
small grayish white spots, which are often aggregated on the 
sides or form larger white blotches there. Throat, gular fold, 
palms, soles, digits, and under side of the tail more or less 
brownish. 



360 Illinois State L(ibon(tori/ of Nulnral Hii^tonj. 

Length of l)ody. 2.02; tail, 2.31. 

Southern Illinois, abundant. Makanda, Cobdeu, Anna, 
Saratoga, W. North field (Yarrow). 

The head and ventral side of the tail are as a rule almost. 
or quite devoid of spots. Young examples generally have the 
spots as numerous on the top of the head as elsewhere. The 
margins of the vent are pale in the darkest examples. Under 
stones and logs in southern Illinois this salamander is very 
abundant. It sometimes occurs in caves. I have never seen 
it in the water. Once disclosed, it is easily captured, as its 
movements are not rapid. It has been reported common 
throughout the State, ]>ut occurs in lal)oratory collections made 
in Union county only, though doubtless it is common in other 
counties adjacent. 

Plethodon erythronotus, Green. Red-backed Salamander. 

Var. erythronota. 

Salamandra erythronota. Green, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1818, 1., p. 356.— Harlan, .Four. Acad. Nat. ISci. Phila., 187(5, 
v., p. 329.— Storer, Best. Jour. Nat. Hist., 1840, III., p. 53. 

Pletliodon erythronota, Baird, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.. 2d 
Ser., 1849, 1., p. 285. 

Plethodon erythronotus, var eryl?ironotus, Cope, Pros. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 1869, pp. 99, 100. 

Plethodon cinereus, subsp. erythronotus, Davis and Rice, Bull. 
111. State liab. Nat. Hist., 1., No. .5,1883, p. 12; Bull. ChicHgo 
Acad. Sci., 1883. 

Var. cinerea. 

Saltnaandnt cinerea, Green, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1818, 1., 

p. 326.— Harlan, Jour. Acad. Nat. S.;i., Phila., 1826, V., 

P. 330. 
Plethodon cinerens. Baird, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 2d Ser., 

1849, 1., p. 285. 
Plethodon erythronotus, var. cinereus, Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. 

Sci. Phila., 1869, p. lOO. 
Plethodon cinereus, subsp. cinereus, Davis and Rice, Bull. Ill 

State Lab. Nat. Hist., 1., No. 5, 1883, p. 12; Bull. Chicago 

Acad. Sci., 1883. 
Salamandra erythronota, T)e Kay, Nat. Hist. N. Y., I., ZoOl. III., 

Rept. and Amph., 1842, p. 75, pi. 16, fig. 38. 



Beptiles and Ampliihians of Illinois. 367 

PletJiodon erythronotum, Dum. et Bibr., Erp. Gen., 1854, IX., 
p. 86 — Smith, Tailed Amphibians, 1877, p. (54.— Jioulenger 
Cat. Batr. Sal. in Coll. Brit. Mus., 2d ed., 1882, Sal. Caudata,' 
p. 37. 

Total length from three to three and a half inches. With 
from sixteen to nineteen costal folds. Body cylindrical, very 
slender. Head small, flat ahove, depressed. Eye prominent. 
Lower jaw weak. Tongue large, attached by a strip along its 
middle. Palatine teeth not extending outside the inner nares. 
Tail rather short, cylindrical and tapering. Legs weak; first 
toe of both anterior and posterior feet rudimentary; fifth toe of 
latter small. 

Color above uniform brownish l)lack with minute scattered 
white points or with a wide longitudinal baud varying from 
yellow to bright red, extending from the tip of the snout 
nearly to the tip of the tail. Color below whitish mixed with 
dusky, the latter color predominating posteriorly, l)ecoming 
paler anteriorly until on the throat the color is whitish with 
an obscure dusky mottling. 

Length from snout to vent, 1.25; tail, l)eyond vent, 1.16. 

Credited to Illinois on the authority of Davis and Rice. 
It should be looked for in southern Illinois. 

Variety erythronota 

may be known l)y its wide yellow or red dorsal band. 

Variety cinerea 

lacks the dorsal band, but otherwise presents no essential points 
of difference. It has l)een supposed to be represented merely 
by the old examples of the species, Ijut it is not positively 
known just what the relations of the two forms is. It is not 
a relation of sex, for Hallowell found by dissection both males 
and females of the red-backed form. 

This little salamander is one of the earliest to appear in 
spring, and, in localities frequented by it, is common under 
stones and the bark of decaying logs. It is strictly terrestrial, 
the eggs being deposited in small masses under bark. The 
young accompany the parent for some time after hatching. 



308 Illinois Slate Lahorutonj oj Natural History. 

* Hemidactylium, Tschudi. 

Tschudi, Klass. Batr., 18:^8. pp. oK, 94. 

Holfoiann, Bronn's Thier-lleich. VI., Amphibien. p. 6()'J. 

Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 18()9, p. 99. 

Fingers four, toes four. Tongue attached by a median 
strip, free laterally and posteriorly. Palatine teeth interrupted 
medially. Parasphenoid patches not in contact. Parietals 
ossified, without fontanel. Two premaxillaries, embracing a 
fontanel. 

But one species occurs within our limits. 

Hemidactylium scutatum, Schlegel. Four -toed Sala- 
mander. 

Bdlamaudra scutata, Schlegel, Mus. Leyd. Abbildungen, 1837, 

pi. 40, fig. 4 6 (From Cope). 
IfcDiidactij/iiuii sciitdtnm, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 2d Ser., 

1849, p. 286. 
Salainandra uulanostlcta, Gihhes, Bost. Jour. Nat. Hist., 1845, 

V. p. 89, pi. 10. 
Besmodaetylus scutatiis and D. mehmosticiiis, Dum. et Bibr., 

Erp. Cen., 1854, IX., pp. 118, 119. 
HeinldactyliuDi scftatuin, Kenn., Trans. 111. State Agr. Soc, 

1853-54, 1., p. 593.— Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1869. 

p. 99. —Smith, Tailed Amphibians, 1877, p. 59.— Davis and 

Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist., L, No. 5, 1883, p. 12; 

Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 

Total length about two and six tenths inches. Body cy- 
lindrical. Head large; snout obtuse; neck contracted. Tail 
cylindrical, a little more than twice the length of the body. 
Legs weak, all with four digits. 

Color above ashy l)rown, with scattered black spots. Snout 
yellow. Legs and tail brownish orange. Entire under surface 
silvery white, marked with jet black spots. 

Northern Illinois (Kennicott). 

Mr. Kennicott reports this species common m some local- 
ities in northern Illinois. It is found under logs and is said to 
be very alert in its movements. 



Reptiles and Awphihians of Illinois. 369 

Family AMBLYSTOMID^. 

No branchial tufts ; openings closed in adults. With four 
legs ; fingers four, toes five. Palatine teeth in a more or less 
transverse series. Eyelids present. Teeth on the maxillaries 
and premaxillaries. No parasphenoid teeth. Tongue free in 
front. Palatine bones not prolonged over the parasphenoid. 
Pterygoids and prefrontals present, the latter, with the parietals 
prolonged and embracing the frontals. Premaxillaries not em- 
bracing a fontanel. Occipital condyles sessile. Carpus and 
tarsus ossified. Vertebrie amphica4ian. 

Represented by the single American genus, A.mblystoma. 

Amblystoma, Tschudi. 

Tschudi, Batr., 1838, p. 57. 

Hoffmann, Bronn's Thier-Reieb, YI., Amphibien, p. 666. 

Smith, Tailed Ampliibidns, 1877, p. id. 

Body stout or rather slender. Mouth large, subterminal. 
Tongue large and fleshy, its anterior portion finely plicate. 
Palatine teeth extending to or passing behind the internal 
nares. Gular fold present. Costal grooves well marked. Palms 
and soles generally with one or more tubercles. Tail rather 
.long, compressed distally, with no membranous expansion. 

Synopsis of Illinois Species. 

1 ( 2) Palatine series of teeth not extending outside the inner 

nares. Plica3 of tongue radiating from a median 
longitudinal groove. Mandible projecting. Color 
black or brownish, with gray spots on the sides. 
Rather small and slender A. microstomum. 

2 ( 1 ) Palatine series of teeth extending outside the inner 

nares. Tongue with no longitudinal grooves, plicai 
radiating from behind 3 

8 (0,9) Costal grooves twelve 4 

4(5) No or one indistinct plantar tubercle. Color uni- 
form gray or with pale spots on the sides. Size 

small A. JEFFERSONIANUM. 



370 Illinois State Lahomtonj of Natural History. 

5(4) Two distinct plantar tubercles. Color brown or black, 
with numerous yellow spots; these generally aggre- 
gated on the sides of the belly A. tigrinum. 

C) (3,9) Costal grooves eleven -. . . . .7 

7 ( 8) With a series of round yellow spots on each side, Im- 

maculate below. Large A. punctatum. 

8 ( 7) With transverse gray bands on i\e back. Rather 

small and stout A. opacum. 

9 (3,0) Costal grooves ten. Palatine series of teeth convex 

backwards. Color blackish brown, uniform or with 
a few gray specks on the sides A. talpoideum. 

Amblystoma microstomuni, Cope. 

Amhlystoma microsfontitin, Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
18(51. p. 123; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 20<j. 

Amhly-stoina jjorpJiyi'iticuin, Hallowell, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci, 
Phila., 1856, p. 8. 

Amhlystoma microsfoinam, Smith, Tailed Amphibians. 1877, p. 
44 — Boulenger, Cat. Batr. Sal. in Coll. Brit. Mus., 2d ed., 
1882, Sal. Caudata, p. 50. — Davis and Kice, Bull. 111. State 
Lab. Nat. Hist., I., No. 5, 1883, p. 11 

Total length from four to six inches. With thirteen cos- 
tal folds. Body slender for a meml)er of this genus. Head 
very small, strongly convex a)>ove and sloping uniformly from 
the occiput to the margin of the snout. Eye small and well 
forward. Gape small, lower jaw distinctly projecting beyond 
the upper when the mouth is open. Tongue but slightly free 
at its lateral margins, with a median longitudinal groove from 
which the pliciv radiate. Palatine series of teeth contiguous 
at the middle line and forming an ol)tuse angle, the apex Ijeing 
directed anteriorly; not extending beyond the inner margin of 
the nares. Legs rather weak, digits depressed, the fourth toe 
especially long. Tail sul)cylindrical at its l)ase, compressed 
and gradually decreasing in depth distally.- Superior surface 
of head smooth; inferior surface and sides of tail granulate; 
skin elsewhere minutely pitted. 

Color above and below dull black or fuscous, with numer- 
ous grayish white patches on the sides, often contiguous and 



Beptiles and Am^^hibians of Illinois. 371 

giving the prevailing hue. Under surface with a few scattered 
patches of the same color. 

Length from tip of snout to posterior end of anal slit, 
2.50; tail beyond the latter point, 1.75. 

Occurs in the south half of the State. Galesburg, Nor- 
mal, Champaign, Decatur, Mt. Carmel (Ridgway). 

A rather slight Amblystoma, readily to be separated from 
any other by its short series of palatine teeth, its small head, 
and projecting mandible. It is not uncommon on the prairies 
of central Illinois in spring, resorting at that season, with A. 
figrinnm, to the temporary pools for reproduction. It sometimes 
awakes from hibernation before the snow has all disappeared, 
and in one instance was taken in water on the 18th of Febru- 
ary. During the summer occasional specimens find their way 
into cellars. The largest specimen examined is from De- 
catur, and measures 2.94 inches from tip of snout to posterior 
end of the anal slit, and 2.25 inches from the latter point to 
the tip of the tail, giving a total length of a fraction more 
than five inches. Prof. Cope gives six inches as the maximum 
of length. A single example from Normal, taken in spring, 
presents differences from the ordinary form which possibly in- 
dicate a variety. The short snout and the color separate it at 
once from A. cingidata. In this example the jaws are nearly 
equal, so that the upper one is slightly visible when the head is 
viewed from beneath. There is a line of five large mucous pores 
over the eye, a patch of al)Out the same number beneath the 
anterior portion of the eye, and a line from the posterior mar- 
gin of the same to the corner of the mouth. The tail de- 
creases but slightly in depth towards its tip, and is so strongly 
compressed distaUy that the terminal fourth is very thin. The 
tail is distinctly grooved beneath for more than its basal half; 
but this may be due to the action of the alcohol. Black above 
and below, marked as in the ordinary form. 



372 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

Amblystoma jeffersonianum, Green. 
Var. platineum. 

Amblystoma platineum, Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, 

p. 198. 
Amblystoma Jeffersonianum, snhsp. platineum, Davis and Rice, 

Bull. 111. 'state Lab. Xat. Hist., I., No. 5, 1883, p. 11; Bull. 

Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883, 

Yar. fuscum. 

Amblystoma fuseum, Hallowell, Proc. Acad. Xat. Sci. Phila., 

1857, p. 216. 
Amblysto)na jeffersonianum, \SiT. fuscum, Cope, Proc. Acad. Xat. 

Sci. Phila., 1867. 
Amblystoma Ji^ffersonianum, subsp. fuscum, Davis and Rice, 

Bull. 111. "state Lab. Xat. Hist, I., No. 5, 1883, p. 10. 

Var. laterale. 

Amblystoma laterale, Hallowell, Proc. Acad. Xat. Sci. Phila., 

1856, VIIL, p. 6. 
Amblystoma Jeffersonianum, YSLV. laterale, Cope, Proc. Acad. Xat. 

Sci. Phila.. 1867, p. 197; Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. 

X"at. Hist., L, Xo. 5, 1883, p. 10; Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 
Salamandra Jefferso7iiana, G^reen, Contr. Macl. Lye. to Arts and 

Sciences, 1827, 1., p. 4. 
Amblystoma Jeffersonianum, Cope, Proc. Acad. Xat. Sci. Phila., 

1867, p. 195. 
Amblystoma Jeffersonianum, subs]). Jeffersonianum, Davis and 

Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. Xat.' Hist., I., No. 5, 1883, p. 10. 

Extreme length from about four to six inches. With 
twelve costal grooves. No or one indistinct plantar tubercle 
Body rather slender. Head elongate, snout obtuse. Tongue 
large. Palatine teeth in four series, the median two nearly 
straight or arched forwards. Eyes large and well forwards. 
Mucous pores present on sides of head. Tail shorter than 
body, oval in section at its base, gradually compressed toward 
the tip. Legs rather strong ; toes long and but slightly 
depressed. 

Color gray, dark brown or black, with pale blue spots on 
the sides, or with numerous small or large pale spots on the 
sides and a few small ones on the belly, or with no spots and 
with a dark shade along the sides. 



Reptiles and Amphibians of Illinois. B78 

Four Tarieties have been described and are indicated below. 
Three of them have been recorded from the State, and we may . 
look for the remaining o le. 

Variety platineum. 

Lead-colored, with many indistinct whitish spots or with 
none. Eyelids with pale margins. . More slender than the 
\2iT\eiy j tfe rsonianum . 

Belleville (spec, in Nat. Mas.). 

Variety fuscum. 

Dark brown, with a dark band along the sides. Length 
from tip of snout to posterior end of anal slit, 2.25 ; from lat- 
ter point to end of tail. 1.55. 

Not yet observed from Illinois. 

Variety laterals. 

Black, with large pale spots on the sides and small ones 
beneath. Median series of palatine teeth convex forwards. 
About half the size of variety jetfersonianinn. 

Northern Illinois (Davis and Rice). 

Variety jeffersonianum. 

Gray or black, with or without small pale spots on the sides. 
In fresh examples, with light blue spots on the sides. Length 
about 5.50 

Southern Illinois (Ridgway). 

Amblystoma tigrinum, Green. Tiger Salama^tder. 

Salamandra tigrina, Green, Jour. Acad. Xat. Sci. Phila., 1S25, 

v., p. 116. 
Triton tigrinus, De Kay, Xat. Hist. X. Y.. Rept. and Amph., 

1842. p. 83, pi. 15. fig. 32.— Holbr., X. A. Herp.. I., ZoCl. III., 

1842, v., p. 79, pi. 26. 
Amblystoma tigrina. Eaird, Jour. Acad. Xat. Sci. Phila., 2d Ser., 

1849, 1., p. 284. 
Amhtystoma tigrinum, Dum. et Eibr., Erp. Gen., IS.54, IX., p. 108. 

Lope, Free. Acad. Xat. Sci. Phila., 167, p. 179.— Boulenger, 

Cat. Batr. Sal. in Coll. Brit Mus., 2d ed.. 1SS2, Sal. Caudata. p. 

43.— Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. Xat. Hist., I., 

No. 5, 1883. p. 10: Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 



374 Illinois State Lahoratonj of Nafural Ilisfonj. 

Very large, total length from six to eleven inches. With 
twelve costal grooves. Body rather stout. Head large, wide, 
convex above. Eye small but prominent. Mouth large. 
Tongue large, obovate, wider than long, plicnc radiating from 
its posterior portion, no longitudinal groove. Palatine teeth 
extending outside the inner nares. Mucous pores of head 
mostly between the eye and nostril and in an elongate patch 
above them. Cervical fold conspicuous. Limbs strong; digits 
depressed. Tail varying in length, shorter or longer than the 
body, strongly compressed distally and regularly decreasing in 
depth towards the tip. 

Color above brown or brownish black, with numerous irregu- 
larly disposed round yellow spots. Brown or dusky below, 
with scattered yellow spots or with most of the spots aggre- 
gated on the sides and more or less coalescent. Throat with a 
few spots or almost entirely yellow. Legs and tail spotted with 
yellow. 

Length of an average specimen, from snout to the posterior 
end of the anal slit, 4.19; from the latter point to tip of tail, 
3.44. 

Throughout ihe State. Cook Co., Peoria ( Brendel), Nor- 
mal, S. Illinois. 

The colors vary in individuals and with age. The yellow 
spots may be distinct and bright yellow or so obscure as to be 
scarcely discernible; they may be abundant and pretty regu- 
larly distributed, or may be few in number and confined chiefly 
to the sides of the belly. Young just from the water are nearly 
uniform brownish black above, with no spots or a very few 
small ones, and are yellowish beneath, with perhaps a few indis- 
tinct spots at the sides. At this stage some of the larval 
characters are not yet lost. Rudiments of the branchite are 
apparent; the rami of the mandible are not so much arched, 
nor so widely divergent as in adults; the palatine teeth are 
strongly arched forwards; the tongue is smalljand elongate: 
and the tail is shorter proportionally to the body than in adults. 
Examples about five inches long ordinarily resemble the adults 
in every respect except the proportional length of the tail, 
which seems to increase with age. The following measure- 
ments illustrate this change of proportions. The first are from 



Reptiles and Amphibians of Illinois. 375 

a young one in which rudiments of the branchiae persist; the 
second from an average adult; the third from a very large in- 
dividual. (1) Body, 2 50; tail, 1.75. (2) Body, 4.19; tail, 
3.44. (3) Body, 5.25: tail, 5.50. 

The larvte are so remarkable as to deserve a special para- 
graph. They differ in no essential respect from the Siredon of 
Mexico and our Western States, but as far as at present known 
positively, they do not breed while in the larval condition. 
The Siredon of the West is now known to transform into an 
Amblystoma very similar to, and perhaps only a variety of, our 
species. The larva of A. tigriniim when about ready to trans- 
form is nearly four inches in length, and, barring its legs, bears 
an obvious resemblance to some of the fishes, notably, in the 
shape of the head, to Pelodichthys. The body is gradually more 
and more compressed from the head to the extremity of the 
tail. Head'deep at the base, with a uniform slope from base to 
snout, the profile of which is nearly straight. Tongue large 
and fleshy, mounted on the hyoid bones, and strictly comparable 
with similar structures in fishes; the tongue of the adult Am- 
blystoma develops later. Palatine teeth in four series, strongly 
arched forwards, approximating and parallel with the maxil- 
laries. Gill-opening large, making free communication with 
the mouth. A free fold of skin continues from its anterior mar- 
gin over the throat, uniting at an angle with one from the op- 
posite side; and across the opening are three free arches, each 
bearing at its dorsal extremity a branchial filament, and along 
its inner margins a series of acute flexible processes resembling 
the gill-rakers of fishes, which interlock when the arches are 
closed. The anterior arch lacks the filaments on its anterior 
side. The opening is bounded posteriorly with what is evi- 
dently a fourth arch, though it is united behind with the 
integument; it also bears the filaments on its anterior edge. 
The costal folds are evident and agree in number with those of 
adults. Limbs weak; digits flattened and pointed. The tail is 
strongly compressed and bears a membranous expansion above 
and below, that above extending forwards nearly to the head 
and that below reaching the vent. 

This is our largest and most alnindant salamander. It re- 
sorts in great numbers to the ponds on prairies in early spring 
U 



376 f/l/iio/s State LahoratoriJ (>/' Ndlinal Ilit-toi-i/. 

to deposit its mass of eggs. At sucli times it frequently iiiids 
its way into cellars. The eggs are generally attached to sticks 
or dead vegetation and are surrounded by a translucent gela- 
tine. A little later the larva- are al)andant in these pools, 
feeding, as I find by dissection, largely on Crustacea, which the 
gill-rakers on the branchial arches enable them to collect. The 
stomachs are sometimes packed with J)(ij)lini(i piilex. The 
smallest examples examined — .al)Out an inch long — had eaten 
nothing but animal food. They lose their branchite and leave 
the water before the close of the summer, and many of the 
pools in which they breed are soon after dried up. They are 
not often seen afterwards until the fall rains set in, when 
they again appear in cellars and under porches, evidently 
searching for a place to pass the winter. Their movements on 
land are very clumsy and their migrations to and from the 
water seem to be performed at night. A large specimen kept 
in an aquarium cast its skin fivice ]>etween the 12th and 18th 
of October, I am disposed to l)elieve, from facts given below, 
that this species remains, where conditions are suital^le, or, per- 
haps, unsuital)le, to its complete development, longer than one 
season in the larva state, and may even breed in that state, 
As l)efore stated, the young ordinarily leaves the water when in 
the neighl)orhood of four inches long, and specimens four and 
a half inches long have all the essential adult characters. 
There are now in the Lal^oratory collection, however, two spec- 
imens measuring seven and three fourths and eight and three 
eighths inches respectively, which retain in a remarkal»le de- 
gree the larval characters, and had doubtless but recently left 
the water when they were captured. The tongue of these 
examples is very small, elongate, and occupies no more than 
half the space between the rami of the mandil)le. The man- 
dibular rami are less arched and less widely divergent than in 
adults; the palatine teeth are more strongly arched forwards; 
the rudiments of l)ranchia3 persist; the digits are strongly de- 
pressed; and the membranous expansion is still present for a 
short distance on the tail above, and sharp grooves indicate its 
recent resorbtion at other points. The colors also are those of 
a recently transformed larva. One of these examples proves 
to l)e a male with well-developed sexual organs. Unfortu- 



Reptiles and AnipJtih'uins of Illinois. 377 

nately the date at which they were collected has been omitted 
from the lal)els. Both were taken at Normal in 1882. Many 
other young of the usual size were collected the same season. 

Amblystoma punctatum, Linn. Spotted Salamander. 

Ldcerta punctata, Linn. Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 17(5(5, I., p. 370. 
Salaniandra veneuosa, Holbr., N. A. Herp., 1842, V., p. 07, pi. 21, 
Salaniaiidra suboiolarea,De Kay, Nat. Hist. N. Y., I., Zool,. III., 

Kept, and Amph.. 1842, p. 74, pi. 10, fig. ."-6. 
Anihlustonia pun.'itatd , Baird, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila..2dSer. 

1849. 1., p. 283— Kenn., Trans. 111. State Agr. Soc, 1853-54, 1., p. 

593.— Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 175.— Smith, 

Tailed Amphibians, 1877, p. 3(5.— Boulenger, Cat. Batr. Sal. 

in Coll. Brit. Mus., 2d ed., 1882, Sal. Caudata, p. 41.— Davis 

and Bice, Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist., I., No. 5, 1883, p. 

9; Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci.. 1883. 

Total length about six inches. With eleven costal grooves. 
With one indistinct plantar tubercle or with none. Body 
stout, cylindrical, slightly swollen at the abdomen. Head 
wide, depressed, large, mucous pores present. Eyes moderately 
large. Mouth large. Tongue large, nearly circular in outline, 
its plicae radiating from its posterior portion. Palatine teeth 
in three series, the median being arched backwards. Tail oval 
in section at its base; compressed distally. 

Color above bluish black with a longitudinal series of 
large round yellow or orange spots on each side of the back, 
extending from the eyes nearly to the tip of the tail. Beneath 
uniform bluish black, with no marks. Legs with one or two 
spots of yellow above. 

Length of body from tip of snout to posterior end of anal 
slit, 3.40; tail beyond the latter point, 3.10. 

Occurs throughout the State but is not common. Cook 
Co. (Kennicott), Union Co. (in collection Northwestern Uni- 
versity at Evanston), Mt. Carmel and Belleville (Yarrow). 

This is a large species bearing a general resemblance to A. 
tif/riniim, but is to be distinguished at once by the disposition 
of the spots in two series and by the immaculate ventral sur- 
face. It has not, to my knowledge, been seen in the central 
part of the State. Mr. Kennicott tells us in his catalogue of 
the animals of Cook county (Trans. 111. Agr. Soc, 1853-54) that 



B78 Illinois State Lahordfonj of Xdliinil llisionj. 

he has only taken it there in timber. In the Eastern States it 
replaces A. tigrinum. It is commonly found under logs and 
stones. In an article on the development of this animal Prof. 
S. F. Clarke states that the eggs are deposited in masses of 
from two to three hundred and are covered, as are those of A. 
tigrinum, by a gelatinous coat. The species is said to use its 
tail for prehension. (S. Garman, Science, VIII., 13.) 

Amblystoma opacum, Gravenhorst, 

Sdlamaiidra opaca, Gravenhorst, Lleber. Zoul. Syst., 1807, p. 431. 

iSdlamandra fasciata, De Kay, Nat. Hist. N. Y., I., Zool. III., 
Kept, and .\mph., 1842, p. 77, pi. 17. tig. 40. 

Amhlystoma opaca, Baird, .Jour. Acad. Nat. 8ci. Phila., 21 Ser., 
1849, p. 283. 

Sala»i(i7idia opaca, Dum. et Bibr., Erp. Gen., 1854, IX., p. 6(5. 

Amblystoma opacum.. Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 18(57, p. 
173.— Smith, Tailed Amphibians, 1877, p. 37.— Boulenger, 
Cat. Batr. Sal. in Coll. Brit. Mus , 2d ed., 1882. Sal. Caudata, 
p. 40.— Davis i.nd Rice, Bull. III. State Lab. Nat. Hist, I., 
No. 5, 1883, p. 9; Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 

Total length about three and a half inches. With eleven 
costal folds. Two distinct plantar tubercles [sic]. Body stout 
and short, fusiform. Head large, depressed, widened posteri- 
orly. Mouth large, jaws about equal. Tongue large, obovate, 
completely occupying the space between the mandibular rami; 
plica? radiating from the posterior part of the tongue. Vomer- 
ine teeth extending outside the inner nares; consisting of three 
series, — a median large one straight or arched forwards, and a 
short series behind each of the internal nares. A distinct 
postocular groove, curving downwards behind the angle of the 
mouth. Cervical fold distinct. No large mucous pores on the 
head. Limbs moderately strong. Tail short, thick at the 
base and subcylindrical, compressed distally and tapering to 
a point. 

Color above fuscous, with wide grayish-white transverse 
bands which widen laterally and terminate abruptly on the 
upper part of the sides. Head often extensively gray between 
the eyes, with a band of the color passing from this over the 
eyes and sometimes uniting with the extremities of first white 



Reptiles and Ampliibians of Illinois. 379 

band, thus enclosing a large dark area on the posterior part o£ 
the head. The bars of the back and tail may be interrupted 
medially, and frequently unite at their extremities with adjacent 
bars. Beneath dark slate-color, or, in some alcoholic examples, 
liver-brown, immaculate. Cervical fold, palms, and soles, pale. 
Digits with pale articulations, giving an annulated appearance. 

Length from snout to posterior end of the anal slit, 2.19; 
from latter point to tip of tail, 1.28. 

Occurs throughout the State. W. Northfield (Kennicott), 
Cobden, Mt. Carmel (Yarrow). 

According to descriptions of this animal there is but a 
single indistinct plantar tubercle. The specimens before me 
from southern Illinois have two tubercles, both of which are 
clearly visible. The male and female remain with the eggs, 
which are said to be deposited in the "beds of small ponds," 
and to number as high as one hundred and eight. 

Amblystoma talpoideum, Holbr. Mole Salamakder. 

Salamandra talpcidea, Holbr., N. A. Herp., 1842, Y., p. 73, pi. 24. 

Ambli/stoma talpoldeuni, Dura, et Bibr., Erp. Gen., 1854, IX., p. 
109.— Cope, Free. Acad. Nat.Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 172.— Smith, 
Tailed Amphibians, 1877, p. 41. — Boulenger, Cat. Batr. Sal. 
in Coll. Brit. Mus., 2d ed., 1882, Sal. Oaudata, p. 40.— Davis 
and Kice, Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist., I., No. 5, 1883, 
p. 9; Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 

Total length about three inches. With ten costal grooves. 
Body short and stout, depressed. Head large, depressed, snout 
slightly angulate. Mouth large, jaws about equal. Palatine 
series of teeth in three sections, the median slightly arched 
backwards. Mucous pores present on head. Tail short, thick 
at its base, compressed distally. 

Color above dusky or dark brown, mottled with small gray 
dots and a few obscure dusky spots. Beneath dusky. 

Length from tip of snout to posterior end of anal slit, 2.H0; 
from latter point to end of tail, 1.50. 

Cairo (Cope). 

In Prof. Cope's " Review of the Amblystomida? " a speci- 
men of this species from Cairo, is noted as belonging to the 
National Museum and as having been collected by Kennicott. 
The species is a near relative of A. opacum. 



380 Illinois SUtte Lahonitonj oj Natural History. 



Family CRYPTOBRAN0HID.E. 

Two pairs of legs present, the anterior with four digits, 
the posterior with five. Jaws provided with teeth. Palatine 
teeth approximating and parallel with those on maxillariesand 
premaxillaries. No parasphenoid teeth. No eyelids. No 
branchial tufts. Branchial opening present (in our genus) or 
absent. Premaxillaries not aiichylosed. Nasals, pterygoids, 
and prefrontals present. Occipital condyles sessile. Carpus 
and tarsus cartilaginous. Vertebrae amphicoeliau, 

Cryptobranchus, Leuckaet. 

Leuckart, Isis, 1821, p. 257 (S. Garman). 

Branchial openings persistent. Body stout. Mouth large, 
terminal. Tongue large, free in front. Palatine series of 
teeth strongly arched forward, parallel wirh, but not as long as, 
that on the jaw. Internal nares at the extremities of the pala- 
tine series. No gular fold. Outer digits with lateral mem- 
branous expansions. Tail short, compressed distally, with a 
dorsal membranous expansion. 

Cryptobranchus alleghaniensis, Latr. Hellbender. 

Salamandra aUeghaiiiensls, Latr., Hist. nat. des Reptiles, 1802, 

p. 253. 
Abratichus aMeghaniensis, Harlan, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 

1824, 1., p. 233. 
Menopoma aUeghaiiiensis, id., ibid., p. 271. — De Kay, Nat. Hist. 

N. Y., I., Zool. III.. Kept, and Amph., 1842, p. 89. pi. 18, fig. 

44.— Holbr., N. A. Herp., 1842, V., p. 95, pi. 32.— Baird, Jour, 

Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 2d Sen, 1849, 1., 289.— Dum. et Bibr., 

Erp. Gen., 1854, IX., p. 206.— Smith, Tailed Amphibians, 

1877, p. 22. 
Cryptobranchus alhghanicusis, Boulenger, Cat. Batr. Sal. in 

Coll. Brit. Mus., 2d ed., Sal. Caudal a, p. 81. 
Menopoma aUeglianien.sis, Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. 

Nat. Hist., I., No. 5, 1883, p. 8; Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 

Total length from one and a half to two feet. Body 
stout, cylindrical. Head wide, depressed, with lines of large 
mucous pores above and below. Eye small and not prominent. 



Reptiles and AmpltUnans of Illinois. 381 

superior. Mouth large, jaws strong, the lower jaw bearing a 
membranous fold of skin on each side. Tongue large, free in 
front. Teeth on jaws and palatines in single series and 
directed backwards. Gill cleft not large; no gular fold. Legs 
rather stout; digits short, with very slight webs, and the outer 
ones with membranous expansions. Tail short, stout at base, 
compressed distally, and with a large dorsal expansion. 

Color above and below uniform leaden, with obscure dark 
spots. 

Length of a small specimen : from tip of snout to poste- 
rior end of anal slit, 7.25; from latter point to the end of the 
tail, 3.87. 

Wabash River (Ridgway). 

This species is said by Prof. Cope to occur in all the tribu- 
taries of the Mississippi River, and so may prol)ably be found 
throughout the State. It is a large aquatic batrachian resem- 
bling in many respects the larvt^ of our salamanders. It is 
said to feed upon crayfish, fishes, reptiles, etc. Specimens from 
Ecorse, Michigan, examined by Prof. S. I. Smith, had eaten 
C(n)ihanis projiinqnus, together with a neuropterous larva 
allied to Perla, and a small fish. 

Family PROTEID^. 

Two pairs of legs present, all with four digits, or the an- 
terior with three and the posterior with two. Jaws provided 
with teeth. No parasphenoid teeth. No eyelids. Branchial 
tufts persistent, with three fi'ee arches in the branchial open- 
ing. Premaxillaries not anchylosed. Maxillaries, nasals, and 
prefrontals wanting. Pterygoids and palatines present. Occi- 
pital condyles sessile. Carpus and tarsus cartilaginous. Ver- 
tebne amphiccelian. 

Necturus, Rafinesque. 

llafinesque, Jour. Phys., 1819, vol. 88, p. 417. 

VVagler, Nat. Syst. Amph., 1880, p. 210. 

Smith (Menobranchus) Tailed Amphibians, 1877, p. 17. 

Four digits on all the feet. Body stout. Mouth of mod- 
erate size, terminal, with large fleshy lips. Tongue free in front; 



382 Illinois State Ijuhoratory of Natural Histori/. 

slightly free at the sides. Palatine teeth approximating those 
on the preniaxillaries, the series interrupted posteriorly. In- 
ternal nares large, outside the palatine teeth. Branchial tufts 
plumose. Gularfold present. Tail short, strongly compressed, 
with extensive membranous expansions above and below. 

Necturus maculatus, Rafinesque. Mud Puppy, Water Dog, 

Necturus maculatus, Raf., Jour. Phys., 1819, vol. 8S, p. 417. 
Triton lateralis. Say, Long's Exped. to the llocky Mts., 1823, 1,, 

p. 5. 
Menohranchus lateralis, Harlan, Ann. N. Y. Lye, 1824, 1., p. 233. 

-De Kay, Nat. Hist. N. Y., Kept, and Amph., 1842. p. 87. pi. 

18, fig. 45.— Holbr., N. A. Herp., 1842. V., p. 115, pi. 38, and 

also p. Ill, pi. 37. 
Necturus lateralis, Bdivc^, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 2d Ser,, 

184U, I., p. 290. 
Menohraacihus lateralis, Dum. et Bibr., Erp. (lea., 1854, IX., p. 

183. — Smith, Tailed Amphibians, 1877, p. 17. 
Necturus maculatus, Boulenger, C^t. Batr. Sal. in Coll. Brit. Mus., 

2d. ed., 1882, Sal. Caudata, p. 84. 
Necturus lateralis, Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. 

Hist., I., No. 5, 1883 (inserted under errata); Bull. Chicago 

Acad. Sci.. 1883. 

Total length about one and a half feet. Bodystout. Head 
depressed, very wide at base, somewhat contracted before the 
eyes. Eyes small, embedded, lateral. Mouth not very large, 
with large expansions of the skin forming fleshy lips. Jaws 
angulate in front; palatine teeth approximating and parallel 
with the maxillary teeth, interrupted posteriorly. Internal 
nares large, opening outside the palatine series of teeth. 
Tongue very large, extensively free in front. Branchial tufts 
large; gill-opening not large, crossed by but one free arch. 
Gular fold distinct. Limbs moderately strong; digits without 
webs or lateral expansions of the skin. Vent with plicate 
margins. Tail spatulate; stout and cylindrical at the base, 
strongly compressed and increasing in height distally, with a 
fin-like expansion above and below. 

Color above dark gray, with obscure subcirculardark spots 
and minute dark specks. An obscure dark band extends along 
the snout and through the eye, behind which it may terminate 



Reptiles and Amphibians of Illinois. 383 

or continue along the side of the body. Branchial tufts crim- 
son. Beneath paler than above, with the under side of the 
throat and middle of the belly nearly white. Tail sometimes 
with an orange border and generally with large submarginal 
dark spots. 

Length from tip of the snout to p( sterior margin of vent, 
9.25; from latter point to end of tail, 4.87. 

Occurs in running water throughout the State. Cook Co., 
Oregon, Peoria (Brendel), Henry, Mt. Carmel (Yarrow). 

This is one of our largest batrachians, but it retains through- 
out life many of the characters of the tadpoles of other mem- 
bers of the order. It is often captured on hooks baited for fish, 
and so dreaded is its bite that the line is frequently cut to let it 
escape. It is, however, perfectly harmless. The spawning 
season is in April and May. The eggs, Holbrook tells us, are 
about as large as peas. It subsists on crustaceans, insects, and 
mollusks. 

Family SIRENIDE. 

Posterior legs and the pelvic bones wanting. Anterior 
legs with three or four digits. Jaws provided with horny' 
plates instead of teeth. Vomerine teeth in two large divergent 
patches. No parasphenoid teeth. No eyelids. Three per- 
sistent branchial tufts, with three corresponding free arches 
across the branchial opening and a fourth arch bound in 
the integument. Premaxillaries not anchylosed. Maxil- 
laries, palatines, pterygoids, and prefrontals wanting. Occipital 
condyles sessile. Carpus cartilaginous. Vertebra? amphicoelian. 

The family includes but two genera, both American. They 
may be defined as follows : 

Digits three. Branchial tufts not fimbriate. With longi- 
tudinal bands Pseudobkanchus. 

Digits four. Branchial tufts fimbriate. Without longi- 
tudinal bands Siren. 

Siren, Linn. 

Linna'us, Act. Acad. Upsal. 17<)6. 
Dum. et Bibr., Erp. Gen., 1854, IX., p. 191. 
12 



384 Illinois Siate Lahorafori/ of JSiitural Hi.xfori/. 

Body long and slender. Mouth small, inferior. Tongue 
free in front and slightly free at sides. Vomerine teeth in two 
patches, not in contact in front, widely divergent posteriorly. 
Interral nares outside the patches of teeth. Branchial tufts 
fimbriated. Tail short, compressed, with a slight dorsal mem- 
brane. 

The genus includes but the single species described below. 

Siren lacertina, Linn. 

Siren lacertina, Linn., Act. Acad. Upsal. 17B0.— Harlan, Jour. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1826, V. p. 321.— Holbr., N. A. Herp., 
1842, T., p. 101, pi. 34.— liaird. Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
2d Ser., I., 1849, p. 291.— Dum. et. Bibr., Erp. Gt^n., 1854, IX., 
p. 193.— Smith, Tailed Amphibians, 1877, p. 12.— Boulenger, 
Cat. Batr. Sal. in Coll. Brit. Mus., 2d ed., 1882, Sal. Caudata, 
p. 87.— Davis and Rice, Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist., I., 
No. 5, 1883, p. 6; Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1883. 

' Total length from two to three feet. Slender and eel-like. 
Head rather small, depressed. Ey> small, embedded, well for- 
wards. Snout but slightly rounded from side to side, almost 
truncate. Nostrils inferior, widely separated. Mouth small, 
inferior, transverse; lower lip marked off by a groove. Lower 
jaw provided with a black, corneous, sharp-edged covering, like 
I he jaws of tadpoles, in place of teeth. Upper jaw with a sim- 
ilar but smaller plate. Vomerine teeth in two large oblique 
patches. Three coarsely fimliriate branchial tufts. Branchial 
opening not large, covered by three free arches, bearing at their 
inner margins series of short cartilaginous tubercles. The single 
pair of legs is placed close behind the head. They are rather 
weak, and bear four small digits which have dark horny tips 
resembling claws. Vent, a puckered orifice. Tail compressed 
and tapering towards the tip, with a slight dorsal membranous 
expansion. 

Color above dusky or black, sometimes with small whitish 
spots. Beneath bluish black. 

Length from tip of snout to posterior margin of vent, 
6.87; tail beyond the latter point, 3.37. 

Not uncommon in southern Illinois. N. III. (Davis and 
Rice), Alton (Cope), Running Lake, Union Co., Mt. Carmel 
(Ridgway). 



Beptihs and Amphibians of Illinois. 385 

A small example of this species from Running Lake, 
Union Co., was marked when alive with a bright orange band 
across the end of the muzzle and another one extending from 
the sides of the mouth to the bases of the branchial tufts. 
This remarkable batrachian is not uncommon in the mud of 
lakes in the southern portion of Illinois. It is probably pretty 
strictly limited to that portion of the State, though Messrs. 
Davis and Rice record it from northern Illinois on the strength 
of a specimen in the collection of the Northwestern Univer- 
sity at Evanston. What they feed upon is not very definitely 
known. LeConte found nothing but mud in the stomachs of 
those he examined, and we imagine this had been taken for the 
minute organisms it contained, just as the tadpoles of frogs 
till their intestines with this material for a similar purpose. 
The acute black corneous tips of the digits, especially marked 
in young, led Linna3us to describe the Siren as possessing 
claws, and a granulation of the skin observable in some alco- 
holic specimens probably led others of the fathers to describe 
it as possessing small embedded scales. Linnaeus is represented 
as writing to Dr. Gordon of South Carolina, to whom he was 
indebted for specimens of the Siren, that nothing had so much 
exercised his mind, and there was nothing he so much desired to 
know, as the true nature of this animal. Le Conte and others 
proved many years ago, by finding spawn in its, ovaries that it 
was an adult batrachian. So many southern species inhabit 
the south part of the State that it would not be surprising if 
Pseudobranchus striata should also be found to occur there. 



EXPLANATION OF THE FIGURES. 



PLATE IX. 

Fig. 1. — Ventral view of the shell of Emys meleagris. 

Fig. 2.— Dorsal view of the shell of Chrj^semps marginata: a, 
dorsal plaies; b, costal plates; c, marginal plates; d, nuchal plate. 

Fig. 3.— Ventral view of the shell of CJirysemys maryiiiata: a, 
gular plate; h, postgular plate; c, pectoral plate; d, abdominal plate; 
e, preaTial platf ;/, anal plate; g, axillar plate; 7*. inguinal plate. 

Fig. 4. — Ventral view of the shell of Aromochelys odoratus. 

PLATE X. 

Fig. 5.— Ventral view of the shell of Chelydra serpentina. 

Fig. 6, — Right ramus of mandible of Malacoclemmys geo- 
graphicus. 

Fig. 7.— Right ramus of mandible of M. lesueuri. 

Fig. 8. — Ventral view of the skull of M. geograpMcus : mx^ 
maxilla; •» vomer; j??, palatine bone. 

Fig. 9.— Ventral view of the skull of M. lesueuri. Same bones, 
outlined as in Fig. 8. 

PLATE XI. 

Fig. 10.— Feet of Cistudo Carolina: a, fore foot; h, hind foot. 
Fig. 11.— Feet of Chrysemys marginata : a, fore foot; h, hind foot. 
Fig. 12.— Feet of Emgs meleagris: a, fore foot; 6, hind foot. 

PLATE XII. 

Fig. 13. — Aspidonectes spinifer, dorsal view. 
Fig. 14.— The same, ventral view. 

PLATE XIII. 

Fig. 15. — Ventral view of the head of ElapMs obsoletus-: I, in- 
fralabials; m, submentals; 7i, ventrals. 

Fig. 16.— Dorsal view of the head of E. obsoletus: a, rostral 
platf ; b, internasal; c, prefrontal; d, frontal; e, supraorbital; /, parie- 
tal; 0. dorsals. 

Fig. 17.— Lateral view of the head of E. obsoletus: ^f, nasals; 
h, loreal; i, anteorbital; j, postorbitals; A-, supralabials; I, infralabials; 
o, dorsals. 



Reptiles and Amphibians of Illinois. 388 

Fig. 18.— Dorsal view of the head of Eumecea faciatus. 

Fig. 10.— Bones of the rudimentary hind limb of Boa scytale. 
(After Hoffmann.) 

Fig. '20.— Rudimentary hind limb of Python, showing muscles. 
(After Hoffmann.) 

Fig. 21. — Rana areolata: a, hind foot; h, fore foot. 

PLATE XIV. 

Fig. 21.— Rana damata: a, hind foot; 6, fore foot. 

Fig. 2'i.—Rana eatesbyana : a, liind foot; 6, fore foot. 

Fig. 2,i.—AGiis gry'las: a, hind foot; 6, fore foot. 

Fig. 25. — Ohorophilus triserlatus : a, hind foot; h, fore foot. 

Fig. 26. — Hyla versicolor : <i, hind foot; h, fore foot. 

PLATE XV. 

Fig. 27. — Sternal bones of Rana eatesbyana: st, sternum; xs, 
xphisternum; co, coracoid; cl, clavicle; os, omosternum; s, scapula; 
ss, suprascapuU. 

FII-..28. — Sternal bones of Biifo lentiginosus : st, sternum; xs, 
xiphisternam; co, coracoid; ep and ep', epicoracoids; ^:)c, precera- 
coids; el, clavicle; s, scapula; ss. suprascapula. 

Fig. 29.— Sternal bones of Hyla versicolor: st, stevanm; os, omo- 
sternum. 



INDEX OF GENERA. 



Acris 339, 340 

Aromochelys 238, 240 

Amblystoma 215, 3H9 

Amblystomid^ 353,361* 

Amphibia 316 

Amyda 246,247 

Ancist'rodon 310, 313 

Anouid.e 249,252 

ANURA 317 

Aspidonectes 215, 246 

Bufo 333 

BorONiD^ 318,333 

Carphophls 263, 308 

CHELONIA 216 

Chelopus 215 

Chelydra 243 

Chellydrid^ 218, 242 

Chorophilus 33l», 343 

Chryst-mys 215,219,222 

ClNOSTERNID^ 218,237 

Cinosternum 238 

Cistudo 215,218,219 

Caemidophorus 255 

Coluber 263, 284 

colubrid^ 261 

Crotalid^ 261, 310 

Crotalus 310,311 

Cryptobranchid^, Errata, 380 

Cry ptobranchus 38" » 

Cyclophis 263, 282 

Desmognathidje 353 357 

Desmognathus 215. 357 

Diadophis 263 3 

Diemyctylus 354 

Elaphis 263,289 

EMYDIDiE 217,218 

Emys 218.221 

Eneystoma 33i 

Enqystomid^ 318, 331 

Eumeces 257 

Eutainia 262, 263 



Haldea 263.306 

Hemidactylium 360, 368 

Heterodon 215, 263. 302 

Hydrops 263.279 

Hyla 215,339,345 

Hylid.e 318. 339 

Iguanid^ 249 

Macrocletnrays 242 

MalHCOclemmys 219,234 

Menopomid^ See Errata. 

N'^cturus 3sl 

N^rodia 215, 262, 268 

Oliffosoma 257. 259 

Ophibolus 215,263.293 

Ol'HIDIA 216,260 

Optiisaurus 252 

Ph.vllophilophis 263, 283 

Pit>ophis 263.286 

Plethodon 360,364 

Pleth' (DONTid^ 353, 360 

Pleukudklid^ 353, 354 

PROTEID^ 353. 381 

Pseudemys 215, 219 228 

Rina 215, 318 

Ranid^ 317,318 

R"gina 263,272 

REPriLIA 216 

SAURIA 216,248 

.Sceloporus 250 

SciNCiu^E 249, 256 

Siren 383 

Sikenid^ 354, 383 

Sistruius 310.312 

Spelerpes 215, 360 

Storeria 263,277 

Teidai 249,255 

Trionyciiid.e 218, 245 

Tropidoclonium 262. 276 

URODELA 317,352 

Virgiuia 263,307 



PLATE IX. 





Fig. 1. 



Fig. 2. 





Fig. 3, 



Fig. 4. 



PLATE X. 





Fig. 5. 



Fig. 6. 



Fig. 7. 





Fig. 8. 



Fig. 9. 



PLATE XI. 





Fig. 10. 





Fig. 11. 





Fig. 12 



PLATE XII. 




Fig. 13, 




Fig. 14. 



PLATE XIII. 






Fig. 15. 



Fig. 16. 



Fig. 17. 






Fig. 18. 



Fig. 19. 



Fig. 20. 





riG. 21 



a 



PLATE XIV. 

[] 




Fig. 22. 




a b 

Fig. 24. 



Fig. 23. 






Fkj. 25. 



Fig. 2(5. 



PLATE XV. 




Fig. 27. 




Fig. 28. 




Fig. 29. 



Article XIV. — Bibliographical and Si/Hoin/ni/cal Cafalof/He of 
the Described Meudn-acida' of North America. By F. W. 
GoDiNG, M. D., Ph. D. 



INTRODUCTION. 

The following catalogue is designed as an index to the 
literature of the Membraeidae of North America, including 
Mexico, Central America, and the West Indies. 

A few species have been seen that could not be referred to 
any known forms, and these are described in the following 
pages. 

In a few cases where the reference occurred in a volume 
the title of which was very long, 1 have used the title of 
the essay only. The following instances are the most im- 
portant: Stal's Hetuiptera Fabricia)ia,ll., (in Kongl. Svenska 
Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar, Band 8, No. 1), Stul's 
Bidrac) till Membracidernas Kdmiedom (in Ofversigt af 
Kongl. Vetenskaps Academiens Forhandlingar, 1869, No. 3), 
Fairmaire's Becne de la Tribu des Membracides (in Annales de 
la Societe Entomolgique de France, 2" Serie, Tome IV.), and 
• Still's Heniiptera Mexicana (in Stettiner Entomologische Zeit- 
ung, 1864). A few other citations of this kind occur, but it is 
believed that little difficulty will be had in following any ref- 
erence found in this catalogue. 

I take this occasion to thank those from whom I have re- 
ceived aid in the compilation of this list. Especially do I wish 
to acknowledge obligations to Prof. C. V. Riley for valuable 
suggestions, for a list of the Membracida? in the National col- 
lection, and for examples of all the duplicates of this family 
in the U. S. National Museum; and to Prof. S. A. Forbes for the 
use of the library and collection of the Illinois State Laboratory 
of" Natural History (without the use of which this list could 
not have been completed), and for a list of the Membracidiein 
the State collection. My thanks are also due to the entire 
corps of assistants at the Laboratory for their uniform kind- 



392 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

ness and numl)erless favors; to Mr. W. H. Ashinead for mate- 
rial; to Prof. Herbert Osborn for identification of specimens; 
to Mr. E. P. Van Duzee, of Buffalo, N. Y., for many sugges- 
tions and a review of the manuscript, which he improved by 
the addition of important references and the making of some 
needed changes; to Mr. C. W. Stromberg and Mr. 0. S. West- 
cott for many valuable examples of Illinois species; and to 
Miss Emma Bird for the greater part of the clerical work of 
preparing the catalogue for publication. 

The Membracida3 are distinguished as follows by Comstock 
in his tables of the families of Homoptera;* "Beak evidently 
arising from the mentum; tarsi three- join ted; antpnna3 minute, 
setiform. Ocelli only two in number or wanting; males with- 
out musical organs. Antennae inserted in front of and be- 
tween the eyes. Prothorax prolonged into a horn or point 
above the abdomen." 

For the convenience of those who may not have access to 
the work T will give Sttll's synoptic table of the subfamilies of 
Membracidse as published by him in Heniiptera A/ricana, IV., 
pp. 82 and 83: 

Scutellum wanting or obsolete, not extended beyond rretanotum. 
Posterior tarsi small, [much] shorter than anterior 

nOPLOrHORINyE. 

Tarsi of [nearly] equal length, or posterior longer than anterior. 

Tibije and sides of face dilated, foliaceous Membracin.«. 

Tibia' simple. 

Tegmina entirely membranaceous ; veins distinct. 

Third apical cell elongate, never petiolate. . Daknin.e . 
Third apical cell subtriangular, petiolate, adjacent 

ci-lls contiguous Smiliin.e. 

Tegmina coriaceous and opaque externally, with scarcely 

distinguishable veins in this portion. . .Tkagopin.e. 

Scutellum distinct, produced beyond metanotum Centrotin.e. 

A synopsis of the genera found in North America ap- 
peared in Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, Vol. XIX., pp. 253-260. 

^Introduction to Eniomology, p. 134. 



CATALOGUE. 



SUBFAMILY TRAGOPIN^, Stal. 

I. Traqopa, Late. 

1. T. DOHRNi, Fairm. 

1846. Traijopa dorhui. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 487, 10, 

pi. vii, fig. 3. 
1851. Traffopadoyhni. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 582, 11. 
iTafe.— Santa Cruz, W. I. Is. {Fairmaire). 

2. T. DiMiDiATA, Fairm. 

1840. Tracjopa dimidirda. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 487, 12. 
1851. Tragopadhuidiata. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 
582, 13. 
7fa6.— West. States {Riley). 

IT. HORIOLA, Fairm. 

3. H. DiscALis, Walk. 

1858. Horiola disced is. Walk. List Hom. B. M. Suppl. 
154. 
Hah.—Yexdi Cruz [Walker). 

4. II. EPHiPPiUM, Burm. 

1836. Tragopa ephippium. Burm. in Silb. Rev. iv, 191, 

• 13, 
1846. Horiola ephippiuHi. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 493. 
1851. Horiola ephippium. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 
586, 6. 
Hah. — Central Airi. (ira//tfr). 

III. Parmula, Fairm. 

5. P. MUNDA, Walk. 

1858. Parmula mil ii<la. Walk. List Hom. B. M. Suppl. 
' 152. 
Hah. — Mexico and Guatemala ( Walker). 



394 Illinois Slafe Laboi-atory of Natural History. 

SUBFAMILY SMILIIN^, Stal. 

IV. Adippe, Stal. 

6. A. ZEBKiNA, Fairm. 

1846. Oxycjonia zehrina . Fairm. Rev. Memb. 305, 12. 
1851. Oxygonia zehrina. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 558, 

17. 
1858. Oxygonia histrio.. Walk. Ins. Saund. 71. 

Oxygonia figurafa. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 
Suppl. 137. 
18()4. Oxygonia zehrina. Still, Hem. Mex. 73, 446. 
1869. ArJippe zehrina. Stcll, Bid. Memb. Kiin. 234, 2. 
Hab.—Mex. (Stal). 

V. POLYGLYPTA, BuRM. 

7. P. cosTATA, Burm. 

1835. FoIyglypt(( costafa. Burm. Haudb. Ent. ii, 142, 1. 

1836. Polyglypta costata. Burm. in Silb. Rev. iv, 177, 

1, pi. 36, fig. 5-7. 
1846. FolygJypta costafa, 2. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 2<J6, 1. 

Polyglypta pilosa., 6. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 296, 2. 
1851. Polyglypta costafa. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 
542,1. 
Polyglypta jnlosa. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 543, 2. 
1858. Polyglypta sfrigafa. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 

Suppl. 136. 
1864. Polyglypta costafa. StAl, Hem. Mex. 72, 439. 
Polyglypta pilosa. Still, Hem. Mex. 73, 440. 
1869. Polyglypta costafa. Still, Bid. Memb. Kiln. 240, 1. 
1877. Polyglypta costata. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 208, 2. 
Hab.—Mex. (Stal). 

8. P. DORSALis. Burm. 

183(). Polyglypta (torsalis. Burm. in Silb. Rev. iv, 178, 2. 
Polyglypta )narnhit<i. Burm. in Silb. Rev. iv, 

178, 3. 

Polyglypta pallipes. Burm. in Silb. Rev. iv, 

179, 4. 

1843. Polyglypta sicula. Am. & Serv. Hem. 541, 2. 



Described Memhracidce of North America. 395 

1843. PohjgUjptaflavomaculata. Am. & Serv. Hem. 541, 

pi. 9, fig. 9. 

1846. PoU/ghjpta dorsaUs. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 297, 3. 

Polyghjpta maculata. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 297, 5. 

PoJijgJypfapaUipes. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 298, 8. 

PoJyghjpta nigeUa. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 298, 10. 

1851. PoJgghiptadorsalis. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 

543, 3. 

Polyghjpta maculata. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 

543, 5. 
Polyghjpta pallipcs. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 

V)44, 8. 
Polyghjpta nigella. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 544, 
10. 
1864. Pohjglyptadorsalis. Stal, Hera. Mex. 73, 441. 

Pol yglypta maculata. Stal, Hem. Mex. 73, 442. 
Polyghjpta pall ipc!<. Sttll, Hem. Mex. 73 ,448. 
18()9. Polyglypta dorsalis. Still, Bid. Memb. Kiin. 240, 

2. 
1877. Polyglypta dorsalis. Butler, Cist. Ent.ii, 208, 3. 
1889. Polyglypta dorsalis. Prov. Faune Can. iii, 241. 
Ilab. — Mexico and Savannah (Fairmaire) ; Texas (P/o- 
va7icJie7-). 

9. P. LiNE.vTA, Burm. 

1836. Polyglypta lineata. Burm. in Silb. Rev. iv, 179, 5. 
1846. Polyglypta lineata. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 298, 9. 
1851. Polyghjpta lineata. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 544, 9. 
1858. Polyglypta abbreviata. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 

Suppl. 136. 
1864. Polyglypta lineata. Still, Hem. Mex. 73, 444. 
1869. Polyglypta lineata. Stal, Bid. Memb. Kiin. 241, 

3. 
1877. Polyglypta lineata. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, p. 298, 4. 
Jfnb.—Mex. (Stdl). 

10. P. TREDECiM-cosTATA, Fairm. 

1846. Polyglypta tredecim-costata. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 

299, 11. 
1851. Polyglypta tredecim-costata. Walk. List Hom, 

B. M. 544, 11. 



396 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

1864. Polyglypta tredecim-costata. . Stal. Hem. Mex. 73, 

445. 
1877. Polyglypta trececUm-costata. Butler, Cist. Ent. 

ii, 208, 5, 
ira6.— Mex. (Stdl). 

11. P. REFLEX A, Butler. 

1877. Poli/(/Iypta reflexa. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 207, 1 
'pi. 3, fig. 2. . 
Hab. — Guatemala {Butler). 

12. P. FUSCA, Butler. 

1877. Polyghfpta fiisca. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 208, 6, 
pl." 3, fig. 3. 
Hab— Mex. (Butler). 

13. P. TRICOLOR, Butler. 

1879. Poly()lypta tricolor. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 209, 8, 
pi. 3, fig. 5. 
^a6.— Mex. (Buthr). 

VI. Entylia, Germ. 

14. E. siNDATA, Fabr. 

1798. Memhracis sinuafa, ?. Fabr. Ent. Syst. Suppl. 
513, 4-5. 
Memhracis enmryinata, $. Fabr. Ent. Syst. Suppl. 
513, 4-5. 
1803. Memhracis ^iiiuat<(, ?. Fabr. Syst. Rhyng. 7, 5. 
Memhracis emaryiiiafa, ,?. Fabr. Syst. Rhyng. 9. 
12. 
1833. Darn is siiniata. Germ, in Silb. Rev. i, 78, 25. 
1835. Ent ilia siniiata. Germ, in Silb. Rev. iii, 248, 2. 
Hemiptycha siiiuata. Burm. Handb. Ent. ii, 140, 
5. 
1843. EntiJia sinuata. Am. & Serv. Hem. 538, 1. 
1846. Entylia sinuata. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 300, 3, pi. 

b, fig. 29. 

1851. Entylia sinuata. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 546, 3. 

Entylia concisa. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 547, 6. 

Entylia clecisa. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 548, 7. 

Entylia accisa. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 548, 8. 



Described Membracidce of North America. 397 

1851. E)ifih'atorva,\Sir. Fitch, Cat. Horn. N. Y. 47, 647. 
Entiiia terra. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 1142, 3. 
Thelia sinnata. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 1144, 51. 
1854. Entiiia sinuata. Emmons, Agr. N. Y. v, 153, 
pi. 13, fig. 11. 
Entiiia emarginata. Emmons, 1. c. 153, pi. 18, 
fig. 13. ■ 
1862. Memhracis sinuata. Harris, Treatise, 229. 

Entiiia sinuata TJhler, in Harr. Treatise, 220. 
1869. Etdtjlia sinuata. Stal, Hem. Fabr. ii, 28, 1. 

Enti/lia sinuata. Rathvou, in Momberts Hist. 

Lancaster Co., Pa. 551. 
Memhracis simiatus. Rathvon, in Mombert's 

Hist. Lancaster Co. Pa. 551. 
Entylia sinuata. Sttll, Bid. Memb. Kan. 241, 1. 

1876. Entiiia carinata. Glover, Rep. U. S. Dept. Agr. 

29, fig. 14. 

1877. Entijlia sinuata. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 210, 1. 
Entylia accisa. Butler, 1. c. 211, 3. 
Entylia concisa. Butler, 1. c. 211, 4. 
Entylia reducta. Butler, 1. c. 211, 5. 

1878. Entiiia carinata. Glover, MS. Journ. Horn. pi. 

1, fig. 26. 
1887. Entiiia sinuata. Murtfeldt, Ent. Amer. iii, 177. 

1889. Entylia sinuata. Prov. Faune Can. iii, 232. 
Entylia carinata. Prov. Faune Can. iii, 232. 
Entylia concavd. Prov. Faune Can. iii, 233. 

1890. Entylia sinuata. Smith, Cat. Ins. N. J. 441. 
Hab.— N. Y. {Emmons); Mo., T^x., N. H., Va.,U. C, N. 

C, S. C, Penn., and Mich. {liiley); Iowa [Osborn); 
Md. (Glover); FJa. (Walker); 111. (Forbes). 

15. E. BACTRiANA, Germ. 

1835. Entylia hactriana. Germ, in Silb. Rev. iii, 248, 3. 
1846. Entylia hactriana. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 300, 4, 

pi. 5, fig. 32. 

1851. Entylia hactriana. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 547, 4. 

Entylia indecisa. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 549, 10. 

Entylia reducta. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 549, 11. 

1858. Entylia impedita. Walk. List Hom. B. M.Suppl. 

137. 



398 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

1869. EtifijJia hartrioiia. Still. Bid. Meml). KaD.241, 2. 

1877. Eiif!/li(( bacfriantf. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 211, 2. 

Ilab.—Wtst. States and N. 11. {liihy); Can. {Wnlker). 

!♦). E. iN^(iUALis, Butler. 

1877. Entijlia incequalis. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 211, G, 
pi. 3, fig. 7. 
^a6.— Guatemala {Butler). 

17. E. MiRA, Butler. 

1877. Eiiftflia mira. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 212, 7, pi. 3, 
fig. 8. 
Hah. — Guatemala {Butltr). 

18. E. AREOLATA, Walk. 

1858. Entylia areolata. Walk. Ins. Saund. 71. 
Hab.—U&yti (Walker). 

VII. PUBLILIA, StaL. 

19. P. coNCAVA, Say. 

1824. Memhracis concava. Say, Append. Long's Exp. 

ii, 301, 3. 
1835. EntyJia concava. Germ, in Silb. Rev. iii, 249, 4. 
1846. Entylia. concaca. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 301, 5. 
1851, Entylia concava. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 547,5. 
Entylia concava. Fitch, Cat. Horn. N. Y. 47, 

(348. 
Entylia concava. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 1142, 5. 

1859. Membracis concava. Say, Conipl. Writ, i, 200, 3. 
1866. Fublilia concava. Still, Analecta Hem. 388. 
1869. Ceresa concava. Rathvon, in Mombert's Hist. 

Lancaster Co., Pa. 551. 

1877. Fuhlilia concava. Uhler, List Hem. West Miss. 

R. 344, 1. 

1878. Entylia concava. Glover, MS. Joiiru. Horn. pi. 

1, fig. 1. 

1889. Fuhlilia concava. Prov. Faune Can. iii, 245. 

1890. FnhlUia concava. Smith, Cat. Ins. N. J. 441. 
Hab.—Uo. and Aik. {ISay)\ 111. (Goding); Utah {Uhler); 

N. Y., Ont, and Kan. {Van Buzee); la. {Oaborn); 
Quebec {Provancher). 



Described MemhrnvMcf of North America, 399 

20. P. NIGRIDORSUM, 11. Sp. 

This species closely resembles concavu in form and size, 
but differs as follows: Anterior part of thorax black; a broad 
black stripe, continuous with the black front, extending back- 
ward long the median carina, becoming broader toward apex; 
sides ferruginous; head black, punctured with ferruginous. 

Described from one specimen. Type in author's collection. 
Nah.—N. Y. (Vau Dnzee). ' 

21. P. BICINCTURA Godg. 

1892. Pi(hlilia hicinctura. Godg., Ent. News, iii, 200. 
//ft6.— Col. (Gillette). 

22. P. MODESTA, Uhler. 

1870. Fnblilia modeda. Uhler, List Hera. West Miss. 
R. 344, 2. 

Uhler, List Hem. Col. and N. 

Uhler, Rep. on Ins. Coll. in 

Wheeler's Rep. App. J, 1333. 

1878. Enti/lia inodesta. Glover, MS. Journ. Horn. pi. 

2, fig. 7. 

Hab.- Col., Utah, Dak., xVri?,., N. Mex., and Calif. 
(Uhler). 

VIII. Cyphonia, Lap. 

23. C. PROXiMA, Guer. 

1838. Contbophora proxiitta. Guer. Icon. Reg. Anim. 
1840. CijpJionia proxinw. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 502, 2. 
1851. Cyphonia proxiwa. Walk. List. Horn. B. M. 

59(), 2. 
1877. Ciiphonia proxivta. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 212, 2. 
JfoO.—'Mex. (Fairmiiirt). 

24. CvPHONrA FORMOSA, Butler. 

1877. Cyphonia for nwsa. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 214, pi. 

3, fig." 6. 
ITab.—Uvx. (Butler). 

25 Cyphonia hirta, Germ. 

1835. Heteronota hirta. Germ, in Silb. Rev. iii, 255, 2. 



1872. 


Ent Hid inodesta. 




Mex. 472. 


1877. 


Puhlilia modesta. 




1875, 457. 




Puhlilia modesta. 



400 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

1846. Ciiphonia hirta. Fairra. Rev. Memb. 503, 7, pi 

7, fig. 23. 

1851. Ctiphoiua hirta. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 597, 7. 
I860. Cyphonia hirta. Sttll, Hem. Rio Jan. ii, 33, 2. 
1877. Ciiphonia hirta. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 213,8. 
ZToi).— Mex. {Butler). 

IX. POPPEA, Stal. 

26. P. RECTispiNA, Fairm. 

1846. Ciiphonia redispina. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 502,6. 

1858. CypJionia redispina. Walk. List. Horn. B. M. 

Suppl. 156. 
1864. Cyphonia redispina. Sttll, Hem. Mex. 70, 424. 
1867. Poppea redispina. Stal, Bid. Hem. Sjst. 551. 
Hah. — Mex. (Fairmaire). 

X. Ceres A, Am. & Serv. 

27. C. DicEHOS, Say. 

1824. Memhraris diceros. Long"s Exped. App. 299,1. 
1885. Sinilia diceros. Germ, in Silb. Rev. iii, 287, 12. 
1843. Ceresa postfaciata. Am. & Serv. Hem. 540, 2, pi. 

10, fig.' 8. 
184(5. Ceresa diceros. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 285. 11, 
1851. Ceresa diceros. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 527, 11. 
Ceresa diceros. Fitch, Cat. Horn. N. Y. 50, 679. 
1854. Ceresa. diceros. Emmons, Agr. N. Y. v, 155, pi. 

8, fig. 16. 

1859. Membracis diceros. Say, Compl. Writ, i, 199, 1. 
1862. Membracis diceros. Harris, Treatise, 221. 

Ceresa diceros. Uhler, in Harr. Treatise, 221. 

1869. Ceresa diceros. Stal, Bid. Memb. Klin. 245, 1. 

Ceresa dicerea. Rath von in Mombert's Hist. 
Lancaster Co. Pa. 551. 

1872. Ceresa diceros. TJhler, List Hem. CoL and N. 

Mex. 472. 

187<). Ceresa diceros. Glover, Rep. U. S. Dept. Agr. 29, 
fig. 16. 

Ceresa diceros. Uhler, List Hem. West Miss. R. 
343, 1. 



Described Memhracidce of North America. 



401 



1877. 



1878. 

1888. 
1889. 

1890. 



Ceresa diceros. 

509, 45. 
Ceresa bubalus. 
Ceresa diceros. 

fig. 27, 28. 
Ceresa diceros. 
Ceresa diceros. 
Ceresa diceros. 
Ceresa diceros. 
Ceresa diceros. 



Uhler, List Hem. Dak. and Mont. 

Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 215, 1. 
Glover, MS. Jonrn. Horn. pi. 1, 



Comstock, Introd. Ent. 172. 

Prov. Faune Can. iii, 234. 

Van Duzee, Can. Eat., 21, (i 

Van Duzee, Psyche, v, 389. 

Smith, Cat. Ins. N. J., 441. 
7fa6.— Nova Scotia {Walker); Tex., Mo., Mont., and Pa. 
(Riley); Iowa (Oshorn); Can. and N.Y. {Van Duzee); 
N. Mex. and Dak. ( Uhler) ; 111. {Forbes) ; N. J. 
{Smith); Md. {Glover). 



28. C. BUBALUS, Fabr. 

1794. Membracis bubalus. Fabr. Ent. Syst. iv, 14, 23. 

1803. Centrotus bubalus. Fabr. Syst. Rhyng. 20, 18. 

1846. Ceresa borealis. Fairm. Rev. Meral). 284, 5. 

1851. Ceresa borealis. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 526, 5. 

Ceresa bubalus. Fitch, Cat. Horn. N. Y. 50, 080. 

Ceresa bubalus. Walk. Cat. Horn. B. M. 531, 18. 

Ceresa bubalus. Walk. Cat. Horn. B. M. 1140, 18. 

1854. Ceresa bubalus. Emojons, Agr. N. Y. v, 155, pi. 

3, fig. 17. 
1856. Ceresa bubalus. Fitch, 3d Rep. Ins. N. Y. in 
Trans. Agr. See. 335, 22; 359, 390, pi. 2, fig. 4, 
1858. Ceresa bubalus. Walk. List Hom. B. M. Suppl. 

131. 
1862. Membracis bubalus. Harris, Treatise, 221. 

Ceresa bubalus. Uhler, in Harr. Treatise, 221. 
1867. Ceresa bubalus. Fitch, 12th Rep. Ins. N. Y., in 

Trans. Agr. See. 889. 
1869. Ceresa bubalus. Rath von, in Mombert's Hist. 
Lancaster Co. Pa. 551. 
Ceresa bubalus. Stdl, Hem. Fabr. ii, 24,1. 
Ceresa bubalus. Still, Bid. Memb. Kiin. 245, 2. 
1872. Ceresa bubalus. Riley, 4th Rep. Ins. Mo. 119, 



402 Illinois State Laboratorij of Natural Histonj. 

1874. Ceresa huhalus. Uhler, List. Hera. Dtik. and 
Mont. 509, 44. 

1876. Ceresa huhalus. Glover, Hep. U. S. Dept. Agr. 

29, fig. 15. 

Ceresa huhalus. Uhler, List. Hem. West Miss. 
R. 843, 2. 

1877. Ceresa huhalus. Uhler, Rep. Hem. Coll. in 187r), 

456, 1. 

Ceresa huhalus. Uhler, Wheeler's Rep. App. .1. 

1382,1. 

Ceresa huhalus. Butler, Cist. Eut. ii, 215, 2. 

1878. Ceresa huhalus. Glover, MS. Journ. Hom. pi. 2, 

fig. 32, pi. 1, fig. 29. 

1882. Ceresa huhalus. Riley, Am. Nat. 16, 822. 
Ceresa huhalus. Lintner, 1st Rep. Ins. N. Y. 284. 

1883. Ceresa huhalus. Cooke, Ins. Inj. Farm, etc., 71, 

fig. 33, 34, and 35. 

Ceresa huhalus. Saunders, Ins. Inj. Fruits, 45. 

18 ; fig. 36. 

Ceresa huhalus. Popence, Rep. Kan. Hort. Soc. 

196. 

Ceresa huhalus. Jack, 16th Rep. Eut. Soc. Out., 

16. 

Ceresa huhalus. Jack, Can. Ent. xviii, 51. 

1887. Ceresa huhalus. Jack, 17th Rep. Ent. Soc. Ont. 

16-18. 

1888. Ceresa buhalUs. Lintner, 4th Rep. Ins. N. Y. 146. 

fig. 61, 62. 

Ceresa huhalus. Comstock, Introd. Ent. 171, 
fig. 141. 

1889. (Jeresa huhalus. Van Duzee, Can. Eut. xxi, 6. 
Ceresa huhalus. Prov. Faune Can. iii, 235. 

1890. Ceresa huhalus. Smith, Cat. Ins. N. J. 441. 
Ceresa huhalus. Weed, Bull. Ohio Agr. Exper. 

Station, ser. 2, iii, 130. 

Ceresa huhalus. Packard, Ins. Inj. Forest and 
Shade Trees, 535, 8. 

1891. Ceresa huhalus. Weed, Insects and Insecticides, 

36, fig. 12. 



Described Memhracidce of North America . 403 

/Tffib.— Can. (Jack); Va. and N. H. {Riley); 111. and 
Tenn. {Qoding) ; N. Mex., N, Y., N. C, Pa., Kan., 
Mo., Ind., Col., and Minn. {Riley); la. {Osborn); 
N. S. {Walk.); Md. {Olover); Mass. {Harris); 
N. J. (Smith); Dak. and Mont. (Uhler). 

29. C. BREVis, Walk. 

1851. Ceresa brevis. Walk. List. Horn. B. M. 528, 13. 
1869. Ceresa brevis. Stal, Bid. Memb. K^n. 245, 3. 
1877. Ceresa brevis. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 218, 21, 
ffah.—ii. Y. ( Walker). 

30. C. BREVicoRNis, Fitch. 

1856. Ceresa brevicornis. Fitch, 3d. Rep. Ins. N. Y., 

in Trans. Agr. Soc. 451, 177. 
1869. Ceresa brevicornis. Rathvon,in Mombert's Hist. 

Lancaster Co. Pa. 551. 

1889. Ceresa brevicornis. Prov, Faune Can. iii, 235, 

1890. Ceresa brevicornis. Van Duzee, Psyche, v. 388. 
Ceresa brevicornis. Smith, Cat. Ins. N. J. 441. 
Ceresa brevicornis. Packard, Ins. Inj. Forest and 

Shade Trees, 325, 115. 
Hah.—^. Y. (Fitch); la.? {Osborn); N. J. (Smith); Can. 
{Provancher); Pa. (Rathvon); 111. (Qodiny). 

31. C. TAURiNA, Fitch. 

1833. Membracis taurina. Harris, Cat. Ins. Mass. 

1851. Enchenopa taurina. Walk. List. Horn. B. M. 

495, 44. 
1856. Ceresa taurina. Fitch, 3d. Rep. Ins. N. Y., in 

Trans. Agr. Soc. 335, 23. 
1858. Ceresa taurina. Walk. List. Horn. B. M. Suppl. 

131. 
1862. Membracis taurina. Harris, Treatise, 221. 

Ceresa taurina. Uhler in Harr. Treatise, 221. 
1869. Ceresa taurina. Stdl, Bid. Memb. Kan. 245,4. 

Membracis taarinus. Rathvon, in Mombert's 
Hist. Lancaster Co. Pa., 550. 
1877. Ceresa taurina. Butler, Cist. Eat. ii, 215, 3. 
1890. Ceresa taurina. Van Duzee, Psyche, v, 388. 

Hah.—l^. Y. (Fitch); Va., Mass., la., Pa. and Mich. 
(Riley); Mass. (Harrin). 



404 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

32. C. ILLINOIENSIS, n. sp. 

Color brownish yellow : tef]fraina and winj^s transparent 
yellow, punctured. Head broad, nearly triangular, basal border 
a little convex ; orange yellow, lightly sculptured ; eyes me- 
dium, black ; ocelli yellowish red, a trifle nearer to each other 
than to the eyes. Prothorax above the head vertical, slightly 
convex at upper part in front, with two small tubercles on 
convexity ; on each side a rounded, long acute horn curving 
slightly upward and outward, the tip a trifle backward, these 
horns darker in color ; at base of horns, on each side, extend- 
ing on the anterior surface, a smooth, horizontal impression; 
superior base of horns depressed, leaving the prothorax at that 
part convex ; a percurrent median carina ; posterior process 
long, compressed, apex acuminate, very slender, exceeding apex 
of abdomen, sloping toward tip ; posterior half of carina con- 
colorous with lateral horns ; on each side a semicircular im- 
pression of a lighter color ; highest point at middle. Tegmina 
yellow, transparent, extending much beyond tip of abdomen. 
Below, concolorous with head, except ovipositor, which is red- 
dish brown ; legs and feet yellow. Length 7.5 mm. 

Described from one $ specimen. Type in collection of 
the author. Collected by C. W. Stromberg. 
iTafe.— Galesburg, 111. (Stromberg). 

33. C. coNSTANS, Walk. 

1851. TheJio constans. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 563, 27. 
1869. Ceresa constans. Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 245, 5. 
1877. Ceresa constans. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 215, 4. 
Hah.—\]. S. ( Walker). 

34. C. BASALis, Walk. 

1851. Ceresa basalts. Walk. List. Hom. B. M. 527, 12. 
1869. Ceresa basalis. Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 245, 6. 
1877. Ceresa basalis. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 215, 5. 
Hah.—:^.S.{Walkfr). 

35. C. ALBIDOSPARSA, Sttll. 

1859. Ceresa albidosparsa. Sta,l, Eug. Resa Omk, 

Jord. Hem. 283, 86. 
1869. Ceresa albidosparsa. Still, Bid. Memb. Kiin. 
245, 7. 



Described Membracidw of North A merica, 405 

1877. Ceresa albidosjjarsa. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 215, 6. 
Hab.— Calif., ISan Francisco {Stdl). 

36. C. viTULUs, Fabr. 

1775. Memhracis vitulus. Fabr. Syst. Ent. 677, 10. 
1781. Membracis vitulus. Fabr. Spec. Ins. ii, 317,11. 
1787. Memhracis vitulus. Fabr. Mant. Ins. ii, 265, 21. 
1794. Memhracis vitulus. Fabr. Eut. Syst. iv, 14, 25. 
1803. Centrotus vitulus. Fabr. Syst. Rhyng. 20, 21. 
1820. Centrotus pallens. Germ. Mag. Ent. iii, 25, 26. 
1835. Smilia vitulus. Burni. Handb. Ent. ii, 137, 2. 

Smilia pallens. Germ, in Silb. Rev. jii, 235, 6. 
1840. Memhracis vitulus. Blanchard, Hist. Nat. Ins. 

iii, 180, 11. 
1843. Ceresa vitulus. Am. & Serv. Hem. 540, 1. 
1846. Ceresa vitulus. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 283, 1. 

Ceresa spinifera. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 284, 6. 
1851. Ceresa vitulus. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 525, 1. 

Ceresa spinifera. Walk. List. Hom. B. M. 526, 6. 
1858. Ceresa curvilinea. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 
Suppl. 132. 

Ceresa excisa. Walk. Ins. Saund. Hom. 68. 
1869. Ceresa vitulus. Stal, Hem. Fabr. ii, 24, 2. 

Ceresa vitulus. Stdl, Bid. Memb. Kan. 246 11. 
1877. Ceresa vitulus. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 219, 27. 
Hah.—V. S. (Stdl). 

37. C. TESTACEA, Fairm. 

1846. Ceresa testacea. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 284, 4. 
1851. Ceresa testacea. Walk.' List. Hom. B. M. 526, 4. 
1864. Ceresa testacea. Stal, Hem. Mex. 69, 419. 
1869. Ceresa testacea. Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 246, 14. 
1877. Ceresa testacea. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 217, 18. 
Hab. — Mex. {Fairmaire). 

38. C. PATRUELIS, Stal. 

1864. Ceresa patruelis. Stal, Hem. Mex. 69, 420. 
1869. Ceresa patruelis. Stal, Bid. Memb. Kiin. 246, 15. 
1877. Ceresa patruelis. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 217, 19. 
Hab.— Vera, Cruz, Mex. {Stdl). 



AOV) Illinois State Lahoniforij of Natural History. 

39. C. FEMORATA, Fairm. 

I84f). Ceresa femorata. Fairm. Rev. Memh. 289, 24. 

Ceresa uniformis. Fairm. Rev. Memi). 289, 25. 

1851. Ceresa femorata. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 532, 31, 

Ceresa uniformis. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 533.. 
32. 

1858. Ceresa uniformis. Walk. List Hom. H. M. 

Suppl.^ 131. 

1864. Ceresa uniformis. Still, Hem. Mex. 70, 423. 

18G9. Ceresa uniformis. Stul, Bid. Mem b. Kiln. 24(3, 16. 

1877. Ceresa uniformis. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 220, 32. 
ZTaft.— Mex, [Fairmaire] ; West. States and Miss. 
{Riley). 

40. c. sALLEi, stai. 

1864. Ceresa sallei. Stal, Hem. Mex. 70, 421. 
1877. Ceresa sallei. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 217, 16. 
Zra6.— Mex. {Stctl). 

41. C. PUNCTICEPS, Stal. 

1864. Ceresa puncticeps. Stdl, Hem. Mex. 70, 422. 
Hah.—MQx. {Stcil). 

42. C. iNSiGNis, Walk. 

1858. Ceresa insignis. Walk. Ins. Saund. Hom. 67. 
Hah.—YQra. Cruz, Mex. ( Walker). 

43. C. STALii, Butler. 

1877. Ceresa stcilii. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 217, 17, pi. 3 
fig. 11. 
Hah.—M.Qx. [Butler). 

44. C. TURBIDA, n. sp. 

Resembles in form faurina, but more depressed; similar to 
brevis in markings, but much smaller. Sordid yellow, punc- 
tured, marked with piceous. 

6. — Head dark yellow, with a large spot near inner edge of 
each eye, posterior margin and apex black, the surface sculp- 
tured and hairy. Basal portion of prothorax black, with . a 
linear, irregular transverse impression, just above which it is 
slightly produced; black gradually fades upward and becomes 
mottled over the superior triangle; lateral horns short, with 



Described Membra c tela' of North America. 407 

tips black ; a narrow yellow band extends from eyes along lat- 
eral mai'gins, superiorly, to lateral horns : triangular space of 
external surface of lateral horns shiuing black ; a ferrugin6us 
(or dusky) line passing from tips of lateral horns posteriorly 
along carina to tip of posterior process, which is black ; s. semi- 
circular impression on each side ; surface hairy, behind lateral 
horns very slightly convex. Tegmina very broad, vitreous yel- 
low, veins darker, base coriaceous, with a piceous oval spot, a 
dusky cloud along posterior margin. Below, pectus and femora 
black, tibffi and tarsi dark yellow, tibiae covered with spines. 
Abdomen black. Length 7 mm.; altitude 3 mm. 

Described from two examples from Prof. Riley, one from 
Prof. Gillette, and one from Prof. Wsstcott. Type in author's 
collection. 

Hah.—lW. ( Westcott) ; Col. {Gillette). 

lu some examples the two anterior black spots coalesce, 
the entire front of the head is irrorate or black, and the carina 
is posteriorly more or less piceous. 

$ — Form and color similar to $ but larger. Head entirely 
yellow except apex, which is black; the black markings in 
front faded to two light ferruginous mottled spots ; external 
surface of lateral horns same as in 6, the ferruginous lines 
mottled with the ground color, tip not black ; prothorax very 
hairy. Tegmina much darker vitreous yellow, piceous spot at 
base much larger and punctured. Below, same as $. Abdomen 
with yellow transverse stripe in front of tip ; ovipositor fer- 
ruginous yellow. Length 8.5 mm.; altitude 4 mm. 

Described from one example from Prof. Westcott. Type 
in author's collection. 

Hab.— Ill (Westcott). 

In this species the median carina is percurrent, nearly obso- 
lete anteriorly ; the tips of lateral horns lightly recurved. It 
is more depressed anteriorly than any species known to me. 
The line formed by the union of the vertical with the superior 
triangular surfaces is lightly convex in the $. In the $ it is 
convex in the middle and concave on each side. Near the base 
of the prothorax, on each side, is a transverse smooth impres- 
sion. 



408 Illinois State Lahoratori/ of Natural Histonj. 

XI. Stictocephala, Stal. 

41. S. iNEKMis, Fabr, 

1794. Membracis inermis. Fabr, Ent. Syst. iv, 15, 30. 
1830. Membracis goniphora. Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. 

Sci. Phiia. vi, 243, 4. 
1851. Centrotus inermis? Walk. List. Horn. B. M. 1142, 

13. 
Ceresa goniphora. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 1141 

37.' 
Smilia inermis. Fitch, Cat. Horn. N. Y. 48, 656. 
1856. Smilia inermis. Fitch, 3d Rep. lus. N. Y., in 

Trans. Agr. Soc, 360, 64; 471. 
1859. Membracis gonipliora. Say, Compl. Writ, ii, 377, 

4. 
1869. Stictocephala inermis. Stal, Bid Merab. Kan. 

246, 1. 
Smilia inermis. Rath von, in Mombert's Hist. 

Lancaster Co. Pa. 551. 
1878. Stictocephala inermis. Glover, MS. Journ. Horn. 

pi. 2, fig. 34. 
Stictocephala inermis. Uhler, List Hem. Dak. 

and Mont. 509, 46. 
1882. Stictocephala inermis. Lintner, 1st Rep. Ins. 

N. Y. 284. 

1889. Stictocephala inermis. Prov. Fauue Can. iii, 237. 

1890. Stictocephala inermis. Smith, Cat. Ins. N. J. 441. 
Stictocephala inermis. Van Duzee, Psyche, v. 

889. 
/ra&.— Iowa {Oshorn), Missouri (Say), IST. Y. (Fitch), 
111. (Forbes), N. J. (Sinith), Dak. (Uhler), Pa. (Rath- 
von), Can. (Provancher), New Mex. (Townsend). 

42. S. SANGUINO-APICALIS, n. Sp. 

Stature of inermis^ grass-green when alive, dried specimen 
a beautiful orange, posterior half of posterior prothoracic pro- 
cess sanguineous, femora black. Head immaculate, bright 
orange, convex, the middle from base to apex most prominent; 
eyes dark brown; ocelli reddish yellow, nearer to each other 
than the eyes, ou a line with middle of eyes. Prothorax orange - 



Described Membracidoe of North America. 409 

yellow with a black splash just before the highest point, reach- 
ing on both sides; densely punctured; front of prothorax 
high, very convex, produced beyond head; median carina per- 
current, lateral carinee united in front ol! middle at highest 
point ; a semi-circular impressed line on each side; a smooth 
scar above each eye ; a transverse brown line about midway 
from base to apex, passing from lateral border on each side, and 
meeting at middle; another brown line a short distance back of 
this and parallel to it; all of the prothorax behind the first brown 
line sanguineous, mottled somewhat with orange yellow. Teg- 
mina very broad, orange-yellow, veins a trifle darker. Below, 
venter and tibiae yellow, pectus and femora black, ovipositor 
fuscous, tarsi orange-yellow. Length 7 mm. 

Described from one ? specimen. Type in author's collection. 
Hab. — Champaign, Illinois. 

This specimen was taken by Mr. John Marten in an oat 

stubble field on the University farm, July 15, 1891, and kindly 

presented to me at the time. 

43. S. FESTiNA, Say. 

1830. Membracis festina. Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. 

Phila. vi, 243, 5. 
1851. Ceresa? /estiva. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 1141, 

38. 
1859. Membracis festina. Say, Corapl. Writ, ii, 377, 4. 
1869. St ictocephala festina. Stsll, Bid. Memb. Kan. 

246, 2. 

1889. Stictocephala festina. Prov. Faune Can. iii, 237. 

1890. Stictocephala festina. Smith, Cat. Ins. N. J. 441. 
Stictocephala fest ina. Van Duzee, Psyche, v, 389. 

Hab.— y-d., Pa., Ga., Fla., Mo., Tex., Iowa, Mont., and 
Col. (Riley) ; N. Y. and Conn. (Van Duzee) ; Can. 
(Provanc/ier) ; N. J. (Smitli). 

44. S. GILLETTEI, Godg. 

1892. Stictocephala gillettel. Godg. Ent. News, iii, 
108. 
Hab.—Qo\. (Qillette). 

45. S. ROTUNDATA, Stsll. 

1857. Ceresa uniformis. Guer. in La Sagra s Hist. Cuba, 
Ins. 434, pi. 13, fig. 20. 



410 Tllinnls State Lnhoratory of Natural Historrj. 

1869. Stictocrphala rotundata. 9. Still, Bid. Memb. 
Kiin. 246, 3. 
Hah.—CuhSL {Stdl). 

46. S. LUTEA, Walk. 

1851. Thelia Intea. Walk. List. Horn. B. M. 559, 13. 

Thelia inermis. Walk. List. Horn. B. M. 1142, 13. 

1854. Gargara pectoralix. Emmons, N. Y. v, 157, pi. 

13, fig. 12. 
1869. Sfictocephala lutea. Stal, Hem. Fabr. ii, 24. 
1869. Stictocephala lutea. Sttil, Bid. Memb. Kiin. 247, 4. 
Hab.—N. Y.and N. C. (Walker); 111. (Ooding). 

47. S. FEANCISCANA, Sttll. 

1859. Ceresa franciscana. Stdl, Eug. ResaOmk. Jord. 

Hem. 284, 189. 
1869. Stidoccpliala franciscana . Sttll, Hem. Fabr. 24. 
Stictocephcda franciscana. St^l, Bid. Memb. Kan. 
247, 5. 
^a6.— San Francisco, Calif. [Stcil), Steamboat Springs, 
Col.(Gillette). 

48. (?) S. SUBLATA, Say. [Stictocephala?, Van Duzeein litt.] 

1831. Membracis snhulata. Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. 

Sci. Phila. vi, 300, 8. 
1851. Thel'ia snhulata. Walk. List. Horn. B. M. 1143, 

43. 
1859. Membracis subulata. Say, Com pi. Writ, ii, 378, 8. 
1890. Membracis subulata. Van Duzee, Psyche, 5,387. 
ifa&.— Maryland (Say). 
[A lost species.] 

XII. PHAOUSA, Stal. 
Subgenus Phacusa, Stal. 

49. P. PALLESCENS, Stlil. 

1869. Phacusa pallescens. StAl, Bid. Memb. Kan. 247, 1 . 
Hab.—Mex. (Stal). 

50. P. FLAVOMARGINATA, Still. 

1864. Phacusa Jlavomarginata. Still, Hera. Mex. 72, 
436. 
ZTab.— Mex. {Stal.) 



Described Membracida' of America. 411 

Subgenus Euritea, Stal. 

51. P. NIGRIPES, stal. 

1869. Phacnsa nigripes. St^l, Bid. Memb. Kan. 24.8, 8. 
Hab.—Mex. (Slal). 

XIII. Thelia, Am. & Serv. 

02. T. BIMACULATA, Fal)r. 

1794. Memhracis bimaculabi. Fabr, Ent. Syst, iv, 10, 

11. 
1799. Membracis binmculatn. Fabr. in Coq. lllus. Ic. 

i, 2, 31, pi. 8, fig. 1. 
1803. Membracis bimabulata. Fabr. Syst. Rliyng, 14, 

37. 
1843. Thelia biniaculafa. Am. & Serv. Heoi. 541, 1. 
1846. Thelia biwaculafa. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 312, 21. 
1851. Thelia hiiuaculata. Walk. List. Hom. B. M. 566, 

36. 
Thelia biniaculafa. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 1142, 

30. 
Thelia bimaculata. Fitch. Cat. Horn. N. Y. 52, 

694. 
1854. Thelia bimaculata. Emmons, Agr. N. Y. v, 156 

pi. 3, tig. 15. 

1862. Membracis bimaculata. Harris, Treatise. 221, 222. 

Thelia bimaculata. Uhler in Harr. Treatise, 221. 

1869. Thelia bimaculata. Still. Hem. Fabr. ii, 115, 37. 

Thelia bimaculata. Rathvon, in Mombert's Hist. 

Lancaster Co., Pa., 551. 
1876. Thelia biiuaculata. Glover, Rep. U. S. Dept. 

Agr. 29, 17, 
1878. Thelia bimaculata. Glover, MS. Journ. Hom. 

pi. I, 24. 

1889. Thelia bimaculata. Prov. Faune Can. iii, 242. 

pi. 5, fig. 9. 

1890. Thelia bimaculata. Smith, Cat. Ins. N. J. 441. 
Thelia biuiaeulata. Van Duzee, Pysche, v. 391. 

Hab.— N. C. (Walker) Mags. {Harris), N. Y. (Fitch), 
N. J. {Smith), III. (Godintj), Can. {Provancher), 
Pa. {Rathxon). 



412 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

53. T, UHLERi, Stal. 

1869. Thel-ia ulileri. Still, Bid. Memb. Kan. 248, 1. 
1890. Thelia uJtleri. Van Duzee, Psyche, v, 291. 

Hab.—^Yl3. {Stiil), Pa. {Riley), Ont. {Van Duzee), Mich. 
(Bavis), 111. {Goding). 

54. T, TURRicuLATA, Emmons. 

1854. Telainona turricidata. Emmons, Agr. N. Y. v, 

155, pi. 8, fig. 1. 
1878. Thelia blmaculata. Glover, MS. Journ. Horn. pi. 

2, fig. 28. 
1890. Thelia turricidata. Van Duzee, Psyche, v, 891. 
Hab.—N. Y. [Emmons), N. J. and 111. {Goding), Ohio 
{KeUicott). 

55. T. cR.\T.^Gi, Fitch. 

1851. Thelia crata'gi. Fitch, Cat. Horn. N. Y. 52, 697. 

Thelia cratcBcji. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 1144, 50. 

1854. Thelia cratwgi. Emmons, Agr. N. Y. v, 155, pi. 

8, fig. 2.' 
185(i. Thelia cratanfi. Fitch, 8d Rep. Ins. N. Y., in 

Trans. Agr. Soc. 334, :il, pi. 2, fig. 5. 
1869. Thelia crafa;gi. Rath von, in Mombert's Hist. 

Lancaster Co. Pa. 551. 

1882. Thelia cratwyi. Lintner, 1st Rep. Ins. N. Y. 284. 

1883. Thelia cratcegi. Saunders, Ins. Inj. Fruits, 46, 19, 

fig. 87. ' ^ 

1890. Thelia aciiniinata. Smith, Cat. Ins. N. J. 441. 
Thelia cratcegi. Van Duzee, Psyche, v, 391. 
Hab.—N. Y. {Fitch), N. J. {Smith). 111. {Forbes), Mo. 
{Riley). 

56. T. uNiviTTATA, Harris. 

1841. Membracis univittata. Harris, Rep. Ins. Mass. 

ISO. 
1851. Enchenopa univittata. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 
494. 
Thelia univittata. Fitch, Cat. Hom. N. Y. 52, 

695. 
Thelia univittata. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 1143, 
49. 



Described Membracidce of North America. 413 

1856. Thelia imivittata. Fitch, 3d Rep. Ins. N. Y., in 

Trans. Agr. Soc, 390, 102. 
1858. Thelia tinivittata. Fitch, 5th Rep. Ins. N. Y., 

in Trans. Agr. Soc. 804. 
1862. Membracis imivittata. Harris, Treatise, 221. 

Thelia imivittata. Uhler, in Harr. Treatise, 221. 
1869. Thelia imivittata. Rath von, in Morabert's Hist. 

Lancaster Co. Pa. 551. 
1878. Thelia imivittata. Uhler, List Hem. Dak. and 

Mont. 510, 47. 

1882. Thelia imivittata. Lintner, 1st Rep. Ins. N. Y. 

284. 

1883. Thelia univittata. Saunders, Ins. Inj. Fruits 

289, 159. 

1889. Thelia univittata. Prov. Faune Can. iii, 241. 

1890. Thelia univittata. Smith, Cat. Ins. N. Y. 441. 
Thelia imivittata. Van Duzee, Psyche, v, 391. 
Thelia univittata. Packard, Ins. Inj. Forest and 

Shade Trees, 98, 44. 
i/ab.— Mass. {Harris). N. Y. [Fitch), 111. {Forbes). Dak 
{Uhler). N. J. [SmitJi), Can. {Provancher), Pa 
{Rathvon), Routt Co.. Col. (Gillette). 

57. T. ACUMINATA, Linn. 

1788. Cicada acuminata. Gmel. Ed. Syst. Nat. 2094, 

67. 
1792. Membracis acuminata. Oliv. Enc. Meth.665, 21. 
1794. Membracis acuminata. Fabr. Eut. Syst. iv. 11, 

13. 
1803. Centrotus acuminata. Fabr. Syst. Rhyng, 18, 9. 
1846. Thelia acuminata. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 310, 16. 

pi. 5, fig. 15. 
1851. Thelia acuminata. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 564, 

30. 
Thelia acuminata. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 1142, 

30. 
1862. Hemiptijcha acuminata. Harris, Treatise, 221. 

Thelia acuminata. Uhler, in Harr. Treatise, 221. 
1869. Telamona acuminata. Stal, Hem. Fabr. ii, 115, 9. 
1876. Thelia acuminata. Glover, Rep. U. S. Dept. Agr. 

30, fig. 17. 



414 Il/inois State Ldboif/tonj of Natural Histori/. 

1877. Glossonotiis (n. g. ) acuminata. Butler, Cist. Ent. 

ii, 222. 
1S78. Thelia himaculata. Glover, MS. Jour. Honi.pl. 

I, fig. 20. 

1890. Thelia cratcegi. Smith, Cat. Ins. N. J. 44 f. 

Thelia acuminata. Van Duzee, Psyche, v, 89J. 
Hab.—Pd. and Ark. (Riley), la, {(Jshorn), N. J. {Smith), 
Mass. (Harris), Mich. {Baker), N. Y. (TAntner). 

58. ( ?) T. OBLIQUA, Walk. 

1858. Thelia obliqua. Walk. Ins. Saund.- 73. 
1877. Hypliiiup camehts. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 345, 1. 
^a6.— Mex. ( Walker). 

59. (?) T. viKiDissiMA, Walk. 

1858. Thelia viridiasima. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 
Suppl. 138. 
Hab.—Mex. { Walker). 

60. (?) T. REVERSA, Walk. 

1858. Thelia reversa. Walk. Ins. Saund. 72. 
ifaft.— Mex. ( Walker). 

(ll. (?) T. ANGULATA, Walk. 

1851. Thelia augulala. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 558, 10. 
1877. Euinela ancfulata. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 354. 
Hab.—N. C. (Walker). 

62. (?) T. RUFIVITTATA, Walk. 

1851. Thelia rufivittata. Walk. List Hoin. B. M. 559, 
12. 
//a6.— Fla. (Walker). 

63. (?) T. T ACTA, Walk. 

1851. Thelia tacta. Walk. List Honi. B. M. 560, 15. 
1877. Eumela tacta. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 354. 
Ilab.—Sleyi. (Walker). 

64. (?) T. SUBSTRIATA, Walk. 

1851. Thelia suhstriata. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 558, 

II. [Stictocephala?] 
Hab.—Fla.. (Walker). 

XIV. Telamona, Fitch. 

65. T. RECLIVATA, Fitch. 

1851. Telamona reclivata ?. Fitch, Cat. Horn. N. Y. 
51, 693. 



Described Menihracida' of Noiili America, 415 

1851. Telamona reclivata. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 

1145, 2. 
1854. Telamona reclivata. Emmons, Agr, N. Y. v, 155, 

pi. 3, fig. 7. 

1880. Telamona reclivata. Van Duzee, Can. Ent. xxi, 6. 

Telamona reclivata. Prov. Faune Can. iii, 244. 

1890. Telamona reclivata. Van Duzee, Psyche, v, 391. 

Telamona reclivata. Smith, Cat. Ins. N. J. 442. 

Hah. — ^.Y. {Fitch), l\\. [Forbes), N. J. (/Sfmii/i). Can. 

[Van Duzee), Calif. (Riley), Cal. (Baker). 

66. T. ■u'ESTcoTTi, n. sp. 

?. Similar in stature to reclivata.^ Fitch, but narrower and 
more depressed; dorsal crest hut little elevated. Head dark yel- 
low, with two large, shining black spots on posterior margin; 
face obsoletely irrorate with black; a black dot at inner edge of 
each eye; a smaller black dot on each side of apex, and apex 
black. Prothorax much depressed, sordid yellow, mottled and 
clouded with fuscous ; median carina very prominent anteri- 
orly, percurrent, a black impunctured dot above each eye; 
anterior border yellow, the band extending along inferior lat- 
eral borders to apex, interrupted by two diagonal fuscous 
bands, the posterior short, the anterior extending from pos- 
terior angle of crest; and a quadrangular spot of same color 
before the middle of lateral borders ; crest largely fuscous ; 
anterior fuscous band united to a transverse band at lateral 
borders; a yellow spot on anterior edge of crest, w^ich is at 
this point greatly compressed; just behind middle of crest 
another strongly compressed yellow point; crest very low, 
compressed, a little convex; posteriorly, several lateral 
longitudinal carinae. Tegmina with basal half coriaceous, 
punctured, fuscous, spotted with yellow, a large brown spot at 
apex. Pectus yellow, hairy, with some black lines. Abdomen 
black, edge of segments yellow. Legs yellow, femora heavily 
marked with fuscous, posterior pair almost wholly so; tibiae 
lightly marked with fuscous; tips of tarsi fuscous. Length 
10 mm., altitude 4 mm. 

//ff7>.— Illinois. Collected by Mr. O. S. Westcott. 

$>. Differs from ? in having the black spots on head obso- 
lete; several black points above each eye; anterior yellow mar- 



416 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

gin of prothorax much narrower, and fuscous mar kings extend- 
ing to lateral borders; the apex, a transverse band just behind 
dorsal crest, which is dilated superiorly, enclosing a round fus- 
cous spot, and a short l)and just in front, yellow, punctured 
with fuscous; posterior femora marked like the others; tibiae 
in both sexes with short stiff hairs. Length 10 mm., alti- 
tude 4 mm. 

Described from 1 $ specimen and 1 ?. Types in collec- 
tion of author, and in that of 0. S. Westcott. 
//a6.— Wisconsin. 

67. T. MONTicoLA, Fabr. 

1803. Menibracis monticola. Fabr. Syst. Rhyng. 7, 4. 
1846. TJielia ci/rtops. Fairm. Rev, Memb. 310, 17, pi. 

5, fig. 13. 

1851. Thelia cijrtops. Walk. List Flora. B. M. 565, 31. 

TeJamona qucrci. Fitch, Cat. Hom. N. Y. 51, 691. 

TelanwDa quercus. Walk. ListH(m. B. M. 1145. 

1854. Telamona qiierci. Emmons, Agr. N. Y. v, 155, 

pi. 3, fig. 4. 
1869. Telamona monticola. Stal, Hem. Fabr. ii, p. 

115, 4. 

1876. Telamona querci. Uhler, List Hem. West Miss. 

R. 344. 

1877. Telamona monticola. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 221, 5. 
Telamona quercus. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 222, lO. 
Telamona cyrtops. Butler, Cist. Eut. ii, 222, 11. 

1878. Telamona monticola. Glover, MS. Journ. Hom. 

pi. 1, fig. 18. 
1884. Telamona monticola. Uhler, Stand. Nat. Hist. 

225, fig. 302. 
1890. Telamona monticola. Van Duzee, Psyche, v, 391. 
Thelia quercus. Smith, Cat. Ins. N. J. 441. 
Telamona querci. Smith, Cat. Ins. N. J. 442. 
Hab.—l^: (Osborn); N. Y. (Fitch); Mo.. Micti., and N. C- 
{Riley) : N. J. iSmith) ; Nova Scotia {Walker); 111. 
{Forbes); Col. {Goding). 

68. T. AMPELOPSiDis, Harris. 

1833. Telamona cissi. Harris, List Ins. Mass. 584. 
1841. Memhracis ampelopsidis. Harris, Rep. Ins. Mass. 

180. 



Described Memhrackke of North America. 417 

1841. Tehimona anipelopsidis. Fitch, Cat. Horn. N. Y. 
51, 688. 
Telamona ampelopsidis. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 
1145, 5. 

1854. Telamona ampelopsidis. Emmons, Agr. N.Y. v, 
154, pi. 3, fig. 9. 

1862. Memhracis ampelopsidis. Harr. Treatise, 220. 

Telamona ampjelopsidis. Uhler, in Harr. Treat- 
ise, 220. 

1869. Memhracis ampelopsidis. Harris, Ent. Corresp. 
334. 

1876. Telamona ampelopsidis. Glover, Rep. U. S. Dept. 

Agr. 29, fig. 12. 

1877. Telamona ampelopsidis. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 

221, 7. 

1878. Telamona ampelopsidis. Glover, MS. Jour. Horn. 

pi. 2, fig. 25. 
1890. Telamona ampelopsidis. Van Duzee, Psyche, v, 
391. 
Telamona amp)elopsidis. Smith, Cat. Ins. N. J. 
442. 
^a6. — Mass. {Harris), N. Y. [Fitch), N. J. (Smith), 
Md. (Glover), N. C. (.Rilerj), 111. (Gocling). 

69. T. KiLEYi, Godg. 

1892. Telamona rileiji. Godg. Ent. News, iii, 108. 
ZTaft. — Mario Co., Calif. {Riley). 

70. T. SPEETA, sp. nov. 

Form and general appearance of monticola, Fabr., green- 
ish yellow, with dusky fascite. Head yellow with a slight medi- 
an carina, plainest toward base; spindle-shaped, ocelli nearer 
each other than to the eyes. Prothorax convex, lateral angles 
prominent; over each eye one or more black impressed dots, in 
some cases three in form of a triangle; furnished with a percur- 
rent median carina; behind lateral angles on the back is an 
upright nearly quadrangular crest, the front and back edges 
and upper edge straight, the latter shining black, posterior 
angle rectangular, anterior slightly rounding; behind middle 
of base of crest deeply compressed; sides of crest clouded with 
a ferruginous or dusky fascia which passes along posterior part 



418 Illinois State Lnboratonj of Naftiral Illslon/. 

downward to middle of inferior margins; apex same color; on 
each side of posterior process one or more lateral carina?, coarse- 
ly punctured. Tegmina with coriuin punctured throughout, 
clavus transparent, apex and base dark brown. Below yellow, 
tibiae spotted with dark brown, base and tips of tarsi brown, tibia? 
tric|uetrous and spined. Abdomen yellow below; above piceous, 
articulations yellow. Length 11 mm., breadth <) mm., altitude 
6 mm. 

Described from ten examples. Types in author's collection. 
Hab.—Ul (Stromierg), Mch. (BaJai), N.Y. [Qodiny), 
Canada V {Harrington). 

This species has long been labeled in collections qiicrct a'^d 
iHOiificoht and has been so referred to in print, but it is distinct. 

In the male the abdomen is black, a stripe on each side 
of middle and the tip yellow. 

71. T. IRRORATA, n. Sp. 

Head triangular, apex curved bolow; face dusky yellow, 
sculptured and regularly punctured, irrorate, apex j)ubescent 
and darker; eyes prominent, greenish brown; the articulation 
between head and prothorax undulate, the undulations continu- 
ing to humeral angles, which are prominent; ocelli black, close 
to this articulation, nearer each other than to the eyes. Dorsal 
protuberance highest in middle, sloping anteriorly, posterior 
superior angle very acute, hollowed out below, wide at base, 
compressed superiorly, slightly sinuous posteriorly; just behind 
middle, at base, on each side, a deep impression, also an impres- 
sion at base in front; a very prominent median percurrent 
carina, on each side two slight carina?; evenly and closely 
punctured; color dirty yellow marbled with dark brown, irro- 
rate. Tegmina transparent, a dark patch at base and apex, 
punctured, base irrorate, apex slightly surpassed by apex of pos- 
terior prothoracic process. Below yellow, genitals piceous, a 
few scattering hlack points; legs yellow, femora with dark 
stripes; tibia? annulate with piceous; tarsi piceous, posterior 
tarsi lightest. Length of female 11mm, breadth 5 mm., 
altitude 6 mm.; length of male 9.5 mm. 

Described from three specimens. Types in author's col- 
lection and that of C. W. Stromberg. 

//a6.— 111. {Stromberg), N. Y. {Fitch). 



Described Memhracidce of North America. 419 

The name given to this insect is sufficient to call atten- 
tiuii to its most distinctive character. 

72. T. coNC.WA, Fitch. 

1851. Telamoua concara. Fitch, Cat. Horn. N. Y. 50, 
686. 
Telamona concava. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 
1146, 7. 
1854. Telamoua onifda. Emmons, Agr. N. Y. v, 155, 

pi. 3, fig. 8. 

1877. Telamoua eoncava. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 221, 8. 

1890. Telamoua coucava. Van Duzee, Psyche, v, 391. 

Telamona concava. Smith, Cat. Ins. N. J. 442. 

Hab.—y. Y. (FitcJi). N. II. (Bilei/), N.J. (Smith). Mich. 

[Cook). 

73. T. coRYLi, Fitch. 

1851. Telamoua cori/h\ i. Fitch, Cat. Hom. N. Y. 51, 
690. 
Telamona fristis, ?. Fitch, Cat. Hom. N. Y. 51, 

689. 
Telamoua coryli. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 1145,3. 
Telamona trisfis. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 1145,4. 
1854. Telamona eori/li. Emmons, Agr. N. Y. v, 155, 

pL3, fig.6. 
1856. Telamona corijli. Fitch, 3d Rep. Ins. N. Y. in 
Trans. Agr. Soc. 473, 202. 
Telamoua tr/stis. Fitch, 3d Rep. Ins. N. Y. in 
Trans. Agr. Soc. 474, 203. 
1869. Telamoua corijli. Rath von, in Mombert's Hist. 
Lancaster Co. Pa. 551. 
Telamona tristis. Rath von, in Mombert's Hist. 
Lancaster Co. Pa. 551. 
1877. Telamona coryli. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 221, 6. 
Telamona fristi-. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii 221, 9. 

1889. Telamoua corijli. Van Duzee, Can. Ent. xxi, 6. 
Telatuoua fristi.s. Van Duzee, Can. Ent. xxi, 6. 
Telamona tristis. Prov. Faune Can. iii, 243. 

1890. Telamona corijli. Van Duzee, Psyche, v, 391. 
Telamoua conili. Smith, Cat. Ins. N. J. il2. 



420 Illinois State Lahoraforij of Natural History. 

1890. Tclawoiia fristls. Smith, Cat. Ins. N. J. 442. 

Hab.—'N. Y. (Fitch), Can. {Van Dnzie), N. J. (Smith) 
Pa. (Hat f I (1071), 111. (Sfroinb(rfj), Mich. (Cook). 

74. T. MODESTA, n. sp. 

Head triangular, hairy, ocelli nearer to each other than 
to the eyes. Prothorax broad, convex in front, gradually ele- 
vated back of lateral angles in a very high, much compressed, 
crest, the upper and anterior edges continuously curved to base 
of prothorax ; posterior superior angle rectangular, posterior 
edge straight, inclined forward somewhat ; posterior process 
long, depressed, acuminate, gradually attenuated to apex ; sor- 
did greenish yellow covered with black punctuies, hairy, two 
black impressed dots over each eye, one above the other ; base of 
posterior process and posterior edge of crest more or less free 
from black punctures. Tegmina with !}asal half of coriuni 
punctured, subtransparent. Legs triquetrous, tibise punctured 
with black, covered with spines. Abdomen and chest greenish 
yellow. 

Described from two males, collected by C. W. Stromberg. 
Types in author's collection. Length 8 mm., breadth 4 mm., 
altitude 5 mm. 

Hab — Galesburg, 111. (Htromherg). 

This is near rilfitji, but differently colored. 

75. T. COQUILLETTI, n. Sp. 

Yellow, marbled with ferruginous.. Head punctured, yel- 
low, ferruginous spot on inner border of eyes; front convex, 
with two slight lobes at middle of upper part; ocelli in fossae, 
on each side of these lobes; eyes prominent. Prothorax yel- 
low, with scattered irregular marblings of ferruginous; a light 
band at front of dorsal lobe, another between posterior base 
and apex of posterior process, also one passing down on each 
side back of middle of protuberance; a deep impression on each 
side of dorsal protuberance just back of middle; the highest 
point just behind front of protuberance, the superior edge 
being slightly arched, the angles of protuberance superiorly 
being nearly right angles; humeral angles acute, apex of pos- 
terior process ferruginous. Tegmina with basal half coria- 
ceous, punctured and marbled with ferruginous, a ferruginous 



Described Memhvacklw of North America. 421 

band at apex extending to internal angle. Below yellow, tips 
of tarsi ferruginous. Length 8 mm., breadth 4 mm., altitude 
4 mm. 

Described from two specimens. Types in author's col- 
lection and in that of Mr. Van Duzee. 
Hab. — California (Coquillett). 

76. T. FASCiATA, Fitch. 

1851. TelanioDafasciafa, $. Fitch, Cat. Horn, N. Y. 
50, 685. 
TelanioiKi mticolor, ?. Fitch, Cat. Horn. X. Y. 

50, 684. 
Tehouoiui faseiafa. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 

1146, 8. 
TeknuoHU iiitirolor. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 
1146, 9. 
1854. Telamona unicolor. Emmons, Agr. N. Y. v, 154, 

pi. 3, fig. 3. 
1856. Telamona fasciafa. Fitch, 3d Rep. Ins. N. Y. 
in Trans. Agr. Soc. 451, 176. 
Tehniioiia nil /color. Fitch, 3d Rep. Ins. N. Y. 
in Trans. Agr. Soc. 450, 175. 
1858. Uemiptycha difusa. Walk. List. Hom. B. M. 

Suppl. 143. 
1869. Telamona loiicolor. Rathvon, in Monibert's Hist. 

Lancaster Co. Pa. 551. 
1877. Telamona unicolor. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 220, 1. 
Tehnnona fasciafa. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 229, 3. 

1889. Telamona fasciafa. Prov, Faune Can. iii, 244. 
Tehonona unicolor. Prov, Faune Can. iii, 244. 

1890. Tehonona fasciaf((. Van Duzee, Psyche, 388, 

391. 
Telamona f((.sriaf((. Packard, Ins. Inj. Forest 

and Shade Trees, 325, 114. 
7\'lamona unicolor. Pack, Ins. Inj. Forest and 
Shade Trees, 325, 113. 
1892. 'Telamona nnicolor et f((sciafa. Harrington, Ot- 
tawa Nat. vi, 30. 
Ilab.—'S. Y. (Fitch), Mo. and Tex. (Riley), la. (Osborn) 
HI. (Forbes), il-An. (ProoancJier), V a. (Rathvon), Can. 
(.Walker), mch. (Cook). 



422 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

77. T. COLLINA, Walker. 

1851. Thelia collina. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 505, 35. 
1877. TehmoHa rolVnta. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 220, 2. 

78. T. MEXicANA, Stal. 

1869. Telanuma nuxicana. Still, Bid. Memb. Kiin. 

249, 1. 
1877. Telamo}ia mexicaua. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 222, 13. 
1890. Telamona mexicaua. Van Duzee, Psj'che, v, 391. 
Hah.--M.Q-K. (Std/). Calif. [Qoding). 

79. T. EXCELS A, Fairm. 

1846. Telauiona exceha. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 810, 15. 
1851. TheJia exceha. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 564, 29. 
1864. Telamoua exceha. Stal, Hem. Mex. 71, 431. 
1890. TeJauiOiia exceha. Van Duzee, Ps3'che, v, 391. 
Hah. — Mex. (Fainnaire), 111. and Mo. [Go.iing). 

80. T. MAGNILOBA, n. Sp. 

Head brownish yellow, nearly perpendicular ; eyes prom- 
inent; ocelli nearer each other than to the eyes, on a line through 
center of eyes; capito-thoracic articulation not straight; oval 
when seen from front; lightly punctured. Protborax with a 
percurrent median carina, much shorter than apex of tegmina, 
apex slightly elevated, surpassing apex of abdomen; dorsal pro- 
tuberance highest in front, deeply notched at base in front; 
rapidly sloping posteriorly, much compressed; humeral angles 
prominent; base of prothorax concolorous with head, rest of 
protborax dirty brown, posterior half of median carina concol- 
orous with head; deeply and densely punctured. Tegmina trans- 
parent, blackish in middle, dusky at apex, which surpasses tip 
of abdomen. Below light yellow; legs yellow, tips of tarsi 
brown. 

Described from one male and one female. Type in author's 
collection. Length of ? 11 mm., breadth 7.5 mm., altitude 
8 mm; length of 5 9 mm., breadth 5 mm., altitude 7 mm. 

Female larger, and lateral angles much more produced, 
forming long slender horns. 

//a6.— 111. (Stroniberg). 

81. T. PYKAMiDATA, Uhler. 

1877. Telauama jn/raiiildafa. Uhler, Wheeler's Rep_ 
App. J. 1333. 



Described Memhi-acidce of Nortlt America. 423 

1890. Tt'honona pijraniididd. Yau Duzee, Psyche, v, 
391. 
Hab.—S. Col. {Uhler), 111. (Strombery), Mich. {Cook). 

82. T. MOL.Uiis, Butler. 

1877. Tehimoiia iiH)J(n-is. Butler, Cist. Eiit. ii, 222, pi. 
3, fig. 13. 
Ilab. — Saskatchawan (Jiutler). 

XIV. Heliria, Stal. 

83. H. scALARis, Fairm. 

1846. TJH'Jdf sra/arls. Fairm. Rev. Merab. p. 311, 18, 

pi. 5, fig. 14. 

1851. Tela mono fagi. Fitch, Cat. Horn. N. Y. 51, 687. 

Tliella sraJaris. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 565, 32. 

Tela inona fay}. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 1146, 6. 

1854. Telamonafaqi. Emmous, Agr. N. Y. v, 154, pi. 

3, fig. 10. 
1867. lielirid scalaris. Stal. Bid. Hem. Sjst. 556. 
1869. Hc/lria scahiris. St^l, Bid. Memb. Kiin. 249. 

1889. Tchouona fa()l. Yau Duzee, Can. Ent. xxi, 6. 
Tehtitiona sralaris. Pro v. Faune Can. iii, 243. 

1890. Htdiria scalaris. Yan Duzee, Psyche, v, 390. 
Tchinfoiia fayi. Smith, Cat. Ins. N. J. 442. 

1892. Heliria scalaris. Godg. Eut. News, iii, 200. 

Hab.— 'S. Y. {Fitch), N. J. {Smith). Qm. {Van Du zee), 
Col. (Ba7:er), 111. {Qoding). 

84. H. STROMBEKGI, n. sp. 

$. Size and general markings like crisfafa, but crest en- 
tirely different. 

Head yellow, marbled with brown, punctured, surface very 
uneven, ocelli close to each other, distant from eyes. Pro- 
thorax depressed, lateral angles very much produced in long 
protuberances; anterior edge of dorsal crest perpendicular, the 
angle above forming a point which is a third higher than 
posterior angle; upper edge straight, sloping rapidly from 
posterior superior angle, then gradually to apex of pos- 
terior process; crest compressed wrtically, the impression 
below being very deep; general color sordid yellow, 



2 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

irregularly clouded with piceous, a broad, black, transverse 
band extending between lateral angles from tip to tip; a black 
line on each side( sometimes obsolete) reaching from anterior 
base of crest in a curve to the inferior margin just below posr 
terior edge of crest; apical half of posterior process piceous, 
densely punctured, with several lateral carina in posterior por- 
tion. Tegmina punctured, veins towards base and apex black. 
Below yellow; tibige spotted with black, triquetrous, with small 
spines, top of tarsi brown. Abdomen yellow, hairy, ovipositor 
brown. LengthlO mm., width between tips of humeral bones 7 
mm., altitude 6 mm. 

The 5 differs from the ? as follows: Head is clear 
yellow, in front a transverse black band reaches about 
midway to anterior base of crest, lateral arcuate lines curve 
forward and downward, uniting with transverse band aljove 
each eye; a black spot on inferior margins below middle of 
crest; entire crest black excepting posterior edge, which forms 
a yellow vitta and extends downward and backward to inferior 
margin; behind this the surface is very dark brown. Abdomen 
yellow, tip brown; tibiae annulate with ferruginous. Length 
y mm., width 5 mm., altitude 5 mm. 

Described from several examples. 
if«/^.— Galesburg, III. 

Collected by C. W. Stromberg, in whose honor this peculiar 
species is named. 

The general appearance of this species is almost identical 
with Ennija aurifiua as represented in Walker's List llom. 
B. M. plate 4, fig. 1 and 2, but as it is impossible to 
place the species in that genus on account of its venation, I 
have placed it in Heliria for the present. Its venation is very 
similar to Telamona, and 1 doubt the advisability of separating 
Heliria from that genus. 

85. H. CRiSTATA, Fairni. 

1846. Thelia cristafa. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 311, 19. 

1851. Thelia crit^fafa. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 565, 83. 
1854. Tehiinoiia acrl/iutto. Emmons, Agr. N. Y. v, 155, 

pi. 3, fig. 5. 

1867. Heliria criHiata. Still, Bid. Hem. Syst. 556. 

1869. H'iiria rrlsfafn. Stal, Bid. Memb. Kiln. 249. 



Described Memhracida' of North America. 425 

1878. Tclamona reclti'iira. Glover, MS. Jour. Hoqi. pi. 
1, fig. 19. [nee rccJ/rafd']. 
Hab.—Mex. (Fairmaire), N. Y. {Einmons), 111. (Forhes)^ 

XV. Arohasia, Stal. 

80. A. GALEATA, Fabr. 

1803. M('inhracis(/aJeaf(i. Fahr. Sysfc. Rhyng.9, fig 13. 
1846. Thelia (/aleafa. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 309, 12. 
1851. Thelia galeafa. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 503, 24. 
Siiillia anricuhiia. Fitch, Cat. Horn. N. Y. 49, 

670. 
Smilia aurinihifd. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 1141, 
11. 
1854. Smilia auricnJata. Emmons, Agr. N. Y. v, 153, 

pi. 3, fig. 12. 
1869. Ajrhasia galeafa. Stfil, Bid. Memb. Kan. 250, 1. 
1876. Archasia galeafa. Glover, Rep. U. S. Dept. Agr. 
30, fig. 21. 
ArcJi((sia galeafit. Uhler, List Hem. West Miss. 
R. 344. 
1878. Arehasia galeafa. Glover, MS. Journ. Horn. pi. 

1, fig.' 17. 
1884. Archasia galeafa. Uhler, Stand. Nat. Hist, ii, 

225. 
1890. Arehasia galeafa. Van Duzee, Psyche, v, 390. 
Arehasia galeafa. Smith, Cat. las. N. J. 442. 
Hab.—^. Y. {Fitch), Flu. and Tex. (Riley), la. (Osborn), 
111. (Forbes). 

87. A. BELFRAGEI, St^l. 

1869. Arehasia belfragei. Stal, Bid. Memb. Kilti. 250, 2. 
^a6.— 111. (mdl), Mich. [Cuok). 

88. A. PALLIDA, Fairm. 

1846. Thelia jMllida. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 308, 8. 
1851. Thelia pallida. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 5()2. 20. 
1869. Archasia pallida. Still, Bid. M-^rab. Kiln. 250, 3. 
Ilab.—'S. k. (Fairmaire). 

89. A. CANADENSIS, Prov. 

1889. Arehasia canadensis. Prov. Faune Can. iii, 230. 
Archasia galatea. Fabr. Van Duzee in lift. 
Hab.—Ca,ii. (Provancher). 



426 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

UO. (?) A. CONICA, Walk. 

187)1. Theliaconica. Walk. List Horn. IJ. M. 7)57,9. 
Hab.—E. FlA. ( Wal/<tr). 

XV r. Smilia, Germ. 

91. S. CAMELUS, Fabr. 

1808. Metuhracis cifiia^his. Fabr. Syst. Hhyng. 10, 18. 
1821. Smilia mitraJis. . Germ. Mag. Erit. iv, 22, 20. 
1835. Smilia coifralis. Germ, in Silb. Rev. iii, 235, 5. 
1841. Smilia rittata. Am. & Serv. Hem. 539, 1. 

Smilia fasci(ffa. Am. & Serv. Hem. 539, 2. 
1840. Tlu'li(( camelns. Fairm. Rev. Menib. 308, 7, pi. 

5, fig. 5, 8, 9. 
1851. Thelia ramclus. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 562. 19. 
Smilia ritt<ita. Fitch, Cat. Hom. N. Y. 49, 674. 
Smilia (juttafa^ var. Fitch, Cat. Hom. N. Y. 49, 

695. 
Thelia riffafa. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 1 143, 46. 
1854. Smilia (juttafa. Emmons, Agr. N. Y. v, 153, pi. 
3, fig. 11. 
Smilia riffaf((. Emmons, Agr. N. Y. v. 154, pi. 
3, fig. 14. 
1862. Memhracis camclns. Harris, Treatise, 220. 

Smilia camelas. Uhler, in Harr. Treatise, 220. 
1869. Smilia camelas. Sttll, Hem. Fabr. 115. 
1878. Smilia cameliis. Glover, MS. Journ. Hom. pi. 2, 

fig. 22. 
1884 Smilia camelus. Uhler, Stand. Nat. Hist. 225. 

1889. Smilia camelas, Van Duzee, Can. Ent. xxi, 7. 

1890. Smilia camehis. Smith, Cat. Ins. N. J. 441. 
Hab.~Mo., (ia., and Mich. (Riley), N. Y. {Fitch), Vli. 

(Walker), ill [Forbes), S. .1. (Sm.lt/i), Ca i. (Van 
Du2et),'Sl\ss.(irarrls), [a (Osborii). 

Var. riridis,, u. var. An immaculate green form of the 
above was collected by Mr. 0. S. Westcott, in northern Illi- 
nois, and IS now in my collection. 

92. S. VANDUZII, u. sp. 

Yellow, marked with light brown mixed with ferruginous. 
Head yellow, strongly punctured, a slight carina passing down 



Descrilicd Menihracidw of NorlJi America. 427 

the midiile ; eyes prominent:, iirirblefl liv^hb and dark brown ; 
ocelli equidistant from each other and the eyes. Prothorax 
yellow, a tiibprcle a))L)ve each eye ; three transverse yellow 
bands, one just before middle, one behind middle, one midway 
between that band and apex ; the anterior band directed 
downwards and backwards to middle of inferior border of pro- 
thorax a little before middle band and coalescing with it at 
this point ; between these bands and the apex more or less fer- 
ruginous : punctured, tegmina 3 ellowish, veins darker. Legs 
yellow. Tips of tarsi black, a fuscous spot at apex of tibiae. 
Length 7 to 8 mm. 

Described from five specimens. Types in author's col- 
lection and in Mr. Van Duzee's. 

Hab.--<Zci\'x {(^oquiUett). 

It differs from the other North American species of 
Smilia ((•(imc/iis) in being more inclined anteriorly, in not hav- 
ing an angle in front superiorly, and in being much less f^le- 
vated, the highest point being at middle of prothorax; also in 
coloration. 

XV n. ACUTALIS, Fairm.vire. 

93. A. T.\KT.\REA, Say. 

1880. Mciiihi-((r/s fid-tarc't. Say, -Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. 

Phila. vi, 242, 1. 
1851. Onsa turfio-ea. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 1141, 84. 

1859. Mem})r((cU tarfareif. Say, Compl. Writ, ii, 87B, 1. 
1876. Acntdlis tartarea. Uhler, List Hem. West Miss. 
R. 345, 1. 

1889. (Jeresa seiiticreuiii^var. Prov. Faune Can. iii, 285. 

1890. Aci(f(fli,s tarffire(f. Van Duzee, Psyche, v, 389. 
Ilab.— Mo.. la, and Fa., {nu^y), 1). {Forbes), Utah 

(Uhler), Mrtss. to Fla. (U/iJer), Miss. {Cook). 

94. A. SKMiCKEMA, Say. 

1880. Meiiibnici.s .sciuirrcitia. Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. 

Sci. Phila. vi, 242, 2. 
1846. M('ii)bntn's <nit/coiti(/r(i. Fairm. Rev. Menib. 498, 

7. 
1851. AcHf(tl/s nnflcoii/(/r(t. Walk. List. Horn. 13. M. 

592, 9. 



428 Illinois State Lahorafori/ of Natural History. 

1851 Crresd seininirni. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 1141, 

35. 
1856. Ari(f(f/ls (niflc(nii</nt. Fitch, 8d Rep. Ins. N..Y. 

in Trans, Agr. Soc. 391. 
1859. Moiibracis sciii/crniia. Say, Compl. Writ, ii, 

376, 2. 
1876. Aciffdlis sciii/crniKi. Uhler, List Hem. West 

Miss. R. 845, 2. 

1889. Acutalis seiiiicrenid. Prov. Faune Can. iii, 235. 

1890. AcutaUs semierema. Van Duzee, Psyche, v, 389. 
1892. Acutalis seiiiirreiiKt. Harrington, Ottawa Nat. 

vi, 30. 
^afe.— Fla. {S(iy), N. Y. (Fitch), Miss, and Mex. {Uhler), 
Can. (Provancher). 

95. A. DORSALis, Fitch. 

1851. Tragopa dorsalis. Fitch, Cat. Honi. N. Y. 52, 

698. 
Tragopa dor.<;aJ/s. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 1 147, 

28. 
1856. Aruf(f1is (lorsaJ/!^. Fitch, 3d Rep. Ins. N. Y. in 

Trans. Agr. Soc. 390, 103. 
1869. Acutalis dorsa/is. Rathvon, in Monibert's Hist. 

Lancaster Co. Pa. 551. 
1876. Acutalis dorxalis. Uhler, List Hem. West Miss. 

R. 345, 3. 
1883. Acutalis dorsaJis. Saunders, Ins. Inj. Fruits, 

289, 160. 
1890. Acutalis dorsaJis. Van Duzee, Psyche, v, 391. 
ZTaft.— N. Y. (Fitch), Texas (Riletj), Mich. (Ccok). 

96. A. CALVA, Say. 

1830. Mciiiltracis ralra. Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. 

Phila. vi, 242, 3. ' 

1835. SiHdiaJt((rij)einu's. Germ, in Silb. Rev. iii, 240, 16. 

1846. Acutalis flaripciniis. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 497, 5. 

1851. Ceresa calm. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 1141, 36. 

Acutalis fl((ripennis. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 

591, 5. 
1856. AcutaUs calca. Fitch. 3d Rep. Ins. N. Y. in 

Trans. Agr. Soc. 391. 



Described Memhracidce of North America. 429 

1859. Mcmhniris calm. Say, Com pi. Writ, ii, 876, 3. 
1870. Acufalix caJra. Uhler, List Hem. West Miss. R. 

345, 4. 
1878. Aciifdlis calm. Glover, MS. Journ. Horn. pi. 1, 

fig. 3. 

1889. Ceresa caJra (var. of seniicreina? ). Prov. Faune 

Can. iii, 235. 

1890. Acuta! is caJr<f. Van Diizee, Psyche, v, 389. 
ffab—Pd.iSay); Mis?., Mich., Ala.. (5ol., Mo., Tex , D. 

C. Fla., Vi., A.'k., an I >r. H. (RU'^y) ; III. {Forbes) ; 
Mil , Max., and M<ss. (UJiler); dn. {Provanctier) ; 
It {Osborn). 

97. A. OCCIDENT ALIS, H. Sp. 

Head yellow, with a broad black band passing along base 
between eyes, lower of which is sinuous and includes ocelli. 
Prothorax dull yellow, shining, but very minutely punctured, 
marked with black as follows: a median line extending back- 
ward, very narrow iti front after leaving a triangular spot of 
same color, behind middle dilated into a large round spot; a 
triangular spot on each side in front of lateral angles, continu- 
ing backward and upvard, meeting on the median line; base of 
thorax with a narrow yellow transverse band along its edge ; 
from lateral angles an impressed line extending posteriorly 
near the lower margin. Tegmina and wings transparent, dilute 
yellow, veins darker, exceeding in length abdomen and apex 
of posterior process of prothorax ; apical border broad and 
whitish. Abdomen piceous on sides, anteriorly. Slightly 
pubescent. Below ferruginous. Length 3 mm. 

It differs from idinoiensis in the black transverse band at 
base of vertex, which is wanting in that species; and from 
c((lv(( in the shorter and more obtuse posterior process. 

Described from several specimens. Types in author's col- 
lection and in that of Mr. Van Duzee. 
Hab.-O^iUf. {CoquUf'dt). 

98. A. PARVA, n. sp. 

Similar to ocrif/cnfalis but smallt-r. It differs from that 
species in having an anterior transverse yellow band at base of 
prothorax, lateral impressed lines, and apex of head black. It 
is transversely depress 'd about midway between highest point 



430 Illinois Slate Lahoiiitoi-ij of iWilnrdl Histonj. 

of protliorax and apex ; somewhat strongly punctured pos- 
teriorl}'; and the end of the ahd )inen is more nearly perpen- 
dicular than in occidciiftfl/s. B«lovv, head and juga black, chest 
yellow, al)d()nien tawny, legs yellow. Tegniina and wings 
dilute vellow ; sides of abdomen and chest yellowish. Lower 
edge of prothorax compressed behind lateral angles. Length 
2.5 mm. 

Described from two specimens. Types in author's col- 
lection and in that of Mr. Van Duzee. 
Hab.— .'Vrizona (Coquilleit). 

91). A. BINOTATA, n. sp. 

Head yellow, with an irregular band between eyes, at the 
base, and two dots near apex ])lack. Prothorax black, except- 
ing a transverse b.md at base and two large ovate spots an- 
teriorly, the apex and lateral borders yellow ; posteriorly irreg- 
ularly sculptured and several scattered prominent punctures. 
Tegmina and wings yellow, veins near apex brown, apical bor- 
der wrinkled. Upper surface of abdomen not declivous, under 
surface curving upwards, ferruginous. Legs yellow, tibiae 
marbled more or less with brown. Length 3 mm. 

Described from one specimen. Type in author's collection. 
IIab.—C<i\\f.(VanDu2ec^). 
100. A. ILLINOIENSIS, n. sp. 

Head yellow, darker towards base : ocelli a little farther 
from each other than from the eyes ; a narrow black band 
along the base, including also base of prothorax ; two minute 
punctures near apex. Prothorax smoky yellow, base with a 
narrow black band, as stated above ; just above this band a 
transverse yellow band, parallel to it ; from middle of this 
yellow line a piceous band extending along the median line pos- 
teriorly, just before apex dilating into a large pyriform spot ; 
two black dots on each side near front margin. Tegmina and 
wings transparent, vitreous. Abdomen sloping from just be- 
fore apex of posterior prothoracic process downwards and back- 
wards, almost reaching apex of tegmina; large, yellow. Pectus, 
tips of tarsi, and base of femora black, legs tawny. Length 4 
m m . 

Described from one specimen collected by C W. Strom- 
berg. Typo in author's collection. 
ITaft.— Galesburg, Illinois. 



iJescrihed Membrackhr of North America. 431 

The four black spots on head, and all dark lines on 
dorsum excepting the median found in )i/(/roliiie((f(i, Still, are 
wanting in this species. 

101. A. TRIFCTRCATA, Godg. 

1893. AcutaJis trifmrtifa, Godg. Can. Ent. xxvi, 53, 2. 
Hab.—Ht Vincent Island, West Indies, (H. H. Smith). 

102. A. APicALis, Godg. 

1893. Acutalis apicaJis, Godg. Can. Ent. xxvi, 53, 3. 
Hab.—'Si. Vincent Island, West Indies. {H. H. Smith). 

103. A. MCESTA, Stal. 

1858. Acutalis moesta. Sta,l, Hem. Rio Janeiro, ii, 33, 7, 
Hab. — Mex. (Lethierry). 

104. A. NIGROLINEATA, Still. 

1864. Acutalis nifirolincata. Stal, Hem. Mex. 72, 437. 

Hab.—Mex.(StdJ). 

XVIII. Oyrtolobus,* Goding. 

105. C. MUTicus, Fabr. 

1776. M(>iiil)r((ri.s mutica. Fabr. Gen. Ins. Mant. 297, 

12, 13. 
1781. Meiuhraris Diutica. Fabr. Spec. Ins. ii, 318, 15. 
1787. Memhyacis mutica. Fabr. Mant. Ins. ii, 265, 25. 
1794. Memdnicis itnitica. Fabr. Ent. Syst. iv, 15, 29. 
1803. Ceiitrofiis mutica. Fabr. Syst. Rhyng. 21. 24. 
1869. Ci/rtosia mutica. Stai, Hera. Fabr. ii, 25, 1. 
1890. ('i/rtosi(( mutica. Van Duzee ( ?) Psyche, v, 390. 
Hah.—N. A. [Stdt.) 

IOC). C. FENESTRATUS, Fitch. 

1851. Cijffosia fcncstnita. Kitch, Cat. Hom. N. Y. 49, 
678. 
Cyrtosia fcnestrata. Walk. List Hom. B. ]\I. 
1147, 2. 

1876. Cyrtosia fened nit a. Uhler, List Hem. West Miss. 

R. 345. 

1877. Cy)iosi<( fotcsfnita. Uhler, Rep. Ins. Coll. 1875, 

457. 

1878. Cyrtosi<( fenestra fa. Glover, MS. Journ. Hom. 

pL 1, fig. 15. 
^Cyrtosia, Fitch, which Is preoccupied in the Diptera. 



432 ■ Illinois Sfdfe Lahorafori/ of Nutiifdl Iflstorij. 

18Sy. ('iirtoxidfenefitratii. Proy. Faune Can. iii, 239. 

1890. Cijrfoslafenesfrafa. Van Duzee, Psyche, v, 388. 

('i/rfosia fenesfnifd. Smith, Cat.. Ins. N. J. 441, 

Hub.— 'if. Y. (Fitch), Col. and Ddk.{UIiler), 111. (Forbes), 

N. J. (Smith), Can. (Provancher), Misa. (Cook). 

107. C. VAU, Say. 

1831. Me)nhracls ran. Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. 

Phila. vi, 299, 6. 
1851. Thelia semlfascia. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 561, 
16. 
Smilia i-aii. Fitch, Cat. Horn. N. Y. 48, 65S. 
T/ielh rau. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 1142, 16. 
1856. Smilia van. Fitch, 3d Rep. Ins. N. Y. in Trans. 

Agr. Soc. 451. 
1859. itlembnicis van. Say, Corapl. Writ, ii, 378, 6. 
1862. Memhracis van. Harris, Treatise, 220. 

1876. Smilia van. Glover, Rep. U. S. Dep. Agr. 30, 

fig. 20. 

1877. Smilia cau. Uhler, Wheeler's Rep. App. J. 1333. 

1878. Smilia van. Glover, MS. Journ. Horn. pi. 2, fig. 

10, 31. 

1889. Ci/rtosia ran. Van Duzee, Can. Ent. xxi, 7. 
Cf/rtosia ran. Prov. Faune Can. iii, 238. 

1890. Smilia van. Smith, Cat. Ins. N. J. 441. 
Cyrtosia ran. Van Duzee, Psyche, v, 389. 

1892. Cyrtosia van. Harrington, Ottawa Nat. vi, 30. 
Hab. — Peun.(AS'a?/); M'>.. N. C, Tex., ani Art. [Riley); 
N. Alex. (Uhler); 111. (Forbes); Mas;\ (Harris); C^n. 
(Van Duzee); N. Y. (Smith); Col. (Gillette). 

108. C. TRiLiNEATUS, Say. 

1824. Membracis trilineata. Narr. Long's Exped. 300, 2. 
1859. Memhracis trilineata. Say, Compl. Writ, i, 200, 2. 

1889. Ci/rtosia trilineata. Prov. Faune Can. iii. 239. 

1890. Ci/rtosia trilineata. Van Duzee Psyche, v; 389. 
1892. Cyrtosia trilineata. Harrington, Ottawa Nat. vi, 

30. 
Hab.—'H. W. States (Say), Cau. (Provanche?), III. 
(Stromberg). 
](-9. C. scuLrTUs, Fairm. 

1846. Thelia seulpta, Fairm. Rev. Memb. 307, 5. 



Described Meinhracidie of North America. 433 

1851. TJtelia scitlpta. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 562. 17. 
1867. Cyrtosia sctilpfa. StAl, Ofv. Kongl. Vet.-Acad. 
Forh. xxiv, 554. 
Hab.—l^. C, (VanDitzee), Micb. (Davis), 11). (Forbes). 

110. C. OKNATUS, Prov. 

1889. Cyrtosia ornata. Prov. Faune Can. iii, 240. 
1892. Cyrtosia ornata. Harrington, Ottawa Nat. vi, 
30. 
I£ab. — Ottawa, Can., (Provancher). 

111. C. TDMIDUS, Walk. 

1851. Thelia tumirla. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 560, 14. 
Hah.— YVd. (Walker). 

112. C. CRISTIFERUS, St^l. 

1864. Smilia crisfifera. Stal, Hem. Mex. 71, 433. 
1867. Cyrtosia cri'stifera. Stal, Ofv. Kongl. Vet.-Acad. 
Forh. xxiv, 554. 
Hah.- Mex. (Stdl). 

113. C. CARINATUS, Stal. 

1864. Smilia carimda. Sttll, Hem. Mex. 71, 435. 
1867. Cyrtosia cariaata. Stal, Ofv. Kongl. Vet.-Acad. 
Forh. xxiv, 554. 
Sa6.— Mex. (8tdl). 

114. C. TUBEROSus, Fairm. 

1846. Thelia tnl>erosa. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 307, 6. 
1851. Thelia tuherosa. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 562, 18. 
/fa6 — Miss. {Riley), 111. (Forbes). 

115. C. ARQUATUS, Emmons. 

1854. Cyrtosia arquata. Emmons, Agr. N. Y. v, 154, 
pi. 13, fig. 14. 
Hab. — N. Y. (Fminoiis). 

116. C. FULiGiNOSUS, Emmons. 

1854. Cyrtosia fuligino.^a. Emmons, Agr. N. Y. v, 
154. pL 13, fig. 15. 
Hab.—N. Y .(Emm 071 s). 

117. C. iNTERMEDius, Emm.ons. 

1854. Cyrtosia intermedia. Emmons, Agr. N. Y. v, pi. 
13, fig. 16. 
Ha b, — N . y . ( A' m rii o ns). 



434 I/llnois State Laborutori/ of X(tfiir<(l IJistonj. 

118. C. GLOVERI, n. sp. 

1878. Cip-tosia'(/lorerl. Glover, MS. Journ. Iloin. i)l. 1. 
tig." 14. 
H a b.— Unknown; probably Maryland. 

The species figured by Glover in his illustrations of 
Homoptera on plate 1, fig. 14, has, as far as I know, never 
received a name ; and as Glover was familiar with the various 
species described by our native writers and did not place the 
specific name on the plate, he evidently believed it to be new. 
I have never met the species in collections seen ; but as the 
plates of Glover are well known I have called it (jloveri, so as 
to include it in this catalogue. 

XIX. Atymna, Say. 

119. A. INORNATA, Say. 

1831. Meiiibracis iiiornatd.^ Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. 

Scl. Phila. vi, 299, 7. 
1851. Smilia inoniafa. P'itch, Cat. Hom. N. Y. 48, 653. 
Thelia iiwrnata. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 1142, 
42. 
1856. Smilia inonuifd. Fitch, 3d Rep. Ins. N. Y. in 
Trans. Agr. Soc. 471, 198. 

1858. Smilia inonmtn. Walk. List Hem. B. M. Supp!. 

134. 

1859. Membracis inornata. Say, Compl. Writ, ii, 578, 7. 
1869. Smilin inoniafd. Rath von, in Mom berths Hist. 

Lancaster Co. Pa. 551. 
187(). S))iifi(i inoniata. Glover, Rep. U. S. Dep. Agr. 

30, fig. 18. 
1878. Smilia iitonidfa. Glover MS. Journ. Hom. pi. 2, 

fig. 26. 
1882. Atijmna inoniafa. Lintner, 1st Rep. Ins. N. Y 
' 284. 

1889. Atymna inoniafa. Prov. Faune Can. iii, 248. 

1890. Atymna inoniafa. Van Duzee, Psyche, v., 589. 

*Last September, Prof. Uhler, our most distinguished 
student of this Order, iuformed me that Membracis subulata, 
Hay, is but a variety of this species. 



Described ^Memhrackhv of North America. 435 

1890 Smilia inornata. Pack. Ins. Inj. Forest and 
Shade Trees, 350, 19. 
Hah.—Vdnn. (Say), N. Y. (Fitch), West. States (Riley), 
l\\.(Ooding), Md. (Glover), Can. {ProvancJie7'). 

120. A CASTANEA. Fitch. 

1851. Smilia castanea. Fitch. Cat. Horn. N. Y. 49, 
699. 
TJieJia castanea. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 1143, 

48. 
1856. Smilia castanea. Fitch, 3d Rep. Ins. N. Y. in 

Trans. Agr. Soc, 470, 197. 
1858. Smilia castanea. Walk. List Horn. B. M. Suppl. 

133. 
1867. Atijmna castanea. StAl, Ofv. Kongl. Vet.-Acad. 

Forh. xxiv, 554. 
1869. Smilia castanea. Rathvon, in Mombert's Hist. 

Lancaster Co. Pa. 551. 
1890. Atijmna castanea=Atijmna inornata, Say 5 (?). 

Van Duzee, Psyche, v, 390. 
Smilia castanea. Pack. Ins. Inj. Forest and 

Shade Trees, 350, 18. 
1892. Atymna castanea. Harrington, Ottawa Nat. vi, 

30. 
Had.— N.Y. (Fitch), Vdnu. {Rath oon), Can. (Harring- 
ton). 

121. A. QUERCi, Fitch. 

1851. Smilia qiierci. Fitch, Cat. Horn. N. Y. 49, 672. 

Thelia querci. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 1143, 47. 

1854. Garqara querci. Emmons, Agr. N. Y. v, 156, 

pi. 13, fig. 8. 
1878. Smilia querci. Glover, MS. Journ. Horn. jil. 2, 

fig. 11. 
1890. Atymna querci. Van Duzee, Psyche, v, 390. 

Hab. — N. Y. (Fitch), Mo. [Riley), la. [Oshorn), 111. 
(Forbes), Ont. and Conn. (Van Duzee), Mich. (Cook). 

122. A. viRiDis, Emmons. 

1854. Smilia viridis. Emmons, Agr. N. Y. v, 154, pi. 
3, fig. 13. 
Hab.—'m. Y. (Emmons), III, (Goding). 



430 Illinois State Laboratory oj Natural History. 

123. A. ciNEREUM, Emmons. 

1854. Gargara cinerenm et Smilia . Emmons, 

Agr. N. Y. V, 150, pi. 13, fig. 3 [2 on list of 
figures?]. 
Hah.—'N. Y. {Emmons). 

124. A. MACQLiFRONTis, Emmons. 

1854. Gargara maculifrontis et Smilia . Em- 
mons, Agr. N. Y. V, 156, pi. 13, fig. 1. 
Hah.—^. Y. {Emmons), Mich. (Cook), 111. {Qoding). 

125. A. PALLiDiFRONTis, Emmons. 

1854. Gargara pallidifrontis. Emmons, Agr. N. Y. v, 
pi. 13, fig. 7. 
Hab.—N. Y. {Emmons), 111. {Stromberg). 

126. A. DiscoiDALis, Emmons. 

1854. Gargara discoidalis. Emmons, Agr. N. Y. v, 
157, pi. 13, fig. 4. 
Hab. — N. Y. {Emmons). 

127. A. iNERMis, Emmons. 

1854. Gargara inennis. Emmons, Agr. N. Y. v, 157, 
pi. 18, fig. 9. 
Hab.—N. Y. {Emmons and Va7i Duzee). 

XX. EvASHMEADEA, GoDiNG, n. gen. 

Clavus and part of corium covered by thorax ; coriiim from 
its base emitting three veins contiguous at base ; corium before 
the middle with a transverse venule between the two interior 
longitudinal veins ; two discoidal cells, one before the two 
apical cells and behind the above transverse venule, another 
before the second apical cell. Thorax punctured, destitute of 
longitudinal rugse ; anteriorly convex and slightly unicarinate, 
behind lateral angles compresso-acute ; when seen from side, 
two sinuses, the anterior sinus at the middle of prothorax ; 
before and behind this sinus a rounded lobe ; the posterior 
sinus is immediately behind second lobe, and is much shallower 
than the other, the upper part gradually curving downward to 
apex, which is acute ; lateral angles slightly produced. 

This genus is dedicated to my esteemed friend, Mr. W. H^ 
4 shmead, to whom I am indebted for many favors. 



Described MemhrackUe of North America. 437 

128. A. coNCiNNA, n. sp. 

Head yellow punctured with darker color; eyes brown ; ocelli 
on a line with centre of eyes and equidistant from each other 
and the eyes ; middle slightly produced ; base a little convex. 
Prothorax dull yellow, densely punctured, a median percurrent 
carina ; convex in front, more or less mottled with very light 
yellow and ferruginous ; apical fourth always ferruginous ; in 
strongly marked specimens the two lobes are ferruginous, 
which color extends down the sides ; a whitish line passes 
diagonally behind posterior lobe, another whitish band extends 
diagonally forwards and upwards in front of anterior lo))e, the 
sinus between lobes always lighter than ground color, its edges 
marked with ferruginous. Tegmina transparent, veins yellow, 
apex ferruginous. Below yellow ; leg yellow, tarsi black (in 
some specimens tibiae also black). Length 7 mm. 

Described from two specimens. Types in author's collec- 
tion and in that of Mr. Van Duzee. 

Hah. — Arizona [Van Duzee). 

The two examples seen, differ widely in markings, and 
possibly represent two species. 

129. A. BAJULA, n. sp. 

Greenish yellow, probably green when alive. Head yellow 
speckled with brown, and two longitudinal brown lines through 
ocelli, converging toward apex. Prothorax greenish yellow, 
median carina darker; on each side of carina and contiguous to 
it a whitish band extending to anterior lobe; lateral borders 
whitish, a band of same color passing across in front of apex, 
and one through median sinus ; a brown patch in front of and 
above lateral angles ; on each side, on lateral border below base 
of anterior lobe, a semicircular blackish irregular line, the con- 
vexity of which is upwards; within the semicircular space are 
other irregular black lines ; lobes greenish. Tegmina vitreous, 
a brown patch across middle and at apex. Below, yellowish, 
tips of tarsi black. Length 4.5 mm. 

Described from one specimen. Type in author's collection. 
Hah, — Arizona (T'a7i Duzee). 

130. A. ARIZONENSIS, U. Sp. 

Head yellow, irrorate with black ; eyes yellow; ocelli equi- 
distant from each other and the eyes, black. Prothorax yellow. 



438 lUhiois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

irrorate with black anteriorly; l)ehind lateral angles piceous, the 
two dorsal lobes brown ; apex same color, with a transverse white 
band just before; sinus between two dorsal lobes white, ex- 
tending usually down to lateral borders in a zigzag manner. 
Tegmina clear, veins brown, apical border brown. Legs 
yellow, tibiae with row of spines on each side, tarsi black. 
Abdomen black below, apex light brown. Length 4 ram. 

Described from one specimen. Type in author's collection. 
Hah. — Arizona. 

In this species the second discoidal cell is divided by a 
longitudinal venule, the exterior part much narrower; also the 
median basal cell is divided into two parts by the coalescence of 
the basal veins. This feature may be of generic value. 

XXL Ophiderma, Fairm. 

131. O. SALAMANDRA, Faimi. 

1846. Ophiderma salamandra. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 

493, 1. 
1851. OpJiiderma salamandra. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 

588, 1. 
1854. Gargara puhescens. Emmons, Agr. N. Y. v, 

157, pi. 13, fig. 2. 
1856. Ophiderma salamandra. Fitch, 3d Rep. Ins. N. 

Y. in Trans. Agr. Soc. 465, 191. 
1890. Ophiderma salamandra. Smith, Cat. Ins. N. J. 

442. 
TJab.—^. Y. {Fitch), D. C. and Va. {Riley), N. J. 
{Smith), 111. {Forbes), Mich. {Cook). 

132. 0. FLAVIGUTTULA, n. Sp. 

?. Head triangular, yellowish ; eyes prominent, dark 
brown ; ocelli equidistant from each other and the eyes, red ; 
convex, densely pubescent. Prothorax with very slight 
median carina, densely pubescent, an irregular yellow patch 
starting at lateral border and extending upwards and for- 
wards, midway between base and apex ; an irregular band at 
base, concolorous with head, extending along sides in a greenish 
gray line ; otherwise dirty brown, lightly punctured ; apex of 
posterior process not reaching apex of tegmina. Tegmina sub- 



Described Memhracida' of Nortli America. 439 

coriaceous at base, lightly punctured, basal half and apex 
brown. Below yellow, feet and legs brown. Length 6.2 
mm. 

Described from one specimen from Illinois (Stromberg). 
Type in author's collection. 

133. 0. FLAVA, n. sp., 5 and ?. 

Similar in stature to salamandra., but much broader be- 
tween lateral angles, and not so depressed. Median carina 
evidently percurrent. Entirely yellow and pubescent. Apex 
of head strongly recurved, a short, deeply impressed trans- 
verse line above each eye. Legs yellow, apex of femora and 
tibiffi and tips of tarsi fuscous. Length 7 mm. 

Described from one $ received from Mr. Westcott, and 
one $ from Dr. Riley. Types in author's collection. 
Hab.— Ill (Westcott), Mich. (Van Duzee). 

One fresh specimen received from Mr. Stromberg is grass- 
green. 

134. 0. FLAVICEPHALA, n. Sp. 

Brown, head yellow; a yellow stripe on each side of pro- 
thorax anteriorly; abdomen yellow, tip brown. Head broad, 
triangular, yellow, eyes prominent; ocelli equidistant from 
each other and the eyes; a dark brown line along cap- 
ito-thoracic articulation, two dots of same color on this line 
directly above ocelli; a short semicircular line of same color on 
each side between these dots and the eyes. Prothorax with a 
curved line similar to and just above those on head, the two on 
each side nearly completing a small circle; the lines on pro- 
thorax apparently raised; the smooth percurrent median cari- 
na a trifle lighter colored; just in front of highest point of 
prothorax a dark spot bisected by median carina; on each 
side of prothorax a wide yellow stripe (continuous with color 
on head) extending from the front angles along the lower mar- 
gins nearly two thirds of the distance to apex, the posterior 
edge of this stripe truncated diagonally downward and back- 
ward, the superior edge convex, the inferior border following 
course of border of prothorax; from posterior edge of this 
stripe a dark cloud passes across prothorax; apex lighter than 
ground color, which is ferruginous-brown; punctured and pi- 



440 Illinois State Lahonitonj of Natural History. 

lose. Tegmina with apex and costal half of base brown, else- 
where clear. Abdomen yellow, tip brown; femora black, tibia 
and tarsi yellow. Length 0.2 ram. 

Described from one specimen. Type in author's collection. 
Hab.—'N. J. and Penn. (Lieberk), N. Y. [Goding) Fla. 
and Md. {Van Duzee). 

135. 0. NiGKiCEPHALA, Emmons. 

1854. Gargara nigricepiiala. Emmons, Agr. N. Y. v, 
157, pi.' 13, fig. 5. 
Hab.—N. Y. (Emmons). 

XXII. Vanduzea, n. gen. 
1890. Van Duzee, Psyche, v, 389. 

Closely related to Ophidernia, Fairm., but separated there- 
from by the transverse apical cell of the tegmina, which in the 
former genus is triangular and stylated. 

Type of genus Memhracis arquata, Say. 

18G. V. ARQUATA, Say. 

1831. Memhracis arquata. Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. 

Phila. vi, 302, 12. 
1851. Cargnota arquata. Fitch, Cat. Horn. N. Y. 48, 
651. 
Carynota arquata. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 1144, 2. 
1859. Memhracis arquata. Say, Compl. Writ, ii, 380, 

12. 
1869. Caranota arcuatal Rathvon, in Mombert's Hist. 

Lancaster Co. Pa. 551. 
1878. Carineta arquata. Glover, MS. Journ. Horn. pi. 

2, fig. 24. 
1890, OpJiidernia arquata. Van Duzee, Psyche, v, 389. 
(Suggests new genus.) 
Ophidenna arquata. Smith, Cat. Ins N. J. 442, 
/fa6.— Penn. [Say], West. States [Riley), Can. (Van 
Duzee), H. J. (iSmith), N. C. (Van Duzee), Micb. 
(Cook). 

137. V. VESTITA, n. sp. 

Head broad, black, perpendicular, triangular, a narrow 
dusky brown mark on upper edge just below origin of carina 



Described Memhracidce of North America. 441 

Eyes prominent; ocelli equidistant from each other and the eyes. 
Front of prothorax blackish brown, fading posteriorly to a 
reddish brown in a triangular form, the apex of which reaches 
three fourths of the distance to apex of posterior process ; 
lateral angles slightly produced ; sides of prothorax from 
just behind lateral angles to apex black, interrupted by a light 
yellow, or whitish, trapezoidal spot on each side just behind 
middle of inferior border ; just before the apex a white band 
across posterior part of process. Tegmina clear, with 
dark brown veins, or brown with a lighter band across middle. 
Legs and feet brown or black. Length 4.7 mm. 

Described from five specimens. Type in author's collestion. 
Hah. —Arizona ( Van T>uzee), D. C. {Oshorn). 

The ground color of this species varies from brown to 
black. The triangular brown patch is found on the brown 
specimens only, but the white markings mentioned are con- 
stant, and in the black specimens another white spot is some- 
times found just in front of the trapezoidal one. One exam- 
ple received from Prof. Osborn, labeled Salainandra, from D. 
C, proved to be this species. It is the species referred to by 
Townsend, in the Canadian Entomologist, Vol. 24, p. 196, as 
Cyrtolohus annexus, Uhler. 

138. V. LJiTA, n. sp. 

Head yellowish, irrorate with black, a wavy impressed line 
(• — ■ — ) extending from lower corner of each eye transversely. 
Prothorax yellow, irrorate with black anteriorly ; on each side 
a white stripe extending from middle of inferior border diag- 
onally upward and forward, connected by a transverse broken 
band extending across back ; a transverse band just before the 
apex ; surface between these two bands very dark brown ; all 
in front of anterior stripe irrorate ; pubescent. Tegmina 
clear, apical border brownish. Below yellowish ; tibia? and 
tips of tarsi brown. Length 4.7 mm. 

Described from one specimen. Type in author's collection. 
Hah. — Arizona { Van Dazee). 

139. V. APiCALis, Walker. 

1851. Ceresa apicalis. Walker, List Hom. B. M. 533, 
33. 

Hab—}!i. A. {Walker). 



442 Illinois State Lahonifori/ of Natural History. 

XXII r. Janthe, Stal. 

140. J. EXPANSA, Germ. 

1835. Hemipti/cJia expansa. Germ, in Silb Rev. iii, 
245", 1. 
JJeinijjti/clui cucnllafa. Burm. Handb. Ent. ii, 
140', 4. 
1846. Thelia expansa. . Fairm. Rev. Merab. 309, 13, pi. 

5. fig. 6, 7. 
1864. SmiJia expansa. Shll, Hem. Mex. 71, 432. 
1867. Janthe expansa. StAl, Bid. Hem. Sysfc. 554. 
1889. Janthe expansa. Prov. Panne Can. iii, 231. 

//rift.— Mex. {Fainnaire), Arizona {Riley), Fla. {Pro- 
vancher). 

141. J. FOLIACEA, St}°ll. 

1864. Sniilia foUacea. Stal, Hem. Mex. 71, 433. 
1869. Janthe foUacea. Stal. Bid. Memb. Kiin. 240, 1. 
Hab.—Mex. {Stal). 

XXIV. Oarynota, Fitch. 

142. C. MARMORATA, Say. 

1831. Meinbracis niarinorata. Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. 

Sci. Phila. vi, 301, 11. 
1846. Thelia poiphtp-ea. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 306, 4. 
1851. Cipiosia marmorata. Pitch, Cat. Hom. N. Y. 

49, 677. 
Cyrtosia marmorata. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 

1146, 1. 
1859. Membracis marmorata. Say, Compl. Writ, ii, 

379, 11. 
1867. Optilefe porphyrea. Still, Bid. Hem. Syst. 556. 

pi. 2, fig. 22. 
1878. Cyrtosia marmorata. Glover, MS. Jonrn. Hom. 

pi. 2, fig. 21. 
Optilete porphyrea. Glover, MS. Journ. Hom. 

pi. 2, fig. '22. 
1889. Carynota marmorata. Van Duzee, Can. Ent. 

xxi, 6. 
Carynota picta. Prov. Faune Can. iii, 247. [ Fide 

Van Duzee.] 



Described Memhraciila' of Noiih America. 443 

1890. Cari/nofa iiKtriiionifa. Van Duzee, Psyche, v, 

389. 

Cyrtosia marinorata. Smith, Cat. Ins. N. J. 441. 

Hab.—Benn. (Say), West. States (Bileij), N. Y. Fitch), 

Can. (F«?i Dusee, Prommcher), N. J. (Smith), N. C. 

{Palmer), \\\. (Goding). 

143. C. STROMBERGI, U. Sp. 

Stature similar to merd, but smaller, wanting the fuscous 
band. Greenish, mottled with yellow; apex sanguineous, pilose. 

Head yellow, a greenish spot just above apex; eyes prom- 
inent, drab; ocelli a trifle nearer to each other than to the eyes, 
orange-yellow. Prothorax with a percurrent carina, greenish 
mottled with yellow, an impressed sinuous line on each side 
from notch for base of tegmina to depressed place on prothorac- 
ic process just behind middle, all below this line mottled with 
a dark cloud; four longitudinal impressed lines; apex sanguine- 
ous, humeral angles and a band in front at base of prothorax 
yellow. As is usual in members of this genus there are three 
punctures on the prothorax just above the eyes, sometimes con- 
nected by black impressed lines, and a transverse impressed line 
just above the base; below this line smooth, elsewhere heavily 
punctured and pilose. Tegmina yellow, basal half more or 
less dusky, punctured, apex and some of the veins black. Be- 
low yellow, with an orange-colored patch on each side of 
abdomen. Legs yellow, a dusky line on outer surface, feet 
dusky. Length S mm. 

Described from one example in author's collection. 
H<(b.—lU. {Stromherg). 

This may prove to be the male of mrni. 

144. C. MERA, Say. 

1831. MemJiracis inent. Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. 

Phila. vi, 301, 10. 
1851. Carynota mera. Fitch, Cat. Horn. N. Y. 48, 050. 
Carynota mera. Walk. List Hom. H. M. 1144, 1. 
1854. Garqara niajiis. Emmons, Agr. N. Y. v, 156, 

pi. 13, fig. 6. 
1856. Opliidcrma mera. Fitch, 3d Rep. Ins. N. Y. in 

Trans. Agr. Soc. 465, 191. 
1859. Membracis mera. Say, Compl. Writ, ii, 379, 10. 



444 Illinois State LffJxiniforij of Nxf/dui/ Ilistonj. 

1869. Opldderma mera. Ilathvon, in Mombert's Hist. 

Lancaster Co. Pa. r)51. 
1878. Ophiderum mem. Glover, MS. Journ. Horn. pi. 

1. fig. 16. 

1889. Carijnoia mera. Prov. Faune Can. iii, 2W). 

1890. Cari/nota mera. Van Diizee, Psyche, v, 389. 
Ophiderma mera. Smith, Cat. Ins. N. J. 442. 
Ophiderma mera. Pack. Ins. Inj. Forest and 

Shade Trees, 342, 11. 
Hah.—\?enn. (Say), Mo. and Tex. [RUey], la. (Oaborn) 
111. {Qoding), N. J. (Smith), Can. (ProcancJier). 

145. C. MUSKOKENSis, n. sp. 

1889. Cari/HOta marmorata, Van Duzee, Can. Ent. xxi, 

6. 
1892. Cari/iiota maniiorata. Harrington, Ottawa Nat. 
vi, 30. 

?. Brick-red, marbled or spotted with yellow. Head ru- 
fous, unequal, marked with yellow; spindle-shaped; ocelli 
much nearer each other than to the eyes; eyes prominent. 
Prothorax arcuated, flattened in front of middle, then 
tapering to apex, which equals or surpasses apical cell of teg- 
mina; brick-red, densely speckled with yellow along median 
carina for a distance on each side to summit, elsewhere with 
scattering yellow points; above each eye an irregular blackish 
scar. Tegmina nearly covered, basal half reddish, punctured, 
tip fuliginous, below reddish yellow, legs reddish. Length 8.5 
mm., breadth 4 mm., altitude 4 mm. 

Described from one female collected by E. P. Van Duzee 
and referred to by him in his List of Muskoka Hemiptera. 
JYa6.— Muskoka Lake District {Van Duzee). 

Food plant, Populusgrandidentata? 

This species difllers from iiiarmor<(fa in the length of the 
posterior process, and in the markings as given by Say. 

In a letter to the author, Mr. E. P. Van Duzee says: "Are 
you aware that the species of Carynota have become mixed? 
Provaucher's pida equals Say's vatriHorata, while his mar- 
morata equals the species I determined as marmorata in my list 
of Muskoka Hemiptera, where, you see, I felt a little doubt. I 
sent Provancher a specimen from Muskoka which he used in 



Described Memhniridii' of North America. 445 

his determination. Had he sent me a specimen of his picttt 
before describing it I could have corrected the error." 

I see no reason why Optilete should be separated from 
Carynota, and, in my opinion, they should be united, Carynota 
Fitch having priority. Fairmaire's TJk'H(( porpJiyrr<(^ which was 
used by Dr. Still as the type of his genus Optilete appears to me 
to be Say's itiariHorafa, which I find to be somewhat variable 
as to markings. 

SUBFAMILY DARNING, Stal. 
XXV. Hemiptycha, Germ. 

146. H. NiGRORUFA, Walk. 

1858. HemiiJtijclia ni(jrornfa. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 
Suppl. 143. 
ffaft.— Mex, ( Walker). 

XXVf. Pyranthb, Stal. 

147. P. LONGicoRNis, Fairni. 

1846. HeHiiptijcha loiujicornts. Fairm, Rev. Memb. 

315, 7. 
1869. Fyrantlie Jonijicornis. St^l, Bid. Memb. Kan, 

252, 2. 
Hah. — N. A. {FairDiaire). 

XXVir. Darnoides, Fairm. 

148. D. CARiNATA, Leth. 

1872. Darnoides cariiiata. Leth. Ann. Sdc. Ent. Belg, 
XXV, 15. 
^a6.— Guadeloupe {Letlnerry). 

XXVIII. Hyphinoe, Stal. 

149. H. cuneata, Germ., 9. 

1835. Heniipfijcha cuiieaUt. Germ, in Silb. Rev. iii, 

24G', 8. 
1846. Hemipti/cha cuneata. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 319, 

23, pi. 6, fig. 26. 
Hemi}>tijcJia t/lobiceps, ^,. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 

319, 20, pi. 6, tig. 19. 



446 Illinois State Lahonifori/ of Ndtiiral Illsionj. 

1851. HeDilpti/cJui cnneata. Walk. List Horn. W. M. 
574, 28. 
Hemlptijcha (/lobiceps. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 

573, 25.' 

18(34. Hemlptijcha cKHcatd. Still, Hem. Mex. 71,428. 
1869. H i/ph I noe cnneata. Stal, Bid. Meiiih. Klin. 257, 1. 
1878. Hijphcnoe (/lobiceps. Butler, Cist. Etit. ii, 245, 8. 
Hab. — Mex. {Fainnaire). 

150. H. CAM ELUS, Gray. 

1882. Dar/ils cainelus. Gray, Griff. Au. King. Ins. ii, 

260, pi. 109, fig. 3. 
1885. HeDilptijcha sagata. Germ, in Sill). Rev. iii, 245, 

2. 
1846. Hoiilptijclia caiiteliis. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 319, 

21, pi. 6, fig. 21. 

1851. Hemlptijcha cameliis. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 

574, 26. 

Hemlptijclia vlrldlsslma* Walk. List Horn. B. M. 

572,21. 
Triquetra rallda. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 524, 
16. 
1858. Hemlptijcha rlrhllsslma. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 
Suppl. 146. 
Thella obliqiui. Walk. Ins. Sauud. Horn. 73. 
1864. Hemlptijcha cameliis. Stal, Hem. Mex. 71, 430. 
1869. Hijphlnoe cameliis. Stal, Bid. Memb. Kiiii. 257, 2. 
1878. Huphlnoe cameliis. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 344, 1. 
HijpJiliwc ri)-lcllssliii(i. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 845, 2. 
Hab. — Mex. (Fairmalre). 

151. H. ASPHALTiNA, Fairm. 

1846. Hemlptijcha asphaltiiia. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 819 

22, pi. 6, fig. 20. 

1851. Hemljitijcha asphalt I na. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 
574, 27. 

*Batler rauks viridissima as distinct. He says, "It not onlj differs 
in size and color [from cameJuft], being much larger and gre^ ner than 
eamelus,b\xtit has considerably longer tegmina, is more coarselv 
punctured, has the front margin of the pronotum bracket-shaped 
(.- — ^-^). the humeral horns prominent, and the posterior process 
longer." 



Descrih/'d Menihrdcido' of North Ainerico. 447 

1858. Heuiipfi/chd apr/forniis^ $. Walk. List Horn. B. 
M. Suppl. 144. 
Hemipti/cJia pubescens^ ?. Walk. List Horn. B. 
M. Suppl. 144. 
* 1864. Heniiptiirha aspliaJfiiia. St;il, Hem. Mex. 71, 
429. 
1869. Hyphiiioe. aspholfino. Sttil, Bid. Memb. Kan. 

257, 3. 
1878. Hi/jjJiinoe ((sph(dtin<(, Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 346, 
8. 
Hab. — Mex. (Fairmaire). 

152. H. BiGUTTA, Walker. 

1858. Hemiptijcha hUjutta. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 

Suppl. 142. 
1878. Hiipliinoe bigntfa. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 245, 5. 
fTaft.— Guatemala ( Walker). 

XXIX. OCHROLOMIA, StaL. ' 

153. 0. zoNiFEEA, Butler. 

1878. OchroJomia zonifera. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 339, 5, 
pi. 7, fig. 2. 
Hah. — Mex. {Butler). 

154. 0. INCERTA, Walker. 

1858. Darn is hicerta. Walk. List Hom. B. M, Suppl. 

149. 
1878. Ochrolomia incerta. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 338, 3. 
ZTaft.— Mex. {Salle). 

XXX. Stiotopblta, Stal. 

155. S. NOVA, Godg. 

1892. Stidopelto nora. Godg. Ent. News, iii, 109. 
Had.—Ga.\if. {Riley). 

156. S. FRATERNA, Butler. 

1878. Stictopeltafraterna. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 340, 9. 
Hah.—UQX. {Butler). 

157. S. BiPUNCTATA, Burm. 

1836. Darnis bipunctata. Burm. in Silb. Rev. iv, 171, 4. 
184S. Darnis bipunctata. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 480, 7. 



448 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

1851. Darnis hipunctata. Walk. List Horn. B.M. 575, 7. 
18(39. Stictopelta hipunctata. Sti\l, Hem. Fabr, ii, 32. 
1878. Sficfopelta bipundata^ Butler, Cist. Eut. ii, 340, 3. 
Hab.—Mex. (Fairniaire). 

158. S. AFFiNis, Guer. 

1838. Darnis affinis. Gruer. Ic. Reg. An. Ins. 364, pi. 

59, fig. 2. 
184B. Darnis affinis. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 480, 3. * 
1851. Darnis affinis. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 574, 3. 
1858. Darnis transversalis. Walk. Horn. B. M. Suppl. 

148. 
1864. Darnis affinis. Stal, Hem. Mex. 72, 438. 
1878. Stictopeltd. affinis. Butler, Cist. Ent. 339, 1. 
Hab.—M.Qyi. {Fairmaire). 

159. S. ADUSTA, Burm. 

1836. Darnis adusta. Burm. in Silb. Rev. iv, 170, 2. 
1846. Darnis adusta. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 480, 4. 
1851. Darnis adusta. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 575, 4. 
1878. Stidopelta adusta. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 340, 4. 
Hah. — Mex. {Fairmaire). 

160. S. MARMOKATA. Godg. 

1892. Stidopelta mannorata. Godg. Ent. News, iii, 201. 
Stidopelta marmorata . Townsend,€an. Ent. xxiv, 
195. 
Hab. — yew Mex. (Townsend). 

161. S. PRECOX, Burm. 

1836. Darnis prcecox. Burm. in Silb. Rev. iv, 173, 9. 
1846. Darnis prcecox. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 480, 6. 
1851. Darnis prwcox. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 575, 6. 
1878. Stidopelta prcecox. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 340, 7. 
Hab. — Mex. (Fairmaire). 

ir)2. S. STRiGiFRONS, Fairm. 

1846. Darnis strigifrons. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 481, 8. 
1851. Darnis strigifrons. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 475, 

8. 
1878. Stictopelta strigifrons. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 340, 5. 
Hab. — Mex. [Fairmaire). 



Described Memhracida' of North Anicrici. 449 

XXXI. Cryptoptera, Stal. 
168. C. BREvis, Fairm. 

1846. Darnis brevis. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 483, 18. 
1851. Darnis brevis. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 578, 20. 
1858. Darnis breois, var.? Walk. List Horn. B. M. 

Suppl. 147. 
1878. Cryptoptera- brevis. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 842, 3. 
Hab. — Max. {Fairmain'). 

XXXII. Darnis, Fabr. 

1(»4. D. LATERALIS, Fabr. 

1801. Membracis lateralis. Fain-, iu Coq. 111. Ic. Ins. 

ii, 78, pi. 18, fig. 9. 
1803. Darnis lateralis. Fabr. Syst. Rhyng. 27, 6. 
1821. Darnis lateralis. Germ. Mag. Ent. iv, 11, 1. 
1828.. Darnis lateralis. Boitard, Man. Ent. ii, 164. 

1835. Darnis lateralis. Germ, in Silb. Rev. iii, 250, 1. 

1836. Darnis lateralis. Burm. in Silb. Rev. iv, 170, 8. 
1840. Darnis lateralis. Blanchard, Hist. Nat. Ins. iii, 

185, 2. 

1843. Darnis lateralis. Am. & Serv. Hemip. 545, 1. 

1846. Darnis lateralis. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 480, 5. 

Darjiis lateralis. Crochard, Ed. Reg. An. In*, 
pi. 8, fig, 3. 

1869. Darnis lateralis. Stal, Hem. Fabr. 30, 1. 

1877. Darnis lateralis (?). Uhler, Wheeler's Rep. 

Append. J. 1333. 

1878. Darnis lateralis. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 337, 1. 
fl'a6.— Mojave Desert, Ca.\if .{Uhler), Mex. {Lethierry). 

165. D. LiNEOLA, Walk. 

1858. Darnis lineola. Walk List. Horn. B. M. Suppl. 

146. 
1878. Darnis lineola. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 343. (Sug- 
gests a new genus near Tomogonla of Stal.) 
Hah.—U^x. ( Walker). 

XXXIIT. Hypheus, Stal. 

16t). H. TUIl'ARTITUS, Walk. 

1851. Darnis tripartita. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 576, 
15. 



4o() [U'niois Stiiie Lahorafonj of Nulnnil Histonj. 

1878. Hyphens friparfifns. Butler, Cist. Eiit. ii, 348. 
Hab.—¥]-A.{W(dker). 

1H7. H. STCPiDUS, Walk. 

1851 . Daniis stnpida. Walk. List Horn. B. M. r>77, IH. 
1878. Hi/p/ieiis sitijudiis. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 348. 
Ilab.—'N. A. and Nova Scotia ( Walker). 

XXX IV. TOMOGONIA, Stal. 

1H8. T. viTTATiPENNis, Pairm. 

184(). Sm'dia vittati [tennis. Fainii. Rev. Meinb. 293,8, 

pi. 5, fig. 3. 
1851. Smilia vittafipennis. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 

535, 9. 

1869. Tomogoiiia vittafipermis^ S. St&l, Bid. Memb. 
kao. 258, 1. 
Hab. — Guatemala, (Fainnaire). 

XXXV. AOONOPHORA, Fairm. 

160. A. LAMiNATA, Fairm. 

1S4(). Aconophora lain/ncffa. Fairm. Hev. Memb. 294, 2. 
1851. Ac())io])hora hminafa. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 

536, 2. 

1864. Aconophora laminata. Still, Hem. Mex. 70, 426. 
1869. Aconophora Jauiinafa. StAl, Hem. Fabr. ii, 35. 
1878, A('onoj)hor(( haninaia. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 
347, 2. 
Hah. — Mex. {Fairma ire). 

17<\ A. MEXICANA, StA,l. 

1864. Aconojjhora mexicana. St^l, Hem. Mex. 70, 427. 
1869. Aconophora mexicana. Still, Hem. Fabr. ii, 35, 7. 
1878. Aconophora )npxiran((. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 347, 
4. 
//a6.— Mex. {Stdl), Guatemala, {Bfitler). 

171. A GRiSESCENs, Germ. 

1835. Smilia grittesccns. Germ. Silb. Rev. Ent. iii, 238, 
17. ' , 
Smilia 2^ iignax. Germ. Silb. Rev, Ent. iii, 239, 
19. {? = r/ilripes [Jidr StillJ. ) 
1851. Aconopho)-a interna. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 
541, 19. 



Described Meiiihrdcidit' of North America. 451 

1869. Aconophora gilvipes. Stil, Hera. Fabr. ii, 35, 10. 
1878. Aconophora pnqnax. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 348, 
10. 
Aconophora (/ilri.pes. Butler, Cist. Ent..ii, 348, 

11. 
Aconophora grisescens. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 353, 
34. 
Hab.—Mex. (Butler). 

172. A. MARGiNATA, Walker. 

1851. Aconophora luarf/iiiata. Walk. List. Horn. B. M. 

540, 10. 
1869. Aconophora </racilicorms. St^l, Hem. Fabr. ii, 

35, U. 
1S78. Aconophora mar(/inaf<r Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 

348, 8. 
Hab.—Mex. (Stdl). 

173. A. PALLESCENS, StAl. 

18(i9. Aconophora pallescens. StAl, Hera. Fabr. ii, 35, 

12. 
1878. Ac<>noj)h()r<i paJlescens. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 353, 

37. 
Hah.—Mex. (mdl). 

174. A. FEMORALIS, Still. 

1869. Aconoph<rra femoralis. StS,l, Hem. Fabr. ii, 35, 

13. ' / 

1878. Ationophora fenioraJIs. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 351, 

27. 
Hab.—Mex. (Stdl). 

17ri. A. GLADIATA, Stal. 

1869. Aconophora gladiata. StAl, Hera. Fabr. ii, 35, 14. 
1878. AconopJiora gladiata. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 351, 
26. 
Hab.—Vexa. Cruz, Mex. (Stdl). 

176. A. LINE08A, Walk. 

1858. Aconophora lineosa. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 

Suppl. 134. 
1878. . Aconophora lineosa. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 352, 
30. 
/fa6.— N. A. (Walker). 



452 Illinois Sttite Lahonitori/ of N<Utinil Histori/. 

177. A. LATicoRNis, Walk. 

1858. Aconophoni Inticornis. Walk .List Horn. B. M. 

Suppl. 134. 
1869. Acoiiophont Juistata. StAl, Hem. Fabr. ii, 35, 5. ■ 
1878. Aconophora laticornis. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 349, 
18. 
//a6.— Mex. ( Walker). 

178. A. STABiLis, Walk. 

1858. Aconophora stahilis. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 

Suppl. 135. 
1878. Aconophora stahilis. Butler, Cist. Eat. ii, 347, 3. 
Hab.—M.ex. ( Walker). 

179. A. CALiGiNOSA, Walk. 

1858. Aconophora caliginosa. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 

Suppl. 135. 
1878. Aconophora caliginosa. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 349, 

19. 
Z?a6.— Guatemala {^Walker). 

180. A. ^NOSPARSA, Butler. 

1878. AconopJiora a')U)Sparsa. Butler, Cist. Eut. ii, 
348, 9, pi. 7, fig. 14. 
^ft6.— Mex., Volcano of Orizaba, {Butler). 

181. A. PRUNiTiA, Butler. 

1878. Aconophora primitia. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 350, 
21, pi. 7, fig. 19. 
Hah. -Mex., Oaxaca,' (Butler). 

182. A. CONIFERA, Butler. 

1878. Aconophora conifera. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 350, 
23, pi. 7, fig. 15. 
Hab.—Mex. (Butler). 

183. A. coNGOLOR, Walk. 

1851. Aconophora concolor. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 

540, 17. 

1869. Aconophora nigra. Sttll, Hem. Fabr. ii, 35, 5. 
1878. AcoHoplan'a concolor. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 349, 17. 
Hah. — Mex. ( Walker). 

184. A. coMPRESSA, Walk. 

1851. Aconophora compressa. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 

541, 18. 



Described Memhracidce of North America. 453 

1878. Aconophoni compressa. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 
351, 24. 
^rt&.— Mex. ( WaUcer). 

185. A. FLAYiPES, Germ. 

1835. SmUiaflavipes. Germ. Rev. Silb. iii, 238, 16. 
1846. Aconophora fiavipes. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 294, 1. 
1878. Aconophora fiavipes. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 346, 1. 
Hab.—Mex. (Lethierry). 

XXXVI. Heteronotus, Lap. 

186. H. QUADRiNODOSUS, Fairm. 

1846. Heteronotus quadrinodosus. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 

499, 1, pi. 5, fig. 27. 
1864. Heteronotus quinquenodosus. Stdl, Hem. Mex. 70, 

425. 
Hab. — Mex. {Fairmaire). 

187. H. TRiNODOSUS,* Butler. 

1878. Heteronotus trinodosus. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 357, 
2, pi. 7, fig. 8. 
^a&.— Mex. {Butler). 

SUBFAMILY HOPLOPHORINiE, Stal. 
XXXVII. Platyootis, Stal. 
Subgenus Platycotis, Stal. 

188. P. SAGiTTATA, Germ. 

1821. Membracis sagittata. Germ. Mag. Ent. iv, 19, 15. 
1824. Memhracis belligera. Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. 

Phila. vi, 302, 13. 
1835. Hoplophora sagittata. Germ, in Silb. Rev. iii, 

241, 2. 
1846. Hoplophora sagittata. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 273, 

16. 
1851. Hoplophora sagittata. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 

515, 20. 

*M. Lucien Lethierry, in Ann. tSoc. Ent. France, October, 1890, 
paee 154, described anew species of Heteronotus from Venezuela, as 
trinodosus. As Mr. J3utler's name has priority, I will chance tne 
name of the Venezuela species to Ltthierryi. 



454 Illinois State Lahoratory of Ndtural HiHtonj. 

1851. Thelia belligera . Walk. List Horn. B. M. 1 143, 45. 
1859. Memhrads hellif/era. Say, Compl. Writ, ii, 380, 

13. 
1869. Plaftjcofis sagltttdu. StAl, Hem. Fabr. ii, 87. 

Phifycotis sagitfatfi. StA,l, Bid. Memb. Kiin. 2()3, 

1. 

1890. Pldtj/cotis sag/ftatd. Van Duzee, Psyche, v, 389. 
Hab.— Perm, and Fla. (Say), Calif, and S. C. (Riley), 
111. (Forbes). 

189. P. MiifAX, Godg. 

1892. Platycotis minax. Godg. Ent. News, iii, 109. 
Hah.—QBMi. (Riley). 

190. P. ASODALIS, Godg. 

1892. Potnia asodalis. Godg. Ent. News, iii, 110. 
ifab.— Mario County, Calif. (Riley). 

191. P. AGUTANGULA, Stul. 

1869i Platycotis acutangulus. Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 
263,2. 
Had.—Mex. (Stdl). 

192. P. QUADRiviTTATA. Say. 

1831. Memhracis quadrivittata. Say, Journ Acad. Nat. 

Sci. Phila. vi, 300, 9. 
1835. Hoplophora 4-lineata. Germ, in Silb. Rev. 241, 3. 
1846. Hoplophora lineata. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 270, 4, 
pi. 6, fig. 12, 13, and 15, nee 14. 
Hoplophora 4-lineata. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 273, 
17. 
1851. Hoplophora 4-lineata. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 
515, 21. 
AconopJiora rubrivittata. Walk. List Hom. B. 

M. 537, 11. 
Aconophora porreda. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 

538, 12. 

Aconophora viridescens. Walk. List Hom. B. 

M. 538, 13. 
Aconophora guttifera. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 

539, 15. ' 



Described Meml))-<icid(P of North Ainerint, 455 

1851. Hoplopliora Jincafd. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 
511, 4. 
Tlielia qHadririffato. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 
1143, 44. 
1859. Metnhracis qifttdrtvitfofn. Say, Corapl. Writ, ii, 

879, 9. 
1869. Thel'ut quadrloiftdfa. Rath von in Mornbert's 
Hist. Lancaster Co. Pa. 551. 
Plntijcofis 4-l'tiieata. Still, Hem. Fabr. ii, 37. 
1876, Hoplophoni qu<idriritt((t((. Glover, Rep. U. S. 

Dept. Agr. 30, fig. 22. 
1878. Tlielin qH(idr/viff(if((. Glover, MS. Journ. Horn. 
pi. 1, fig. 23. 
Hoplophoni q)((idriritt<it((. Glover, MS. Journ. 

Horn. pi. 2, fig. 19. 
Aconophora qiKidr/riffatd. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 
' 351, 28. 

Aranophoni riridesa-ns. Butler, Cist. Ent. ii, 351, 
29. 

1889. P/afj/rotis quad r ir iff (ltd . Prov. Faune Can. iii, 

250. 
Phdijcofis 4-m(iciihitd. Prov. Faune Can. iii, 250. 

1890. PIdfi/cofis qH((driviff(if(i. Van Duzee, Psyche, v, 

389. 
Phdi/rofis qiuidririff'ifd. Smith, Cat. Ins. N. J. 
440. 

Hab.—Md. (Say), D. C. Hnd Tex. {Riley), N. J. (Goding), 
Fla. (Ashmead), Mex. [Butler), Carolina {Fair- 
muire). Can. (Frovanrher), Fenn. (Ratiwoii). 

193. P. NIGROLINEATA, PrOV, 

1889. P/(ifi/cofis ni(/rolineid(/. Prov. Faune Can. iii, 251. 
ffa^.— Vancouver [Provaneher) . 

194. P. viTTATA, Fabr. 

1803. Centrotus riffatus. Fabr. Syst. Rhyng. 20, 23. 

1804. Cerropis vittafci. Coq. 111. Ins. iii, 93, tab. 21, 

fig. 5. 
1835. Hoplof)hora viffafu. Burm. Handb. Ent. ii, 134, 2. 
1846, Hoplophora cittata. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 271, 5. 



456 Illinois State Laboratory of Natund Hisfonj. 

1851. Hoplophora rittata. Walk. List Hom.B. M. 511,5. 
Hoplophora humilis. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 

514, 18. 

18()9. Flaft/cofis rittata. Stal, Hem. Fabr. 87, 1. . 
18U0. Plafijcotis vittafa. Smith, Cat. Ins. N. J. 440. 
Hah. — Carolina (Fabricim), N. J. {Smitti). 

Subgenus Lophopelta, St.\l. 
195. P. TDBERCULATA, Faimi. 

184(). Roplopliora tuhercnlata. Fairm. iiev. Memb, 

237, 18, pi. 6, fig. 9. 
1851. Hoplophora tuhercuhifa. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 

515, 22. 

1869. Hoplophora tuherciihfta. StS-1, Hem. Fabr. ii, 37. 
Hah.— Calif. (Fairniaire). 

19P). P. HISTRIONICA, still. 

18()4. HoplopjJiora /tistrionica. Stal, Hem. Mex. 69, 414. 

1869. Platycotis histrionica. Still, Hem. Fabr. ii, 37. 

Hah. — Vera Cruz, Mex. {Stal), Mex. {Fainnaire). 

Subgenus Microschema, Stal. 

197. P. SPRETA, n. sp. 

Color light yellow, lower edge of prothorax bright red; 
densely punctured. Head broad, short, densely punctured; 
eyes prominent, yellow; ocelli nearer to each other than to the 
eyes, black. Prothorax armed at shoulders with a short blunt 
horn on each side; base straight, not sinuate, between eyes; 
median carina very prominent, anterior half black; on each side 
in front a deep impression containing a prominent tubercle, 
above and externally two smaller tubercles, the three forming a 
triangle; on each side of median carina two or three smaller 
carinse parallel with it; just above and behind the shoulders a 
conspicuous depression; lower border rosy red, a pink cloud 
extending over anterior half ; posterior portion depressed, 
extremity elevated, at base slightly narrowing for a distance, 
then rapidly attenuated to apex. Thighs yellow, tibiaj and 
tarsi red; tibiae with a black spot on the upper third. 
Tegmina opaque, lightly punctured; veins prominent, reddish 
yellow; a row of three black dots across center of tegmina, 



Described Memlraciclce of North America. 457 

another dot half-way between this row and the base; two 
discoidal cells, wings with three apical cells, anal cell large. 
Length 10 mm. 

Described from three specimens. Types in author's col- 
lection. 

Hah. — Mex. (Ashmead). 

XXXVIII. HOPLOPHORA, Germ. 

198. H. MONOGRAMMA, Germ. 

1835. Hoplophora nionograiuma. Germ, in Silb. Rev. 

iii, 24, 2, (). 
1846. Hoplophora mono gram ma. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 

271, 8. 

Hoplophora sanguinosa. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 
270, 2. 
1851. Hopjlophora monogramma. Walk. List Horn. B. 
M. 512, 8. ,' 
Hoplophora sanguinosa. Walk. List Horn. B. 
M. 511, 2. 
.1864. Hoplophora monogramma. Stdl, Hem. Mex. 69, 

413. 
1869. Hoplopltora monogramma. Stdl, Bid. Memb. 
Kan. 264, 6. " 
Hah. — Mex. (Fairmaire). 

199. H. CtLoyeri, n. sp. 

1&78. Hojylophora, n. sp. Glover, MS. Journ. Hom.pl. 

1, fig. 2. 

This differs from other species of the genns in its smaller 

size, and in the presence of a light spot on each side at base of 

prothorax, and one just before the tip. Length 4.7 mm. to 

tip of elytra. 

^a6.— Unknown. 

200. H. ciNEREA, Fairm. 

1846. Hoplophora cinerea. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 272, 13. 
1851. Hoj>loph<n-a cinerea. Walk. List. Hom. B. M. 

513, 13. 
1858. HoplopJiora cinerea. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 

Suppl. 129. 



458 U/ino/!> State Ltihoratori/ of Nutmutl Histori/. 

1864. Hoplojihora cinerca. StAl, Hem. Mex. 69, 412. 
186U. Hoplophont cinerea. Still, Bid. Mein)). Kiia. 204, 

ffiih.— Mex. {Fairinalre). 

201. H. OKNATA, Fairm. 

1S46. lioploplinra orndtt). Fairra. Rev. Menib. 274, 19. 
1851. Hoploplioni onuit'ii. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 515, 
28. 
Hub.— 'Mex. {Fairmaire). 

XXXIX. POTNIA, Stal. 

202. P. FAiRMAiREi, Guer. 

1846. Hoplophora (/r<ni(i</ensis. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 

273, 15. ' 
1857. HopJopJiont /((irmdirei. Guer. Hist. Cuba, Ins. 

482. 
1869. Hoplophoy(( ( E ncliot ijpa ) (j nindden ^is. StS,l, Hem. 
Fabr. ii, 37. 
Potnid fd'n-mdirei. Still, Bid. Memb. Kiln. 267, 1. 
Hdh.—Gviba, (Gtierin). 

XL. Umbonia, Bukm. 

208. U. CRASSicoKNis, Am. & Serv. 

1848. Phi/soplid crdssicoi-nis. Am. & Serv. Hemip. 

548, 1, pi. 10, fig. 1. 
1846. Umbonia crassiconiis. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 275, 

2. 
1851. P/iysoplid crdssicornis. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 

517, 3. 
1864. Umbonia crassicornis. St&l, Hem. Mex. 69, 415. 
1S69. Umhonia nrissiroriiis. Still, Bid. Memb. Kiin. 

264, 1. 
1878. PhijsopUa crassicornis. Glover, MS. Journ. Hom. 

' pi. 1, fig. 21. 
1889. Umbonia crassicornis. Prov. Faune Can. iii, 249. 
//«&.— Mex. {Fairmaire). 

204. U. NiGRATA, Am. & Serv, 

1843. Physoplia nigrata. Am. & Serv. Hemip. 543, 2. 



Described MeniJ»-aci<hi' of North America. 459 

1846. Uitib(tiii(( Hi(/nifa. Fairm. Hev. Memb. 275, 1, 

pi. 4, fig. 6 and 7. 
1853. Physopli(( lugnifd. Walk, List Horn. B. M. 516, 1. 
PliysopUa media. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 5](), 2. 
18()4. Umbonia ni(/r<d<i. Stul, Hem. Mex. 69, 415. 
1869. Umbonia nigrata. Still, Bid. Memb. Kiln. 264, 2. 
1892. Fhysoph'a nigrata. Kirby, Element. Text-Book 
Ent. 2d ed, 213, 249, pi. 80, fig. 6. 
Ilab. — Fla. (Amyot & Serville), Mex. {Fairmaire) 

205. U. OROziMBO, Fairm. 

1846. Umbonia orozimbo. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 277,7, 

pi. 6, fig. 2. 
1851. Umbonia orozimbo. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 

519, 7. 
1858. Umbonia picta, ?. Walk. List Hom. B. M. Suppl. 
130. 
Umbonia deconfta, ?. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 

Suppl. 130. 
Plujsoplia intermedia, $. Walk. Ins. Saund. 66. 
1864. Umbonia orozimbo.' St^l, Hem. Mex. 69, 418. 
1869. Umbonia orozimbo. St^l, Bid. Memb. Kan. 265, 3. 
1889. Umbonia orozimbo. Prov. Faune Can. iii, 250. 
Hah. — Mex. {Fairmaire). 

206. U. spiNOSA, Fabr. 

1775. Membracis spinosa. Fabr. Syst. Ent. 675, 4. 

1781. Membntcis xpinona. Fabr. Spec. Ins. ii, 316, 5. 

1787. Membracis spinosa. Fabr. Mant. Ins. ii, 263, 11. 

1788. Und>oni(( spinosa. Gmel. Ed. Syst. Nat. i, 3, 

2094, 66. 
Cicada spinosa. Stoll, Cig. 83, pi. 21, fig. 116. 
1792. Membracis spinosa. Oliv. Enc. Meth. vii, 665, 20. 

Membracis arnaita. Oliv. Enc. Meth. vii, ()68, 3. 
1794. Membracis spinosa. Fabr. Ent. Syst. iv, 11, 12. 
1803. Cenfrotus spinosus. Fabr. Syst. Rhyng. 17, (*>. 
1835. Hoplophora spinostt. Germ, in Silb. Rev. iii, 
243, 8. 

Umbonia spinosa. Burm. Handb. Ent. ii, 138, 1. 

Cicada spinosa. Sulz. Hist. Ins, pi. 9, fig. 0. 



460 Illino/s Sfafc Ltilinrafori/ of Ndtiinil liixlonj. 

1843. He>it/i)it/c/i(( splnosn. Blanchard, Hemip. 184, 8, 
pi. l:}, fig. C. 
IJmhonia spinosa. Am. & Serv. Heiiiip. 543, 1, 
pi. 10, fig. 2. 
184(). Umhonid spinosa. Fairra. Rev. Memb. 276, (>. 
1851. UmhoHia spinosa. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 51<J, 6. 
1869. Vnihotiid spliios<i. StAl, Hem. Fa])r. ii, 37, 1. 

Umbonia spuiosa. St&l, Bid. Memb. Kiln. 2()5, 7. 
iJrt6.--Mex. [Ashmtad). 

207. U. AMAZiLi, Fairm. 

1846. Umbonia (imazili. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 277, 9. 
1851. Umbonia a ma zUi Walk. List. Horn. B. M. 519, 
9. 
Hah. — N. A. {Fairmaire). 

208. U. RECLiNATA, Germ. 

1835. HoplopJioi-a recliiaita. Germ, in Silb. Rev. iii, 

243, 9. 
1846. Umbo)iia reclinafa. Fairra. Rev. Memb. 276, 5, 

pi. 6, fig, 3. 
1851. Umbonia reclinafa. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 518, 

5. 
1854. Umbonia funesfra . Stal, Nya Hem. 249, 1. 
1858. Umbonia funesfra. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 

Suppl. 338. 
Umbonia multiformis. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 

Suppl. 129. 
1864. Umbonia reclinafa. St.ll, Hem. Mex. 69, 417. 
1869. Umbonia reclinafa. Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 265, 

10. 
1889. Umbonia reclinafa. Prov. Faune Can. iii, 250. 
i/a6.— Camptacjhy, Mexico {Fairmaire). 

XLL OCHROPEPLA, Stal. 

2(19. 0. FALLENS, Stal. 

1869. Ochropepla pollens. Still, Bid. Memb. Kan. 268, 3. 
Hab.—Mt^x. {Stal). 



Desc) ibed Memhracidm of North Aiiterica. 461 

SUBFAMILY MEMBRAOIN^, Stal. 

XLII. Membraois, Fabr. 

210. M. 6-MACULATA. Walk. 

185S. Membnicis O-nKiculata. Walk. Ins. Saund. 59. 
^afe.— Honduras, {Walker), Mex. (Ashinead). 

211. M. MEXicANA, Guer. 

1838. Meiiihniris mexinnxi. Gner. Icon. Re^. Anim. 

364, pi. 59, fig. 1. 
1846. Memhracis niexicatvf. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 248, 

19. 
1851. Meinbi'(f(:is n/e.rianui. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 

478, 23. 
1864. Meiiibntcis mej-innvi. Still, Hera. Mex. 67, 404. 
1889. Mcmbracis mexicann. Prov. Faune Can. iii, 228. 
if^afe.— Mex. (Fairmaire), Honduras (Walker), Costa 
Rica {Lcthierry). 

212. M. STOLIDA, Fairm. 

1846. Mnnbraris stolid a. Fairra. Rev. Memb. 248, 20. 
1851. Meinbraris stolida. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 478, 
24. 
Hah .—Mex. (Fairmaire). 

213. M. NIGRA ? Stoll. 

1788. Cicada nigra. Stoll, Cig. 68, pi. 17, fig. 92. 
1792. Membnicis nif/ra. Oliv. Enc. Meth. 668, 4. 
1803. Mfmbracis coinpressa. Fabr. Syst. Khyng. 9, 

14. 
1835. Membracis coiHpressa. Germ, in Silb. Rev. iii, 

225, 8. 
1846. 3Ieinbracis nif/ra. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 247, 13. 
1851. Menihn(cis 7ii;/ra. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 477, 
17. 
Hab.—\Yest. States {Riley). 

XLIII. Enohenopa, Am. & Serv. 

214. E. IGNIDORSUM, Walk. 

1858. Enchenopa if/nidor-iiiiii. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 
Suppl. 124. 



4()2 I/liiiols State Lahoratonj <>/' Ndtural Hisfor;/. 

1S()4. Mcinbrac/s ,sr//((t(i. Stal, Hem. Mex. ()7, 40(). 
186V). KnchettopK if/iiidorsinii. Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 
272, 10. 
Hab.—yiex. i]Valkir). 

215. E. APK'ALis, Stal. 

1864. Enchenopii <ij>inilis. Stal, Hem. Mex. 68, 408. 
H(tb.-Mex. {mal). 

21<). E. BiNOTATA, Say. 

1824. Mi'inhrariH l/iiiotafd. Say, Narr. Loni?'s Exped. 

Append. 301, 4. 
183"). Meinbntc/s biiKifiifd. Germ, in Silb. llev. iii, 226, 

10. 
1841. Meiiibrdvis binotata. Harr. Rep. Ins. Mass. 181. 
1846. Meitibnirh binotdtn. Fairm. Re^^ Memb. 251, 29. 
1851. Enchopht/UuDi bliiotdfidii. Fitch, Cat. Horn. N. Y. 
47, 641. 
EiirlieiiojMi biiiotdfd. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 
481, 2. 
1854. Encliophyllnin binotdtniii. Emmons, Afjjr. N. Y. 
V, pi. 13, fig. 17. 
TJielid binotdtd. Emmons, Agr. N. Y. v, 156. 
1856. Euchenopa Invofdtd. Fitch, 3d Rep. Ins. N. Y. 

in Trans. Agr. Soc. 146, 90; and 464. 
1S59. Mcinhnwis binotdtd. Say, Compl. Writ, ii, 201, 4. 
18()2. Membracis binotdtd. Harris, Treatise, 221, 224. 
Menibracis binotdtd. Uhler in Harr. Treatise, 221. 

1865. Etichophi/Itimi Itinotdtnm. Walsh. & Riley, Am. 

Ent.i, 248. 
1S()9. Enclicnopd birittdta [?]. Rathvon, in Mombert's 

Hist. Lancaster Co. Pa. 551. 
Eiirhenojxt hinot((ta. Still, Bid. Memb. Kiin. 272, 

U. 
1876. Enrhenopd ttinotdta. Glover, MS. Jouru. Hom. 

pi. 1, fig. 22. 
1878, Enchenopa binotutd. Glover, Rep. U. S. Dept. 

Agr. 28, fig. 11. 
1880. Encltenopd biuotata. Riley, Am. Ent. iii, 254. 



Described Me)nhraci(l(e of North America. 468 

1881. EiivJtoplnjlliiiii })inof<ifi(m. Riley, Am. Nat. ,xv, 

574." 

1882. EncJienopa biiioTafa. Lintner, 1st Rep. Ids. N.Y. 

281, 283. 

1883. Eiichenopa hi)iofafa. Saunders, Tns. Inj. to Fruits, 

242, 129. 
1885,' Enchenopa binofaf<(. Dimmock (Mrs. ), Psyche, 
iv. 241. 

1888. Enc]ienopabi}iota'a. Comstock, Introd. Eut. 172, 

fig. 142. 

1889. Enchenopa binotafa. Van Duzee, Can. Ent. xxi, ft. 
Enchenopa binotafa. Provancher, Faune Can. 

iii, 229. 

1890. EncJienopa binotata. Van Duzee, Psyche, v, 389. 
En-cltenopa binotata. Packard, Ins. Inj. Forest 

and Shade Trees, 341, 10, and 512, 95. 
Enchotopa binotata. Smith, Cat. Ins. N. J. 440. 

Hah.—M.o., Tex., Penn., Mich., and N. Y. [Riley): Illinois 
{Gocliug); la. {Osb'^irn); N. J. [Smith); Mass. {Harris); 
Md. {Qlover); Can. [Van Duzee). 

217. E. BREvis, Walk. 

1851. Enchenopa brevis. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 492, 39. 
Hab. — Illinois (Goding). 

218. E. SERiCEA, Walk. 

1851. Enchenopa sericea. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 493, 
41. 
Hab. — Mexico {Champion). 

219. E. cuRVicoRNis, Walk. 

1858. Enchenopa cnrricornia. Walk. Ins. Saund. 62. 
1869. EncJienopa curvicornis. Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 

272, 12. 

Hab. — Vera Cruz ( Walker). 

220. E. BiFUSiFERA, Walk. 

1858. EncJienopa bifusifera. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 

Suppl. 125. 
1869. EncJienopa bifusifera. Stal, Bid. Memb. Kiin. 

273, 13. 

£fa6.— Vera Cmz {WalJier). 



46-4 Illinois Sfiitr Lahordtorij of 'Suhiral ffisfi))'i/. 

221. E. MALALEUCA, Walk. 

1858. Euclienopa mulaleiicd. Walk. in'^. Sauiid. 55). 
Hab.—M.BX.{V/amer). 

XL IV. Oampylenchia, Stal. 

222. C. MiNANS, Fairm. 

1846. Membracis iiiiiKnis. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 252, 35, 

pi. 4, fig. 32. 
1851. Enchenopa minaus. Walk. List. Horn. B. M. 

482, 8. 
1864. McDthracis minam. Stal, Hem. Mex. ()7, 405. 
Hill). — Mex. [Fairm aire). 

228. C. curvata, Fabr. ' 

1803. Meinbracis cur rata. Fabr. Syst. Rhyng. 13, 34. 
1824. Membracis lati.pes. Say, Narr. Long's Exp. Ap- 
pend. 302, 5. 
1846. Membracis latlpes. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 252, 32. 
1851. Enchenopa antonina, 6. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 
488, 32. 
Enchenopa renosa.^ $. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 

488, 33. 
EncJienopa deiisa^ $. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 

490, 35. 
Enchenopa frig ida, ?. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 

490, 36. 
Enchenopa blmaculata, S. Walk. List Hom. B. 

M. 491, 37. 
Enchenopa latipes. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 

482, 5. 
AconopJtora cnrrafa. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 

537, 10. 
EnchophDllum latipes, $. Fitch, Cat. Hom. N. Y. 
47, 644. 

1858. Enchenopa fri(jida,vdx. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 

Suppl. 126. 

1859. Membracis latipes. Say, Compl. Writ, i, 202, 5. 
1869. Campi/lenchia curoata. Stdl, Hem. Fabr. ii, 43, 3. 



Described Memhracidn^ of North America. 465 

187(). Eurlienopn ciirrdfu. Uliler, List Hem. W. Miss. 

1877. Enclieyiopa ciirraftt. Uhler, Rep. Ins. Coll. 1875, 
457. 
Campylencliia ciirrata. Uhler, Wheeler's Rep. 
Append. J. 183:1 
188S. Enchenopa currafa. Comstock, Introd. Ent. 172. 
1890. Cantpiilencliia ciirrdfa. Van Duzee, Psyche, v, 
389. 
Enchenopd ciirrafd. Smith, Cat. Ins. N. J. 440. 
Hah.-Tax., Vt., Mont, la., Wyom,, Col., N. C, Mo., 
and C«lif. (Riley); III. {Qodimj); N. Y. {Fitch); N. 
J. [SmitJi);^. Mex. [Uhhr). 

XLV. Enohophyllum, Am. & Serv. 
Subgenus Tropidocera, Stal. 

224. E. RiLEYi, Godo:. 

1893. Eiic}iop/ii///u)H rllei/i. Godg. Can. Ent. xxv, 56, 7. 
ffab.—'Si. Vincent Island, W. I. {Goding). 

225. E. TRIMACCJLATCTJVI, Stal. 

1864. EiichophijIliDii ti-im<iculatum. Stal, Hem. Mex. 

68, 407. 
1869. EiivJioplnjlhiiii triniacnluttini. Sttil, Memb. Kan. 

271. 

Hah.-'^le^.{Htal\ 

Subgenus Phyllotropis, Stal. 

226. E. FASCiATUM, Fabr. 

1767. Membraris fai^ciata. Gniel. Ed. Syst. Nat. ii, 

2092, 54. 

17S7. Mcinbracis fasciata. Fabr. Mant. [ns. ii, 262, 6. 

1791. Meinbracis fasciata. Fabr. Ent. Syst. iv, 9, 6. 

Mcinbracis fasciata. Oliv^. Enc. Meth. vii, 662, 5. 

1803. Meinbracis fasciata. Fabr. Syst. Rhyng. 9,16. 

1835. Membracis fasciat((. Germ, in Silb. Rev. iii, 

225, 6. 

1843. Meinbracis cucidlata. Am. & Serv. Hemi}). 534, 

pi. 9,_fig. 2. 



•466 Illinois State L((hor(itonj of Ndfiiral llistorij. 

184(). Mcnibracis fasciatd. Pairm. Rev. Memb. 245, 8. 
1851. Membracis fasciata. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 

476, 12. 
18()9. EnchoplnjlJiim f(i^n(fti(i)i. Still, Hem. Fabr. ii, 

41. 
/Tab.— N. A. (Van Duzee). 

XLVI. ^CHMOPHORA, Stal. 

227. A. FERRUGINOSA, n. sp. 

Color,iri dried specimens, ferruginous; strongly compressed, 
but not elevated; the median longitudinal carina percurrent, 
the lateral carinae, starting from the humeral angles, arch 
upon the l)ack. and extend along lower border to apex, which 
is very long and slender and reaches apex of tegmina. Ante- 
rior prothoracic process projects forward and a little upward, 
seen from above slightly swollen just behind middle, apex sud- 
denly swollen into a knob. The median carina extends along 
under side of anterior process. Tegmina ferruginous, basal 
part subcoriaceous, apex subtransparent ; strongly punctured 
throughout. Behind the head, in front of humeral angles, a 
broad and deep fossa, which extends upwards, then backwards, 
and disappears; the color of this is much darker. Feet fer- 
ruginous. Length 5 mm.; with anterior horn 9 mm. 

Described from two specimens received from Mr. E. P. Van 
Duzee. Types in author's collection. 

This species may be found in collections labeled EncJienopa 
gracilis, but it belongs to Still's genus as above, and has not 
been described 

//«6.— Arizona ( Van Duzee). 

228. A. CALIFORNENSIS, n. sp. 

Pale ferruginous, differing from /<//v////y/o.s7/ in being mot- 
tled posteriorly with yellow, and in the following particulars: 
lightly tuberculate; form more robust; anterior horn more 
elevated and shorter; a slight sinus at posterior base of an- 
terior process. Tegmina entirely coriaceous and concolorous 
with rest of body. Length 5 mm.; with anterior horn 7 mm. 
Hah.— Calif. {Eiley). 

Described from two examples received from Dr. Riley. 
Types in author^s collection. 



Described Membracidce of North America. 467 

XL VI I. Sphongophorus, Fairm. 
Subgenus Cladonota, Stal. 

229. S. LATIFRONS, Still. 

1869. Sphoniinphorushiiifrons. St^l, Bid. Memb. Kiin, 
274, 4. 
ifrtft.— Mex. [Htdl) 

230. S. ALBOFASCIATUS, Godiiig. 

1893. Sphonfjophoriis dlbofasciafa. Godg. Can. Eut. 
XXV, 54, 5. 
Hab.—St. Yincenl Island, W. I. (Godinfj/). 

Subgenus Sphongophorus, Fairm. 

231. S. CLAVIGERUS, Still. 

1864. Sphongophorus claviger. Stal, Hem. Mex. 68, 
411. 
ir«6.— Mex. imdl). 

232. S. BALLiSTA, Germ. 

1835. Hiipyatichenia ballista. Germ, in Rev. Silb. iii, 

231, 1. 
1841. Hj/psaucJicnid hdlista. Am. & Serv. Hemip. 535, 

pi. 9. fig. 5. 
1846. Sphoiif/opJiorus ballist<(. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 

261, 1. 
1851. Sphorujopliorns baUista. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 

497, 1. 
1858. Sphomiopltorus baUista. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 

Snppl. 127. 

Hah. — M«x. and Ga. (Fairmaire); Costa Rica. (Le- 
fhi'-rrt/). 

Subgenus Lobocladisca, Stal. 

233. S. VEXiLLiFERUs, Goding. 

1893. Sphoiigophorns vexilfifero. Godg. Can. Ent. xxv, 
53, 4. 
Hab.—St. Vincent Islacd, W. I. (Goding). 



468 .Illinois Sfdfc Ldhoniforij of KtitiintI HIsfori/. 

XLVIir. Pterygia, Lap. 

284. P. THITUBERCULATA, Still. 

IS(U). Pfcri/f/lo trifiihrrnildfd. Stal, liid. Memb. Kiin. 

278, 5. 
//a?y.- -Mex. (*S'^/Z). 

XLIX. Tropidoscyta, Stal. 

285. T. PALLIDTPENNIS, 5, Still. 

186'.). Trovidoscyfd polUdipennls. Stc\l, Hem. Fabr. 
ii, 46,' 3. 
Hab.—Mex. (Stcil). 

286. T. ferructInipennis, n. sp. 

$ ?. Head a trifie shorter than wide, with scattering hainsi, 
apex obtusely rounded, ocelli above a line passing through eyes, 
situated near base of prothorax, a trifle nearer the eyes than to 
each other; antennte black, longer than usual. Prothorax slen- 
der, elevated in front, convex, not foliaceous, highest point form- 
ed above head in an obtuse angle, furnished with a lightly ele- 
vated median carina; on each side a carina starting at middle of 
inferior borders passes obliquely upward and forward, the two 
meeting at the superior angle in front; posterior process uuisin- 
uateal)0ve, destitute of a tubercle, but not quite straight; color 
fusco-ferruginous, excepting a transverse band just before 
apex and a spot on middle of back, which are much paler or 
nearly white, tip of apex dark brown: in the male a nearly 
black spot before the white band. Tegmina with basal por- 
tion of clavus and corium ferruginous, middle portion with 
small brown spots, terminal cells subhyaline, exterior edge a trifle 
cloudy; two discoidal cells separated by second basal cell, third 
apical cell elongate, clavus not narrowed toward apex; wnngs 
with four apical cells, first long oval, second sessile with trun- 
cated base. Abdomen and chest dark brown; front and middle 
tibiae broadly dilated, hind pair lightly dilated, yellow; femora 
and tips of tarsi dark brown. Length 6, ^) ram.; ?, 6 mm. 

Described from one male and one female. Types in 
National Collection and that of the author. 

Hab.— Los Angeles Co., Calif. {Riley). 



Described MeiiihracJda' of North America. 469 

This species is near ^x<i/^c?ipen«^s, Still, but is larger, and 
has the tegmina ferruginous. 

237. T. coRNUTULA, $, Stal. 

18()9. Tropkloscyta coniiitida. Still, Hem. Fabr. ii, 
46,4. 
Hah.— Mix. (Stdl). 

238. T. GIBBERA, ?, Stal. 

1869. TropirJoscijfa gihhera. Stal, Hem. Fabr. ii,46, 8. 
i/a6.— Tex. {Stal). 

239. T. AMERICANA, D. Sp. * 

Black, more or less speckled with white. Head nearly 
quadrangular, punctured, with linear impressions, strongly 
recurved Prothorax black, with one prominent percur- 
rent carina, on each side of which is a curved carina starting 
some distance behind origin of median carina, and extending 
posteriorly half-way to apex; anterior part of prothorax some- 
what elevated, advanced, truncate superiorly, at middle deeply 
notched. Behind this notch a prominent tubercle; apex 
acuminate, almost ferruginous. Tegmina blackish brown, 
spotted across middle with white; exterior angle and apex fer- 
ruginous-brown; a white patch in front of this; posterior bor- 
der white, with many ferruginous dots at the base of costal 
area, first basal cell and clavus coriaceous. Legs black, tarsi 
light ferruginous. Length, 4.8 mm. 

Described from two specimens. Types in author's collec- 
tion and that of E. P. Van Duzee. 
//"ai.— Arizona {Ooding). 

L. BOLBONOTA, Am. & Sbrv. 

Subgenus Bolbonota, Stal. 

240. B. PiCTiPENNis, Fairm. 

1846. Bolbonota pictipennis. Fairm. Rev. Mem. 258, 3. 
185L Bolljonota pictipennis. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 

495, 3. 
1864. Bolbonota pictipennis. Still, Hem. Mex. 68, 409. 
Hah.—M^x. {Htal). 

* This species may be found in some collections under the MS. 
name '• carinata" 



470 [Uui')h Shifc fj'ihon/for// of Nnlnnil llix'onj. 

Subgenus Tubercunota, Godg. 

241. B. BISPINIFERA, Godg. 

1898. Bolbonofa bis})i)n/pr(i. Godg. Can. Ent. xxv, ^^5, 6; 
Hab.—Sl. Vincent Island, VV. I. {Godin(j). 

242. B. TUBERCULATA, Fabr. 

1801. Centrofus tiihrrrHlitfHs. Coq. 111. Iiis. 78, tab. 18, 

fig. 8. 
1808. Ceiitrotus ti(heiriil(itus. Fabr. Syst. Rhyug. 22, 

82. 
1885. Memh)-aci.i fKherruJofa. Burm. Handb. Ent. ii, 

185, 1. 
1846. Bolbonofa tuberctihda. Fairni. Rev. Memb. 

260, 9. 
1851. BoUmiota tubercidata. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 

496, 9. 
1869. Bolbonotd fuberculata. StAl, Hem. Fabr. ii, 46. 
Hab.—V\a. and Mex. {Riley). 

SUBFAMILY CENTROTIN^, Stal. 
LI. MONOBELUS, Stal. 

248. M. FASCiATUS, Fabr. 

1798. Membracis fasciafa. Fabr. Ent. Syst. Suppl. 

515, 83." 

1799. CeiitrotvH fasriofii^. Coq. 111. Ins. i, 85, tab. 9, 

fig. 5.' 

1803. Centrotus 2-guttatus. Fabr. Syst. Rhyng. 21, 27. 

Centrotus fasciatus. Fabr. Syst. Rhyng. 22, 80. 

1846. Cent rot Hs fasciatus. Fairm. Rev, Merab. 519, 33. 

1851. Centrotus fasciatus. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 

629, 71. 
1866. Monol)elus fasciatus. Still, Analecta Hem. 386. 
1869. Monobelus fasciatus, $. Stal, Hem. Fabr. ii, 

47, 1. 
Monebelus fasciatus. St^l, Hera. Fabr, ii, 

50, 1. 



Described Memhracida' of North America. 47] 

1898. MonoheJiii^ fdsciatiis. Goflg. Can. Eiih xxv, r)8, 1. 
Hah. - -West Itid. (Fairniaire), St. Vincent Island, W. I. 
(Godiny). 

244. M. NASUTUS. Stcll. 

1869. Motioheliia iiasafiis. Stal, Hem. Fabr. i', 50, 2. 
Zr«6.— Gaudaloiipe {Stdl). 

245. M. LATERALIS, Still. 

1869. Mo)U)bcJi(H /aferoli.^, ?. StAl,-Hem. Fabr. ii, 50, 5. 
ZTa&.-Cuba (SfaJ). 

24(). M. FLAYIDUS, Fairin. 

184(). CenfrotusfaridKs. Fairni. Rev. Memb. 519, 34. 
1851. Ccntrotiisf/rfridHs. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 629, 

72. 
1869. Monohelm fi.avidi(s. Still, Hera. Fabr. ii, 50, 4. 
Hah. — Cuba {Fairmaire). 

LIl. Delauneya, Leth. 

247. D. FASCIATA, Leth. 

1881. DeJannei)(( f(tsci(it((. Leth. Ann. Ent. Belg. 
xxv, 17. 
Hnb. — Ciiia-lalonpe {Li'tlihrvy). 

LIU. Centruchus, Stal. 

248. C. LIEBECKI, II. sp. * 

Yellow-ferruo;iiions, silky white between lateral horus; be- 
hind horns a spot on costal margin, near base of tegmina. 
Head black, broad, eyes very prominent, biise convex, griseous, 
lower part of face strongly declivous; four roughened carinie 
pass along face from biise downward, the ocelli being in the 
two internal ones, the outer ones being contiguous to the eyes; 
part of face below eyes triangular, apex yellow. Ocelli 
equidistant f ro n each other and the eyes. Prothorax convex, 
lateral angles slightly jiroduced, a prominent median Ciirijia 
extending from base to apex nearly black. Above the lateral 
angles^ on each side, is a long horn or protuberance, flattened 
laterally, slightly curving upward, outward, and forward, the 

* This species is nam-d a'^t«r Mr. Chas. F.iebeck, wtio lias sup- 
plied me with m my interesting specimeus iu this and other sub- 
families. 



472 I/niiois State Lahonitoi-ij of Nutniuil Ilislonj. 

apex truncated; width of base and apex equal. Apex of scu- 
tellum bideatate, the teeth ivory-white; posterior margin of 
prothorax with a very slender tooth or style, extending back- 
ward on each side of posterior process of prothorax, a little 
distant from it. The entire surface of the prothorax densely 
and regularly punctured. Apex of tegmina far surpassing tip 
of abdomen; a black spot on the internal margin a short dis- 
tance from the apex; another black spot on the costa, about 
one third the distance from the base. Tarsi black; legs mot- 
tled with ferruginous and grayish yellow; tibiae triquetrous. 
Tegmina lightly ferruginous and opaque. Length to apex of 
tegmina, 8.5 mm.; width at lateral angles, 3.2 mm. 

Described from two specimens. Type in author's collec- 
tion. 

Zfa6.— Near Philadelphia (LiebecJi). 

LTV. Oampylooentrus, Stal. 

249. C. OBSCURIPENNIS, Still. 

1809. Campylocetitnis ot)sciirtp('H)iis. Stal, Bid. Memb. 

Kiiu. 289, 1. 
Hah.—Mex. (Stal). 

250. C. HAMiFER, Fairm. 

1840. CentrotHs hamijer. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 512, 10. 
1851. Centrotiis hamifer. Walk. List Hom. 13. M. 603, 

10. 
1858. Centrotus luouifer. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 
Suppl. 159. 
Centrotiis iiiveiplaiia. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 
Suppl. 160. 
1864. Centrotus hamifer. Stfil, Hem. Mex. 73, 447. 
18()(). Campylocentrus hamifer. Stsll, Hem. Africana, 
iv, 89. 
Centrotiis hamifer. Still, Analecta Hem. 386, 2. 
1869, Campylocentrus hamifer. Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 
289. 
Hah. — Mex. {Fairmaire), Guatemala (Walker).^ 

251. C. cuRViDENS, Fairm. 

1846. Centrotus curvidens. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 515, 
18. . 



Described Memhracido' of Nortli America. ATi 

1851. Centrotiis curvidens. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 

010, 28. 
1858. Centrotus curvidens. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 

Suppl. 159. 
1864. Centrotus curvidens. Still, Hem. Mex. 73, 448. 
1869. Campijlocentrus curridens. Still, Bid. Memb. 

Kan. 289. 
^a6.— Mex. {Fairmaire). 

252. C. suBSPiNosus, Fairra. 

1846. Centrotus suhspinosus. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 519, 

31. 
1851. Centrotus suhsplnoi^us. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 

628, ()9. 
1869. CainpijJocentrus sul)S'plnosus. Stal, Bid. Memb. 

Kau. 289. 
Hah. — Mex. {Fairmaire). 

LV. BOOCERUS, Stal. 

253. B. GiLviPES, StAl. 

1869. Boocerus (/ilripes. Still, Bid. Memb. Kan. 290, 1. 
Hab.^Mex.' (Stdl). 

LVL Platycentrus, Stal. 

254. P. AcuTicoKNis, Stal. 

1869. Ftatijcentrus acuticornis. Sttll, Bid. Memb. Kan. 

291, 1. 

1893. Plati/centrus (icutlcornis. Riley, Rep. Ins. Coll. 
Death Valley Expedition, in N. A. Fauna, 
No. 7, 250. " 
//aft,— Mex. (Stal), San Bernardino Co. Calif. {Qod- 
iny). 

255. P. OBTUSICORNIS, Still. 

1869. Platt/centrus ohtusicornis. Still, Bid. Memb. 
Kan. 291, 2. 
^a6.— Mex. (Stal). 

LVIL Braohybelus, Stal. 

256. B. cruralis, Stal. 

1869. Brachybelus cruralis. Stdl, Bid. Memb. Kiln. 

292, 1. 

if a6.- Vera Cruz, Mex. {Stdl), 



474 Illinois Siatc Ldhonitorij of JS'atnral Hiatorii. 

LVIII. Nessorhinus, Am. & Sekv. 

257. N. VULPES, Am. & Serv. 

184;L Nessorhinus vulpes. Am.|;& Serv. Hemip. r>42, 
pi. 12, fig. 11. " . . 

1!S46. Ncssorliintis ndpes. Fairm. Rov. Memb. 296, 1. 

lSr)l. ,Nessorliiiii(s ntlpes. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 
542, 1. 

1858. Nessorhinus vulpes. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 
Suppl. I'M). 

1869. Nessorhinus vulpes. Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 294. 
Hab. — Haiti, St. Domingo, anri Campeacby [Aniyot d- 
Sermlle). 

258. N. GIBBERULUS, St^l. 

1869. Nessorhinus (//hberulus. Stal, Bid. Mem. Kan. 
294, 1. 
Hah.— Poito Rico {Stdl). 

LIX. GONIOLOMUS, Stal. 

259. G. TRICORNIGER, Stdl. 

1869. Gonioloinus tricorniger. Stal, Bid. Memb. Klin. 
294, 1. 
Hab. — Cuba {8tdl). 

LX. Centrodontus, Goding. 

260. C. ATLAS, Goding. 

1892. Gargaru atlas. Godg. Ent. News, iii, 110. 

Centrodinifus atlas. Godg. Eut. News, iii, 201; 
Insect Life, v, 92. 
189B. Ceiitrod [out] us atlas. Riley, Rep. Ins. Coll. 
Death Valley Expedition, in N. Am. Fauna, 
No. 7, 250. 
7/a6.— Deatli Valley ([nyo Co.). Ca,\if. (Koebele); Kern 
Co., Cdlif. (Van Duzee) ; N. Mex. {Townt/end). 

LXL MiOROOENTRUS, Stal. 

261. M. CARY^, Fitch. 

1851. Uroxiphus carijce. Fitch, Cat. Horn. N. Y. 52, 

700. 



Described Memhrac id fP of No rfli America. 475 

1851. Cent rot IIS cari/ir. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 1147, 

76. ' 

1856. UroxipJiHs carijce. Fitcli, 3d Rep. Ins. N. Y., in 

Trans. Agr. Soc. 450, 174. 
18()9. Microcentrus carijce. Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 295. 
Uroxiphus carycf. Rath von, in Mombert's Hist. 
Lancaster Co., Pa., 551. 
1890. Microcentrus caryii'. Smith, Cat. Ins. N. J. 440. 
Microcentrus canjw. Van Duzee, Psyche, v, 891. 
Uroxiphus carya'. Packard,, Ins. Inj. to Forest 
and Shade Trees, 324, 112. 
1892. Microcentrus carya'. Godg., Insect Life, v, 92. 

Hab.—^. Y. {Fitch). West. States {Riley), Peun. {Rath- 
von), N.J. {SmitJi). 

LXII. Orthobelus, Stal. 

262. 0. HAVANENSis, Fairm. 

1846. Centrotus havanensis. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 516, 

22. 
1851. Centrotus Jiavanensis. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 

611, 32. 
1869. OrtJiotu'Ius liaranensis. StAl, Hem. Fabr. ii, 48. 
Hah. — Cuba {Fainnaire). 

263. 0. UEUS, Fairm. 

184(). Centrotus urns. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 516, 23, pi. 

3, fig. (). 
1851. Centrotus urns. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 611, 33. 
Centrotus meyaceros, ?. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 
615, 45. 
1866. Centrotus urus. Stal, Analecta Hem. 38(), 3. 
1869. Ort/ioJjrhis urus. StAl, Hem. Fabr. ii, 48. 
Hab.St. Domingo {Firirmaire). 

LXII I. Centrotus*, Fabk. 

264. C. PUSILLUS, Fairm. 

1846. Centrotus pusilhis. Fairm. Rev. Memb 512, 11. 

* The species uridtr ttiis peiiua name are included in Centrotus 
bpCHUse they aie recold^d under that name by the origiriHl de- 
scribers. It is extremely dout-tful if a true Cnntrolus is to De lound 
within our limita. 



470 Illinois State Labofatort/ of Satiiral History. 

ISra. CentrotKs piisilhis. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 603, 
11. 
Hab.—Mex. {Fairmaire). 

265. [?J C. ACANTHASPis, Faimi. 

1846. Centrofus acanfluispis. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 515, 

19. 
1851. Centrofus acanthaspis. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 

611, 29. 
Hab.— Port .Jacksoa (Fairmaire), 

266. C, POEYi, Fairm. 

1846. Centrofus poei/i. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 518, 29. 
1851. Centrofus poeiji. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 612, 
39. 
Hah. — Cuba [Fairmaire). 

267. C. SEERicoRNis, Walk. 

1858. Centrofus serricorue. Walk. Ins. Saund. 77. 
Hah.— Kiiiti (Walker). 

268. C. OPPDGNANS, Walk. 

1858. Centrofus oppugnans. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 
Suppl. 160. 
ffafe.— Mex. ( Walhtr). 

269. C. AURiFASCiA, Walk. 

1851. Centrofus aurifascia. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 
618, 49. 
ifo6.— Jamaica (Walker). 

270. C. PLATYCERUS, Walk. 

1851. Centrofus platijcerus. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 

618, 50. 

iff/6.— Jamaica (Walker). 

271. C. CRIBRATUS, Walk. 

1851. Centrofus crihratus. Walk. List Hom. B. M, 

619, 51. 

iTa^.— Jamaica (Walker). 

272. C. JUCCNDUS, Walk. 

1851. Centrofus jucundus Walk. List Hom. B. M. 

620, 52. 

.S"a6.— Jamaica ( Walker), 



Described Memhracidch of XorfJi America. 477 

LXIV. Oallicentrus, StIl. 

273. C. iGxiPES, Walk. 

1851. Centrotn.^ ir/nipes. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 616, 
47. 
/Tafe.— .Jamaica [Walker). 

274. C. FLAViviTTA, Walk. 

1851. Ct>ntrotus fiaririttu. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 
617, 48. 
Hah. — Jamaica (Walker). 

LXV. Leptocentrus, Stal. 

275. L. TAUBUS,* Fabr. 

1767. ricacia faurus. Gmel. Ed. Syst. Xat. iv, 14, 24. 

1775. Menibracis taurus. Fabr. Syst. Ent. 676, 9. 

1781. Membracis taurus^ Fabr. Spec. Ins. ii, 317, 10. 

1787. Membracis taurus. Fabr. Mant. Ins. ii, 264, 20. 

1794. Membracis taunts. Fabr. Ent. Syst, iv, 14, 24. 
Membracis taurus. Oliv. Enc. Metb, vii, 665, 23. 

1795. Membracis rupicapra. Fabr. Ent. Syst, Sappl. 

514, 13, 14. 
1803. Centrotus rupicapra. Fabr. Syst. Rhyng. 18, 7. 

Cenlrotus taurus. Fabr. Syst. Rhyng. 20, 19. 
1846. Centrotus taurus. Fairm. Rev. Memb. 510, 4. 
1851. Centrotus taurus. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 6(>2, 4. 
1866. Leptocentrus taurus. StAl, Hem. Afr. iv, 9<;i. 
1869. Leptocentrus taurus. Stal, Hem. Fabr. ii, 5(>. 1. 
ffiib—yiej. {(Toding). 

* One of the species sent to me fiT study from the Bio^ Cent.- 
Am. Cjllection is an ex loaple of ttiis. 



ADDENDA AND ERRATA. 

To coiiiplete the list of species recogiii/.cil by St<ll as. be- 
loiiginj^ to this family, the following are appended, not from 
the belief that they belong here, l)i]t because there should be 
no hasty change made in the classification of the Homoptera 
until they have l^een more carefully studied.* 

SUBFAMILY CENTROTINiE, Stal. 

LXVI. TOLANIA, Sta].. 

27<). T. oppoNENS, Walk. 

18r)8. Cent rot US oppouois. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 

Suppl. 17AI 
1862. ToJanid opponens. Still. Of. . Vet.- Akad. Forh. 
491. 
7/rt6.— Mex. {Walker). 

LXVI I. t ^TH ALTON, LaTR. 

277. A. CtRatus, Walk. 

1858. .Ethalion (jmtmu. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 

Snppl. 109. 
1864. .Ethajion dUatatum. StAl, Hem. Mex. 73, 450. 
1869. ^Eflwlmi fjratns. Stal, Bid. Memb. Kan. 299, 

14. ' . 

Hab.— Mex. {Walker). 

278. A. NERVOSO-PUNCTATUS, Sign. 

1851. A^thaJioii neyvoso-piinctdtutn. Sign. Ann. Ent. 

Soe. France, Ser. 2, ix, 679, 14, pi. 14, fig. 10. 
1858. ^Ethfdion nerroso-punct<(tuni. Walk. List Hom. 

B. M. Suppl. 168. 
1869. jEthalion nervoso-imndains. Stal. Bid. Memb. 

Kiiu. 299, 12. 
ITafe.— Mex. ( Walker). 

*M()iie of the species DDentioped here have a prolongnticn of 
tleprothorax backward, aud they rightfully belong with the Jassidiv. 

|Thero are tiS instead of liT crpnerarepresentfd in this cataloaue, 
and 282 species instead of 278, XIV., 41,42,43, and 44 being duplicated. 



Described Memhracidw of North America. 479 

The following additional localities have been obtained 
since this catalogue was put in the printer's hands: 

For numbers 7, 8, 140, 177, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, and 
AconopJiorti lanceoJata, Fairm., Guatemala {Hejtshair) ; 14, 27, 
and 142, Me. and Mass. (Henshaw); 15, la. (Osborn), N. Y. 
{Van Dtizee); 19, Mich. (Cook), Pa. {Rafhvon), Me. (Hen- 
shair) ; 21, N. Y. {Lintner); 14, 19, 22, 27, 28, 41, 53, 65, 
71, 76, 85, 96, 107, 131, 216, 223, 261, Neb. {Barher)\ 28, 
Mich. {Cool-), Me., Fla., Tex., Calif., and B. C. {Henshaw); 
34, 44, 66, 91, 116, 122, 132, and 145, Mich. {Cool-) ; 41, 
B. C. {Henshaw), Nev. {Hillman); 43, Miss. {Weed), Mich. 
{Cool-) ; 46, Mass. {Henshaw), Mich. {Cook) ; 52, Mich. 
{Cool), la. {Osborn), Ya. and Md. {Henshaw)', 55, Mich. 
{Cook), Pa. {Rathvon), la. ? {Osborn), Me. {Henshaw); 57, 111. 
{Godincj) ; 65, 68, 75 (recorded as jugafa Uhler, which is a 
MS. name), 131, and 261, la. {Osborn); 67, Mich. {Cook), Mass. 
and Me. {Henshaw); 72, Mass. {Henshaw); 73, 83, and 85, la. ? 
{Osborn); 86, Mass. and Pa. {Henshaw); 95, Pa. {Rathvon); 
97, and 119, la. {Osborn), Mich. {Cook); 114, Mich. {Cook), 
Tex. {Henshaw); 121, Pa. {Henshaw); 136, and 192. Va. 
{Henshaw); 137, N. Mex. {Townsend), Col. {Gillette)] im, Col. 
{Goding); 188, Ya., Tex., and Yict. {Henshaw); 194, Mass., 
Tex., Calif., Yict. {Henshaw); 198, Cent. Am. {Henshatv); 211, 
Me. {Henshair); 223, Mich. {Cook), Anticosti, Mass., Pa., Md., 
Ya., D. C, Oregon, and Wash. {Henshaw); 248, Tex. {Hen- 
shaw). 

Page 391, line 19, for Entomolgiqne rea.d Entomologiqtie. 
Page 393, for No. 5 substitute as follows: * 
P. DISPAK, Fabr. 

1803. Darnis dispar. Fabr. Syst. Rhyng. 32, 23. 
1836. Entylia dispar. Burm. Silb. Rev. iv, 182, 2. 
1869. Parmula dispar. Still, Hem. Fabr. ii, 29, 1. 
Hah .—Mexico (Goding). 

Page 397, between lines 12 and 13 from bottom insert as 
follows: 1893. Entilia sinuata. Rice, Insect Life, v, 243. 
Page 399, line 7, after " one " insert female. 
* P. mnnda. W^lk , ».►•',.» ps to Pli;i i--' (Fiih- F"< >«•-)) 



480 Illinois iState Laboratory of Natural History. 

Page 400, between lines IJ and 10 insert as follows: 1851. 
Cyphonia redispina. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 597, 6; line 19, 
for postfaciata read posffasciata. 

Page 401, line 4, for huhalus read diceros. 
Page 402, at bottom of page add as follows: 

1891. Ceresa huhalus. Fletcher, Rep. Ent. and Bot. 

Can. 191. 

1892. Ceresa huhalus. Osb. Trans. la. Hort. Soc. 119, 

fig. 30. 

1893. Ceresa biihalus. Osb. Fruit and Forest Tree Ins. 

24, fig. 80. 
Page 403, line 21, for the interrogation point substitute a 
period; between lines 2 and 3 from bottom insert as follows: 

1892. Ceresa taurina. Osb, Trans. la. Hort. Soc. 119. 

1893. Ceresa taurina. Osb. Fruit and Forest Tree Ins. 

24. 
Page 409, between lines 4 and 5 from bottom insert as fol- 
lows: Stictocephala gillettei, $. Godg. Ent. News, iii, 200. 

Page 411, line 2, for nigripes, Stal, read numda, Walk.; be- 
tween lines 2 and 3 insert as follows : 1858. Parmula munda. 
Walk. List Hom. B. M. Suppl. 152; line 4, for Mex. {Stdl), 
read Mex. and Guatemala ( Walk.). 

Page 412, between lines 11 and 12 from bottom insert as 
follows : 

1892. Thelia cratwgi. Osb. Trans. la. Hort. Soc. 119. 

1893. Thelia cratcegi. Osb. Fruit and Forest Tree 

Ins. 24. 

Page 413, line 12 from bottom, and page 414, line 1, for 
acuminata read acuminatus. 

Page 414, line 11, for Hyphina read Hyphinoe. 

Page 416, line 8 from bottom, for Telamona read Mem- 
bracis. 

Page 417, line 1, for 1841 read 1851. 

Page 422, between lines 8 and 9 insert as follows : 1892. 
Telamona niexicana? Godg. Ent. News, iii, 108. 

Page 424, line 9, for toj) read tips. 



Described Memhracidce of North America. 481 

Page 425, line 6, dele " fig." ; line 2 from bottom, for 
galata read gahata. 

Page 427, line 4 from bottom, ior Membracis read Acutalis. 
Page 429, line 15, after '' lower " insert edge. 
Pages 435 and 436. Note. — An examination of the types 
shows that numbers 122 to 126 belong to Cyrtolobus. 

Page 437. After the numbers 128, 129, and 130, for A. 
read E. * 

Page 441, line 17 from bottom, for V. read Ama&tris'\; 
line 4 from bottom, insert (?) before V. 

Page 442, between lines 8 and 9 insert as follows : 1851. 
Thelia exjjansa. Walk. List. Hom. B. M. 563, 26; between 
lines 14 and 15 from bottom, insert as follows: Thelia mar- 
morata. Walk. List. Hom. B. M. 555, 4. 

Page 444, line 15 from bottom, after "scar" insert as fol- 
lows: Apical cell much longer than in marmorata, the length ex- 
ceeding the breadth more than twice, while in marmorata the 
cell is but a little longer than broad; line 14 from bottom, after 
'' fuliginous" and '"yellow" substitute semicolons for commas; 
line 7 from bottom, after " process," add as follows: in not 
being suddenly depressed a short distance before apex, in 
not having the median carina flat from this depression, and 
in being much more depressed anteriorly. 

Page 445, line 8. Note. — Through the kindness of Rev. W. 
W. Fowler, of Lincoln, England, I have had the opportunity to 
examine St3,rs type of the genus Optilete, and, as surmised, it 
proves to be a typical marmorata, Say. Between lines 16 and 
17 from bottom insert as follows: 1851. Hemij)tycha longicor- 
nis. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 569, 7. 

Page 449, line 10 from bottom. Note. — Walker's Darnis 
lineola belongs to Phacusa {Fide Fowler). 

Page 452, No. 181, for prunitia, Butler, read hastata, 
St4l (A*c?e Fowler). 

* Ashmeadea being preoccupied, the name was changed to Ev- 
ashmeadea. 

t A more careful study of the species places it in Amaatris. 



INDEX. 



Aconophora 450 

Acutalis 427 

Adippe 394 

^chmophora -HW^ 

^thalion 478 

Archasia 425 

Atyiuna 434 

Bolbonota 4r)'.i 

Boocerus 473 

Brachybelus 473 

Callicentrus 477 

Campylencliia 464 

Campylocentrus 472 

Carynota 442 

Centrodontus 474 

Centrotin^ 470, 478 

Centrotus 475 

Centruchiis 471 

Ceresa 400 

Cryptoptera 449 

Cyphonia • 399 

Cyrtolobus 431 

Darnin.e 445 

Darnis 449 

Darnoides 445 

Delaimeya 471 

Enclienopa 461 

Encliophyllum 465 

Entylia 396 

Evashmeadea 436 

Goiiioloiims 474 

Heliria 423 

Heiniptycha 445 

Heteronotus 453 

Hoplophora 457 

HOPLOPHORIN^ 453 

Horiola 393 



Hyphens 449 

Hypliinoe 445 

Janthe 442 

Leptocentrus 477 

Membracinse 461 

Meiiibracis 461 

Microcentrus 474 

Mouobeliis 470 

Nessorhiniis 474 

Ochroloniia 447 

Ochiopepla 460 

Ophidenna 438 

Ovthobelns 475 

Parmnla 393 

Phacusa 410 

Platycentrus . . . .• 473 

Platycotis 453 

Polyglypta 394 

Poppea 400 

Potnia 458 

Pterygia , 468 

Publilia 398 

Pyraiithe 445 

Smilia 426 

Smiliin/E 394 

Sphongophorus 467 

Stictocepliala 408 

Stictopelta 447 

Telamona 414 

Thelia 411 

Tolania 478 

Tomogonia 450 

Tragopa 393 

Tragopin^ 393 

Tropidoscyta 468 

Umbonia 458 

Vanduzea 440 



Article XV. — Si/no2)sis of fJie Suhfamllies and Genera of 
the North American Cercopidcp^ ivith a Bibliographical 
and Si/noni/inical Catalogue of the Described Species of 
North America* By F. W. Goding, M. D., Ph. D. 

The characters recognized as of family value by StiU and 
most of the American students of this group are as follows : 
Front convex, or compresso-produced ; ocelli two, situated in 
the vertex, before the base. Thorax large, sexangular or tra- 
pezoidal. Scutellum small or* medium, triangular. Tegmina 
frequently coriaceous. Legs remote from sides of body, con- 
forming to it ; co.sje, especially the posterior, short ; tibia? 
smooth, posterior armed with one or two spines, apex with a 
crown of spinules.f 

Synopsis of Subfamilies. 

Anterior margin of thorax straight ; eyes equally long and 
broad Cekcopin^, Sttll. 

Anterior margin of thorax rounded or angular ; eyes some- 
times transverse ; scutellum flat, triangular. 

Aphrophorin^, Sttll. 

Sykopsis of Genera. 

SUBFAMILY CER0OPIN.E, Stal. 

A. Front destitute of a longitudinal carina. 

a. Front destitute of a longitudinal sulcus. 

Tomaspis, Am. & Serv. 
aa. Front furnished with a longitudinal sulcus. 

BJii)iaidaj\ Am. & Serv. 
A A. Front furnished with one or more longitudinal carintu 
at middle. 

♦Mexico, Central America, and the West Indies are iocluded. 

t [n Tnsei't Life, Vol. V., page W\ Messrs Riley and How- 
ard place the genus Ilomalodisca in this family, while all oth^^ 
writers place it in the Jassidie, used in its broadest sens . 



484 lllhiois Stafe[Lahoratnr )j of Nafiiral If/storij. 

h. Front tricarinate Triecplioni^ Am. & Serv. 

hi). Front unicarinate. 
r. Carina weak, not well developed. 

Moiiccphora, Am. & Serv. 

cc. Carina angulate, developed in the form of a laterally 

compressed wedge.. . .SpJieiiorJiiii((, Am. & Serv. 

SUBFAMILY APHROPHORIN^, StAl. 

A Clavus acuminate. 

(I. Intramarginal vein of wings interrupted before apex ; 
ay)ex plicated; anal cell broadened; front in middle 
with an interrupted ruga ; ocelli distant. 

Lepijronia^ Am. & Serv. 
aa. Intramarginal vein of wings not interrupted before 
apex ; not plicated at apex. 
h. Alar cell behind second anastomosis acuminate pos- 
teriorly, not touching intramarginal vein ; apex of 
clypeus touching anterior cox£e. 

PtijeJus, Lep. & Serv. 
hh. Alar cell behind second anastomosis extended to in- 
tramarginal vein. 

c. Vertex and thorax furnished with a longitudinal 
median carina ; scutellum shorter than thorax ; 
ocelli distant from the eyes ; rostrum long. 

Aphroj^Iiora, Germ. 
cc. Vertex destitute of a median carina ; rostrum short 
or medium ; posterior tibiss 'i-spined. 

d. Thorax distinctly broader than head, sexangular, 
front lateral margins long, strongly converging for- 
wards ; intramarginal vein of wings undate between 
apices of anterior longitudinal veins ; front with an 
obtuse longitudinal carina; apex of rostrum reach- 
ing middle coxae ; ocelli equally remote from each 
other and eyes ; scutellum much longer than wide, 
extending far behind metanotum. 

CejjIiisKs, Stcll. 

dd. Thorax not at all, or but little, broader than head, 

sexangular, in front lateral margins sometimes much 



Genera of the North American Cercopidce. 485 

shortened, parallel, or slightly converging ; from 
commissure behind apex of clavus, the margin of 
tegmina subangulate or somewhat rounded ; teg- 
mina oblong ; corium not, or barely, convex ; ocelli 
rarely, and never more than, twice as distant from 
eyes as from each other ; front destitute of a longi- 
tudinal carina. 

e. Anterior margin of head at juga destitute of a 
sulcus, acute or a little obtuse ; basal margin of 
head obtusely rounded sinuate ; thorax depressed or 
lightly convex, apical margin obtusely rotundate, 
apex of corium with large cells Clovia^ Stdl. 

ee. Anterior margin at lobes of vertex sulcate. 

Fliikenus^ St3,l. 
AA. Clavus with apex very acutely rounded . Clastoptera^ Germ. 

I. TOMASPIS, Am. & Serv. 

1. T, FASCIATICOLLIS, StAl, 

1864. Tomaspis fuse kit icollis. StS,l, Hem. Mex. 63, 
394. 
Hah. — Mexico (Stdl). 

2. T. YITTATIPENNIS, Stcll. 

1864. ToDHisjiis vittatipennis. Still, Hem. Mex. 64, 
396. 
i/aft.— Mexico (Stcil). 

3. T. ORNATIPENNIS, St^l. 

1864. Tomaspis ornatlpennis. StS,!. Hem. Mex. 64, 
397. 
//aft.— Mexico (Stdl). 

4. T. VARIANS, Stal. 

1864. Tomaspis varkms. Stal, Hem. Mex. 65, 398. 
JIah.—Uex. (Stdl). 

II. MONECPHORA, Am. & Serv. 

5. M. PICTIPENNIS, Stal. 

1864. Tomaspis pidipennis. Stal, Hem. Mex. 63, 393. 
Hah. — Mexico {Stdl). 



480 I/I/)iois State Ldbordtori/ of Natural Illstorij. 

0. M. NUPTIALTS, Stal. 

1864. 'ro))ias2)is nnjitialis. Still, Hem. Mex. 64, 395. 
7/a/A— Mexico {Stdl). 

7. M. LIMAI5TA, Still. 

1864. Tomasph tiinhata. Still, Hem. Mex. 65, 399. 
//rt/>.— Mexico {Stdl). 

8. M. SEPi'LCHRALIS, StAl. 

1864. Tomaspis sepukli rails. Stal, Hem. Mex. 65, 
400. 
i/aft.— Mexico {StdJ). 

9. M. FLEXuosA, Walker. 

1851. MonecpJiora fiexuosa. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 
677, 12. 
Hah. — Mexico ? (Fitch). 

10. M. posTicA, Walker. 

1858. Monecphora postica. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 
Suppl. 177. 
i/aft.— Mexico {WalJcer). 

11. M. FRATERNA, Uhler. 

1868. Monecphora fraterna. Uhler, Proc. Ent. Soc. 

Phil, ii, 160. 
Hah.— Gwhdi {Uhler). 

12. M. INFERANS, Walker. 

1858. Monecphora inferans. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 
Suppl. 176. 
Hab.— Mexico ( Walker). 

13. M. INCA, Guerin. 

1838. Cercopis inca. Guer. Icon. Keg. An., Ins. 368. 
1851. Monecphora inca. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 

675, 5. 
1864. Tomaspis inca. Stal, Hem. Mex. 63, 392. 
7/a6.— Mexico (Walker). 

14. M. SCHACH, Falir. 

1794. Cercopis schach. Fabr. Ent. Syst. iv, 49, 9. 
1803. Cercopis schach. Fabr. Syst. Rhyng. 93, 25. 

1869. Tomaspis schach. Still, Hem. Fabr. ii, 118, 25. 
Monecphora schach. Fitch, in lilt- 

//a/).— North America (Fahriciuti). 



Genera of the North American Cercajyidw. 487 

15. M. BiciNCTA, Say. 

1831. Cercopis bicincta. Say, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. 

Phil, vi, 303. 
1833. Cercopis ignipecta. Harris, Cat. Ins. Mass. 
1841. Cercopiis ignipecta. Harris, Rep. Ins. Mass. 
1851. Monecphora hifascia. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 

679, 16. 

Monecphora angiista. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 

680, 19. 

Ptyehis ignipictus. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 

725, 49. 
Triecphora ? bicincta. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 
1152, 20. 
1856. Monecphora ignipecta. Fitch, 3d Rep. Ins. N. Y. 
71 ; in Trans. Agr. Soc. 389. 
Monecphora bicincta. Fitch, 3d Rep. Ins. N. Y. 
71 ; in Trans. Agr. Soc. 389. 
1859. Cercopis bicincta. Say, Compl. Writ, ii, 381. 
1862. Cercopis ignipecta. Harris, Treatise, 225. 
1864. Tomaspis bicincta. St4l, Hem. Mex. 64. 
1876. Cercopis bicincta. Glover, Rep. U. S. Dept. Agr. 

30, fig. 23. 
1884. Tomaspis bicincta. Uhler, Stand. Nat. Hist, ii, 

242. 

1890. Monecphora bicincta. Van Duzee, Psyche, v, 388. 

MonecpJiora bicincta. Smith, Cat. Ins. N. J. 442. 

Hah.—lmX., Penn., and Ark. {Say) ; N. Y. {Fitch) ; Mass. 

{Harris) ; N. J. {Smith) ; Md. {Glover) ; Georgia, 

( Walker) ; Va. and D. C. {Forbes). 

16. M. BASALis, Walker. 

1851. Monecphora basalis. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 
683, 26. 
7/aft.— Jamaica ( Walker). 

17. M. NEGLECTA, Walker. 

1851. Monecphora negJecta. Walk. List Hom. B. M. 
683. 27. 
i/a6.— Jamaica ( Walker). 



488 Illinois Sidfc Ldioyaioiij of NafiirtiJ Ilisfory. 

III. Triecphora, Am. & Serv. 

18. T. CONTIGUA, Walker. 

1851. Triecphora coiiti(iua. Walk. List Hom.B. M 
670, 11. 
7/r< ft.— Honduras ( Walker). 

IV. Sphenorhina, Am. & Serv. 

11). S. ASSiMiLis, Walker. 

1858. Sphenorhina asshnilis. Walk. List Horn. B.M. 
Suppl. 182. 
i/rtft.— Mexico {Walker). 

20. S. siMULANS, Walker. 

1858. Sphenorhina simulans. Walk. List Honi. B. M. 
Suppl. 183. 
i/aft.— Mexico (Walker). 

21. S. CRUCiATA, Walker. 

1858. Sphenorliina craciatit. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 
Suppl. 183. 
ifa ft.— Mexico ( Walker). 

22. S. siMiLis, Walker. 

1858. Sphenorhina similis. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 
Suppl. 182. 
iffl ft.— Mexico (Walker). 

23. S. quadriCtUttata, Walker. 

1851- Sphenorhina quadrifjiiffata. Walk. List Horn. 
B. M. 689, 11. 
i/aft.— Honduras ( Walker). 

24. S. LiNEATA, Walker. 

1851. Sphenorlnna Vnteida. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 
691, 16. 
//rt ft.— Honduras ( Walker). 

25. S. BiviTTA, Walker. 

1858. Sphenorhina biviffa. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 
Suppl. 181. 
//oft.— Mexico (Walker). 



Genera of the North American Cercopidw. 489 

V. Rhinaulax, Am. & Sekv. 

20. R. cocciNEA, Fabr. 

1794. Cercopis coccinea. Fabr. Ent. S.yst. iv, 48, 4. 
1803. Cercopis coccinea. Fabr. Syst. Rhyng. 93, 21. 
1841. Tomaspis coccinea. Am. & Serv. Hem. 560. 
1851. Tomaspis coccinea. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 
666, 4. 
Triecphora coccinea. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 
669, 7. 
1869. ? coccinea, Stal, Hem. Fabr. ii, 118, 21. 
i/rtfc.— West Indies (Fabricius). 

SUBFAMILY APHROPHORIN^, Stal. 
VI. Lepyronia, Am. & Serv. 

27. L. soRDiDA, Stal. 

1864. Lepijroiiia sorclida. Stal, Hera. Mex. 67, 403. 
1866. Lepyronia sorclida. Stal, Berl. Ent. Zeit. x, 384. 
J/aii.— Mexico {Stal), Illinois (Forbes). 

28. L. QUADRANGULARis, Say. 

1825. Cercopis quadran(jularis. Say, Jour. Acad. Nat. 

Sci. Phil, iv, 338, 1. 
1831. Aphrophora quadrangular is. Say, Jour. Acad, 

Nat. Sci. Phil, vi," 305. 
1841. Aphrophora quadranxjularis. Harris, Rep. Ins. 

Mass. 
1851. Lepyronia quadrangularis. Fitch, Cat. Horn. 

N. Y. 53, '^06. 
Ptyelus quadrangularis. Walk. List Horn. 

B. M. 716, 28. 
Ptyelus cpuadrangularis. Walk. List Horn. 

B. M. 1153, 28. 
1856. Lepyronia quadrangularis. Fitch, 3d Rep. Ins. 

N. Y. 71 ; in Trans. Agr. Soc. 389. 

NOTE.—Still seems to be in doubt as to the generic position of 
coccinea. In my copy of Walker's List, formerly the property of Dr ' 
Fitch, is recorded in Fitch's handwritiufj:, " Brazil, from Signoret.' 
Fitch places the species in the genus I{hiiiaulax. 



490 Ulinois State Laliordtonj of Natural Histonj. 

1850. Cercopis quadyaH(/iil((ris. Say, Compl. Writ, ii, 

256, 1. 
1862. Aphrovhora quadratK/alaris. Harris, Treatise, 

225. 
1864. Lepijronia qnadrangHlarh. Still, Hem. Mex. 67. 
1866. Lepyronia quadrangular is. Stdl, Berl. Ent. 

Zeit. X, 384. 
1869. Aphrophora qiiadraiigukiris. Walsh & Riley, 

Am. Ent. i, 228. 
1872. Aphrophora q}iadra}irjidaris. Uhler, List Hem. 

Col. and N. Mex. 472. 

1876. Aphrophora quadrangular is. Uhler, List Hem. 

West Miss. R. 846, 2. 
Aphrophora qiiadraiigularis. Glover, Rep. U. S. 
Dept. Agr. 31, fig. 24. 

1877. Aphropltora qHadrauguIaris. Uhler, Rep. Ins. 

Coll. in 1875, 457. 

1888. Lepyronia quadraugidaris. Comstock, Int. Ent. 

177, fig. 147. 

1889. Aphropho)-a quadrangularis. Lintner, 5th Rep. 

Ins. N. Y. 245. 

1890. Lepyronia quadr<(nguhiris. Van Duzee, Psyche, 

V, 388. 
Lepyronia quadrajig/daj-is. Smith, Cat. Ins. 

N. J. 442. 
1892. Lepyronia qitadrangularis. Southwick, Science, 

xix, 318. 
Lepyronia qaadranynlaris. Harrington, Ottawa 

Nat. vi, 31. 

Hah.— Mo. {^ay) ; 111. and Penn. {Goding) ; Nova Scotia, 
Lake Winnipeg, and Great Bear Lake ( Walker) ; 
N. Y. (Fitch); Mass. (Harris); Ont. (Harrington); 
IVId. and \t. (Glover) ; Denver, Col. (Uhler). 

29. L. ANGULiFERA, Uhler. 

1876. Lepyi-onia angalifera. Uhler, List Hem. West 
Miss. R. 348. 

Jlab.—^. W. Fla., Md., N. J. (Ocean Co.), Cuba, Tex., and N. 
Mex. ( Uhler). 



Geneva of the North American Cercopid(e. 491 

VII. Ptyelus, Lap. & Serv. 

30. P. BASiviTTA, Walker. 

1851. Ptyelus hasivitta. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 
719, 35. 
J/rt/).— Hudson's Bay {Walker). 

31. P. MUTANS, Walker. 

1851. Ptuelus nwtans. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 716, 29. 
Hab. — West Coast of America ( Walker). 

VIII. Aphrophora, Germ. 

32. A. QUADRiNOTATA, Say. 

1831. Aphrophora qtiadrinotata. Say, Jour. Acad. Nat. 

Sci. Phil, vi, 304, 2. 
1851. Aphrophora qtiadrinotata. Fitch, Cat. Horn. N. 

y. 52, 703. 
Ptyelus ? quadrinotatus. Walk. List Horn. B. 

M. 1154, 51. 
1856. AphropJiora quadrinotata. Fitch, 3d Rep. Ins. 

N. Y. 70 ; in Trans. Agr. Soc. 388, 97. 
1859. ApJirophora quadrinotata. Say, Compl.^ Writ, ii, 

381, 2. 
1876. Aphrophora quadrinotata. Glover, Rep. U. S. 

Dept. Agr. 31, Fig. 27. 
1878. AphropJiora quadrinotata. Uhler, List Hera. 

Dak. and Mont. 510, 50. 
1883. Aphrophora quadrinotata. Saunders, Fruit Ins. 

242, 127. 

1888. Aphrophora quadrinotata. Comstock, Int. Ent. 

177. 

1889. Ap)hrophora quadrinotata. Lintner, 5th Rep. 

Ins. N. Y. 245. 

1890. Aphrophora quadrinotata. Smith, Cat. Ins. N. J. 

443. 
Aphrophora juadrinotata. Van Duzee, Psyche, 
V, 388. 
1892. Aj)hrophora quadrinotata. South wick, Science, 
xix, 318. 



492 Illinois Sfafe Lidiordtoyij of Ndltiral History. 

1892. Aphrojjhora (itiml ri.iotatd. Harrington, Ottawa 
Nat. vi, 81. 

lhib.—^.\. {Fitch); N. J. {Smith}; Md. {(Hover); Ont., 
Can. {/f<irrin(fton); Pembina. N. Dak. {(liler); Me. 
(Packard) ; III. {Forl>es). 

33. A. PERMtJTATA, Uhler. 

1872. ApJiropJioj-a permiitafa. Uhler, List Hem, Col. 

and N. Mex, 472. 
1876. Aphrnphord permuiata. Uhler, List Hem. West 
Miss. R. 345. 
Hah.— Coh, New Mex., Utah, and Calif. {Uhler). 

34. A. PARALLELA, Say. 

1824. Cercopis paroJlela. Say, Narr. Long's Exped. 

ii, 303. 
1841. Aphropliora poraJIeJa. Harris, Rep. Ins. Mass. 
1851. Ptijelus cribrafiis. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 712, 
" 20 \ fide Fitchl 
Ftyelns pamllehis. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 713, 

23, and 1153, 23. 
Lepifronia paraJlela. Fitch, Cat. Hom. N. Y. 53, 
70S. 

1856. Aphroplioni jmrallela. Fitch, 3d Rep. Ins. N. Y. 

70 ; in Trans. Agr. Soc. 388. 

1857. Aphrophora pandhJo. Fitch, 4th Rep. Ins. N. Y. 

51 ; in Trans. Agr. Soc. 737, 257. 
1859. Cercopis paralleJa. Say, Compl. Writ, i, 202. 

Aphrophoy<( parallelo. Say, Compl. Writ, ii, 382. 
1862. Aphrophoi-a paralhJd. Harris, Treatise, 225, 
1876. Aphrophora paraUda. Glover, Rep. U. S. Dept. 

Agr. 31, tig. 26. 

1889. Aph)-ophora paraJlela. Lintner, 5th Rep. Ins. 

N. Y. 245. 

1890. Aphrophora parallelu. Van Duzee, Psyche, v, 

388. 
Aphrophora pandhla. Smith, Cat. Ins. N. J. 

443. 
Aphrophora pa rail eJ a. Packard, Ins. Inj. Forest 

and Shade Trees, 741, 71. 



Genera of the North American Cercopidoi. 493 

1892. Aplirophora paraUela. Southwick, Science, xix, 
318. 
Aphrophora paralJeJa. Harrington, Ottawa Nat. 
vi, 31. 

Hab.—Mo. and Ark. [Say) ; 111. and Penn. (Godhuj) ; Nova 
Scotia (Walker) ; Ont. {Harrington) ; Md. {Glover) ; 
N. J. {Smith) ; Mass. {Harris) ; N. Y. {Fitch). 

35. A. SARATOGENSis, Fitch. 

1851. Leptjronia saratogensis. Fitch, Cat. Horn. N. Y. 

53, 710. 
Ptyelus detritus. Walker, List Horn. B. M. 713, 

22. 
PtyeJus gelidus. Walker, List Horn. B. M. 714, 

24. " 
Ptyelus saratogensis. Walker, List Horn. B. M. 

1153, 24. 

1856. Aphrophora saratogensis. Fitch, 3d Rep. Ins. 

N. Y. 70 ; in Trans. Agr. Soc. 388. 
Aphrophora gelidus. Fitch, 3d Rep. Ins. N. Y. 
70 ; in Trans. Agr. Soc. 388. 

1857. Aphrophora saratogensis. Fitch, 4th Rep. Ins. 

N. Y. 52 ; in Trans. Agr. Soc. 738, 258. 
1890. Aphrophora saratogensis. Van Duzee, Psyche, v, 
390. 
PhiUenus saratogensis. Smith, Cat. Ins. N. J. 

443. 
Ajjhrophora saratogensis. Packard, Ins. Inj. 
Forest and Shade Trees, 712, 72. 
1892. Aphrophora saratogensis. Harrington, Ottawa 
Nat. vi, 31. 

Hab.—'S. Y. {Fitch); N. 3. {Smith) ',Ont.,Can. {Harrington); 
Nova Scotia, and Fla., {Waltier). 

36. A. FASciALis, Walker. 

1858. Aphrophora fascialis. Walk. Ins. Saund. Horn. 

93. 
Jlab.V. S. ( ]yalker). 



494 Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

37. A. siGNORETii, Fitch. 

1856. Aphrophora signoretii. Fitch, 8d Rep. Ins. N. Y. 
70 ; in Trans. Agr. Soc. 888, 98. 

1888. Aphrophora siynoretii. Saunders, Ins. Inj. to 

Fruits, 242, 128. 

1889. AphrojjJiora signoretii. Lintuer, 5th Rep. Ins. 

N. Y. 245. 

1890. Aphrophora signoretii. Van Duzee, Psyche, v, 

390. 
Hah.—^. Y. {Fitch). 

IX. Gephisus, Stal. 

38. C. sicciFOLius, Walker. 

1851. Aphrophora siccifoJia. Walker, List Horn. B.M. 

698, 3. 

Aphrophora occidentis. Walker, List Horn. B. M. 

699, 4. 

Aphropliora diminuta. Walker, List Horn. B. M. 

699, 5. 
1853. Cercopis gigas. Sign. Rev. et Mag. de Zool, ser. 

2, V, 183 [Jide Berg]. 
1858. Ptyelus varinlosus. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 

Suppl. 188. 
Ap)hrophora siccifolia. St§,l, Hem. Rio Jan. ii, 

15, 1. 
1864. Ptyelus sircifolius. StAl, Hem. Mex. 65, 401. 
1866. Cephisus siccifoliiis. Stal, Berl. Ent. Zeit. x, 

384. 
1869. Cephisns siccifolius. St4l, Hem. Fabr. ii, 18. 
1879. ^ Cephisus siccfidius. Berg. Hem. Argent. 238, 

291. 
Hah.— West Coast America, and Mex. ( WaHer). 

X. PHiLiENUS, Stal. 

39. P. LiNEATUS, Linn. 

1761. Cicada lineata. Linn. Faun. Suec. 241, 888. 
1781. Cercopis Uneatus. Fabr. Spec. Ins. ii, 330, 8. 
1787. Cercopis lineata. Fabr. Mant. Ins. ii, 274, 13. 



Genera of the North American Cercopida'. 495 

1794. Cicada abbreviata. Fabr. Eat. Syst. iv, 36, 41. 
Cercopis lineata. Fabr. Ent. Syst. iv, 52, 24. 
Aphrophora lineata. Burm. Handb. Ent. ii, 

123, 4. 
Cicada lineata. Linn. Syst. Nat. (ed. xii), 709, 

31. 
Cicada lineata. Gmel. Ed. Syst. Nat. i, 4, 2103, 
31. 
1803. Cercopis lineata. Fabr. Syst. Rhyng. 96, 42. 
1809. Cercopis lineata. Panz. Faun. Ins. Germ, ciii, 9. 
1821. Aphrophora abbreviata. Germ. Mag. Ent. iv, 

54, 10. 
1826. Cercopis lineatus, Fall. Hem. Suec. ii, 20, 6. 
1831. Aphrophora bilineata. Say, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. 

Phil, vi, 304, 1. 
1838. Cercopis Uneatus, Zett. Ins. Lapp, 287, 3. 
1851. Ptyelus lineatus. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 722, 

37. 
1855. Pttjelus lineatus^ Kirschb. Cic. Geg. Weisb. 65, 2. 
1859. Aplirophora bilineata. Say, Compl. Writ, ii, 

381, 1. 
1861. Fti/elus lineatus., Flor, Rhynch. Livl. ii, 123, 1. 
1869. PItilamns litieatus. Stdl, Hera. Fabr.ii, 16, 2. 

1871. Phikenus lineatus. Sahlberg, Faun. Flor. Fenn. 

96,7. 

1872. Ptijelus lineatus. Uhler, List Hem. Col. and N. 

Mex. 472. 

1876. Philwnus lineatus. Uhler, List Hem. West 

Miss. R. 347, 2. 

1877. Phila'HHs lineatus. Uhler, Rep. Ins. Coll. in 

1875, 458. 

1878. Pltilanius lineatus. Uhler, List Hem. Dak. and 

Mont. 510, 51. 
1884. Ptijelus lineatus. Uhler, Stand. Nat. Hist, ii, 

243. 
1888. Ptyelus lineatus. Leth. Ext. Mem. Soc. Linn. 
N. Fr. vii, 9. 
Pti/elus lineaius. Lintner, 4th Rep. Ins, N. Y. 
120, fig. 49. 



490 lU'iuois Sfafr Lahonilonj of Natural History. 

1888. Pti/clnsUneafas. Packard, Ent. for Begin. 82, 

fig. ()9. 

1889. PtijeJus J 'meat IIS. Lintner, 5tli Rep. Ins. N. Y. 

245. 

1890. PJnUenii.s li unit us. Van Diizee, Psyche, v, 388. 
Philamus lineatns. Smith, Cat. Ins. N. J. 443. 
PJiilmiiis hilineatus. Smith, Cat. Ins. N. J. 443. 

1892. PhilcEiiHS Jineatiis. Harrington, Ottawa Nat. 
vi, 31. 

Hab.-^Mo. {Say) ; Col. {Uhler) ; Yukon R.,Brit. Am., Hud- 
son Bay to Mass., Red River (Minn ) to Mackenzie 
River, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, Maine, Pembina 
(N. Dak.), Turtle Mt., Milk R., N. Mex., all of N. A. 
(Uhter); Ont., Can. (Harrington)', 1^. J. (Smith); 
N. Y. irAntner). 

40. P. ABJECTUS, Uhler. 

1876. Phila'HHsahjecfiis. Uhler, List Hem. West Miss. 
R. 34G, 1. 
7/a/>.— Colorado (C^/;/(^r). 

41. P. si'UMARius, Linn. 

1761. Cicada spiimaria. Linn. Faun. Suec. (2d ed.) 

240, 881. 

Cicada Jeurophtliahna. Linn. Faun. Suec. (2d 

ed.) 241, 883. 
Cicada hucocejjhala. Linn. Faun. Suec. (2d ed.) 

241, 885. 

Cicada lateralis. Linn. Faun. Saec. (2d ed.) 
241, 886. 
1767. Cicada spiiDun-ia. Linn. Syst. Nat. (ed. xii) 

708, 24. 

Cicada leiicophtJiaJiiia. Linn. Syst. Nat, (ed. 

xii) 709, 26. 
Cicada leucocephcda. Linn. Syst. Nat. (ed. xii) 

709, 28. 

Cicada lateralis. Linn. Syst. Nat. (ed. xii) 
709, 29. 
1780. Cicada spiDnatia. De Geer, Abh. Gesch. Ins. iii, 
105, 1, pi. 11, fig. 1-21. 



Genera of the North American Cercopidm, 497 

1787. Cercopis fasciata. Fabr. Mant. lus. ii, 27.5, 18. 
1789. Cicada spumaria. Gmel. Ed. Syst. Nat. i, 4, 

2109, 146. 
1794. Cercopis biguttata. Fabr. Ent. Syst. iv, 55, 35. 
Cercopis leucophtlialma. Fabr. Ent. Syst. iv, 52, 

21. 
Cercopis Jeucocephala. Fabr. Ent. Syst. iv, 52, 

22. 
Cicada lateralis. Fabr. Ent. Syst. iv, 35, 34. 
Cercopis marcjinella. Fabr. Ent. Syst. iv, 52, 20. 
Cercopis rittata. Fabr, Ent. Syst. iv, 53, 25. 
Cercopis prwusta. Fabr. Ent. Syst. iv, 53, 28. 
Cercopis lineata. Fabr. Ent. Syst. iv, 52, 24. 
Cercopis pop idi. Fabr. Ent. Syst. iv, 57, 45. 
1801. Bandirte scJiannicicctde. Schrank, Faun. Boic. 

ii, 55, 1066. 
1803. Cercopis spumaria. Fabr. Syst. Rhyng. 95, 35. 
Cercopis mctrgineUa. Fabr. Syst. Rhyng. 37, et. 

96, 44. 
Cercopis Jencophthahna. Fabr. Syst. Rhyng. 95, 

38. 
Cercopis Jeucocephala. Fabr. Syst. Rhyng .95,39. 
Cercopis lineata. Fabr. Syst. Rhyng. 96, 42. 
Cercop)is rittata. Fabr. Syst. Rhyng. 96, 45. 
Cercopis lateralis. Fabr. Syst. Rhyng. 96, 46. 
Cercopis biguttata. Fabr. Syst. Rhyng. 97, 53. 
Cercopis fasciata. Fabr. Syst. Rhyng. 97, 56. 
Cercopis bifasciata. Fabr. Syst. Rhyng. 98, 57. 
Cercopis p)opuli. Fabr. Syst. Rhyng. 98, 63. 
1821. Aphrophora bifasciata. Germ. Mag. Ent. iv, 

51, 3. 
Aj)hroj>hora leucojddladiua. Germ. Mag. Ent. 

iv, 52, 4. 
Aphrophora lineata. Germ. Mag. Ent. iv, 53, 5. 
Aphrophora apicalis. Germ. Mag. Ent. iv. 



IV, 



IV, 



53, 6. 






Aphrophora Oenothera'. 


Germ. 


Mag. Ent. 


53, 7. 






Aphrophora marginclla. 


Germ. 


Mag. Ent. 


53,8. 







498 Illinois State Lahortitory of Natnnil Ilisfori/. 

1826. Co'cop'is spituKiria. Fall. Hem. Suec. ii, 14, 5. 
1838. C.'ercopis spumaria. Zett. Ins. Lapp. 280, 2. 

Jphropliora f<(s<-i<ita. H.-Schaff. Deutschl. Ins. 

112, 19. ' 
1851. ApltropJujya spumaria. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 

697, 1. 
Ftyelus InfasckiiuH. Walk. List Honi. B, M. 

719, 36, et. 1154. 36. 
1855. Ptijelus spmnarius. Kirschb. Cic. Geg. Weisb. 

66, 5. 
1861. JHyelus spumafius. Flor, Rhynch. Livl. ii, 

126, 4. 
1864. FhUwnns spumarius. Stal, Hem. Mex. 66. 

1869. Plnla-nus spiimariiis. St^l, Hera. Fabr. ii, 15, 1. 

1870. Aphrophora spumaria. Am. Ent. ii, 234. 

1871. Pldhenus spumarius. Sahlberg, Faun. Flor. 

Fenn.* 89, 1. 
1876. Philcenus spumaria. Uhler, List Hem. West 
Miss. R. 347, 3. 

1889. PhUanius spumaria. Lintner, 5th Rep. Ins. 

N. Y. 245. 

1890. Philcenus spumarius. Smith, Cat. Ins. N. J. 

443. 
Hab. -Utah, Dak., Sitka, Lake Winnipeg, Nova Scotia, 
Can., and N.Y. (Uhler) ; N. J. (Smith). Distributed 
generally over N. A., Me. (Packard}. 

XI. Olastoptera, Gekm. 

42. C. UNDULATA, Uhler. 

1863. (yhstoptera uiululata. Uhler, Proe. Ent. Soc. 
Phil, ii, 160, ]. 
7/a&.— Cuba(^^/(/cr). 

43. C. STOLiDA. Uhler. 

1863. Clastoptera sto/ida. Uhler, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil, 
ii, 161, 2. 
llab.—Caha (Uhler). 

44. C. DELiCATA, Uhler. 

1876. Clastoptera delicata. Uhler, List Hem. West. 

Miss. R. 348. 



* Quod vide for correct bibliography. 



Genera of the North Ameriean Cercopidcv. 499 

1877. CJ(istoj)tera delicata. Uhler, Rep. Ins. Coll. ia 
1875, 458. 
f/rt?>.— Colorado Springs, Col., and Utali, {Uhler). 

45. C. OBTUSA, Say. 

1825. Cercopis obtiisa. Say, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. 

Phil, iv, 339, 2. 
1839. Clastoptera achatina. Germ. Zeitschr. i, 187, 1. 
1841. Aphrophora obtusa. Harris, Rep. Ins. Mass. 
1851. Clastoptera obtusa. Fitch, Cat. Horn. N. Y. 53, 
713. 
Clastoptera achatina. Fitch, Cat. Horn. N. Y. 53. 
Clastoptera achatina. Walk.* List Horn. B. M. 

842, 1, and 1160. 
ClastopAera obtusa. Fitch, 3d Rep. Ins. N. Y. 

71 ; in Trans. Agr. Soc. 389. 
Clastoptera obtusa. Fitch, 3d Rep. Ins. N. Y. 
148 ; in Trans. Agr. Soc. 466, 192, and 474. 
1859. Cercopis obtusa. Say, Compl. Writ, ii, 256, 2. 
1862. Aphrophora obtusa. Harris, Treatise, 225. 
1884. Clastoptera obtusa. Uhler, Stand. Nat. Hist, ii, 
244. 

1888. Clastoptera obtusa. Corastock, Int. Ent. 178. 

1889. Clastoptera obtusa. Lintner, 5th Rep. Ins. N. Y. 

242. 

Clastoptera obtusa. Prov. Pet. Faun. Can. iii, 
259, 1. 

1890. Clastoptera obtusa. Van Duzee, Psyche, v, 388. 
Clostoptera obtusa. Smith, Cat. Ins. N. J. 443. 
('lostoptera achatina. Smith, Cat. Ins. N. J. 443. 
Clastoptera obtusa. Packard, Ins. Inj. Forest and 

Shade Trees, 342, 12. 
1892. Clastoptera obtusa. South wick, Sci. xix, 318. 

Clastoptera obtusa. Harrington, Ottawa Nat. 
vi, 31. 

Jfah.—Ih. and Penn. (Say); Mass, (Harris); Out., Can. 
(Harrington) ; N. Y. (Fitch) ; N. J. (Smith). 

* Walker, with Fitch, c;»iisi(l(Ms achatina to be identical with o/»/»sa. 
I have not access to the desciii»lii»n of Gerniar's species. 



DOO Illinois S/a^e Lihor^ih))-// nf .Vv.'/rv^' H'storij. 

40. C. TESTACEA, Fitch. 

1851. Clastopti'ra testarea. Fitch, Cat. Horn. N. Y 
53, 715. 
Clastoptera testacea. Walk. List Horn. B.' M 
1160, 8. 
1857. Clastoptera testacea. Fitch, 4th Rep. Ins. N. Y 

53 ; ia Trans. Agr. Soc. 739, 260. 
1890. Clastoptera testacea. Van Duzee, Psyche, v, 388. 
Clostoptera testacea. Smith, Cat. Ins. N. J. 443. 
Clastoptera testacea. Packard, Ins. Inj. Forest 
and Shade Trees, 802, 136. 
JIab.—'S. Y. (Fitch), N. J. (iSmith). 

47. C. XANTHOCEPHALA, Germar. 

1839. Clastoptera xanfhocephala. Germar, Zeitschr. 1, 

189, 5. 
1851, Clastoptera xanthocepliila. Wa'k. List Horn. 

B. M. 843, 5. 
1890. Clostoptera xantlwcephaJa. Smith, Cat. Ins. N. J. 

443. 

//«?>.— Penu. and Carolina ( Walker), N. J. {Smith), Tex. 
and D. C. (Forbes). 

48. C. PiNi, Fitch. 

1851. Clastoptera pi ni. Fitch, Cat. Horn. N. Y. 53, 
719. 
Clastoptera pini. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 
1160, 9. 
1857. Clastoptera pini. Fitch, 4th Rep. Ins. N. Y 

52 ; in Trans. Agr. Soc. 738, 259. 
1890. Clastoptera pini. Van Duzee, Psyche, v, 388. 
Clostoptera pini. Smith, Cat. Ins. N. J. 443. 
Clastoptera pini. Packard, Ins. luj. Forest and 
Shade Trees, 802, 135, fig. 272. 
Hah.—^. Y. {Fitch), N. J. (Smith). 

49. C. PROTECTS, Fitch. 

1851. Clastoptera proteus. Fitch, Cat. Horn. N. Y. 54, 

722. 



Genera of the North Americdu Cercopkla\ 501 

1851. CJastoptera proteus, var. ffaricoJIis. Fitch. Cat. 
Horn. N. Y. 54. 
Clastoptera proteus^ var. ciiictieoHix. Fitch, Cat. 

Horn. N. Y. 54. 
Clastoptera proteiis, rar. macuJicoUis. Fitch, Cat. 

Horn. N. Y. 54. 
Clastoptera proteus, rar. niyricoUis. Fitch, Cat. 

Horn. N. Y. 55. 
Clastoptera proteus. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 
1160, 10. 
1862. Clastoptera proteus. Flint, in Harris's Treatise, 

225, pi. 3, fig. 6. 
1876. Clastoptera proteus. Glover, Rep. U. S. Dept. 

Agr. 31, fig. 28. 
1883. Clastoptera protens. Saunders, Fruit Insects, 374, 

236. 
1888. Clastoptera proteus. Comstock, Int. Eut. 178. 
1890. Clastoptera proteus. Van Diizee, Psyche, v, 388. 
Clostoptera proteus. Smith, Cat. Ins. N. J. 443. 
1892. Clastoptera proteus. Southwick, Science, xix, 
318. 
Clastoptera proteus. Harrington, Ottawa Nat. 
vi, 31. 

Hah.—^. Y. [Fitch), Mass. {Flint), East. States {Glover), 
iT. J. (Smith), Ont., Can. {Harrin<jton), D. C. and 
III. [Forbes). 

50. C. BREVis, Walker. 

1851. Lepijronia breris. Walk. List Horn. B. M. 

727, 7. 

Lepiironia ? sif/nifera. Walk. List. Horn. B. M. 

728, 9. 

1862. Clastoptera breris. Stsll, ()f. K. Vet.-Akad. 
Forh. 494. 
//a/>.— Porto Rico {Walker). 

51. C. LINEATOCOLLIS, Stdl. 

1859. Clastoptera lineatocollis. Stdl, Eug. Resa. Omk, 
Jord. iv, 285. 197. 
llab.—S&n Francisco, Calif. {Stdl). 



ERRATA.* 

Page 47, line 6, page 4H, line S, and page 4i», lines o, <), and lo Ironi bot- 
tom, for clifi'llus read cliteUKm. 

Page Tit, line 9, for OpUouea read Opilionea. 

Page 108, line 11, for longitudinal read circular. 

Page lOit, line S, for ivorms read body. 

Page 115, line 1, dele initial 11. 

Page 122, line 10, for ten read twenty. 

Page 13S, line Ki, for lUackisded read Black-sided. 

Page 185, line 13 from bottom, page 228, line 17, and page 229, line 7 
from bottom, for tvoonti read troostii. 

Page 187, line 12 from bottom, page 272, line fi from bottom, and page 
275, line 1, for kirtlandi read kirtlandii. 

Page 187, line 15 from bottom, for lineata read lineatum. 

Page 218, line 17 from bottom, for 7 read .7. 

Page 214, line 7, for 7 and 3 read .7 and .3. 

Page 224, line 13 from bottom, for Tortoise read Tortoises. 

Page 225, line 3, for jiicta read marginata. 

Page 240 line H from bottom, for 1S24 read l'S25, and before pp. insert IV. 

Page 242, line 8 and 12 from bottom, and page 243, line 1, tor Macro - 
clenn/s read Macroclemmys. 

Page 252, line 11, for Crematogaster read Cremastogaster. 

Page 269, line 22 from bottom, and page 271, line 1, tor fasciatiis read 
fasciata. 

Page 272, line 9 from bottom, and page 273, lines 7 and 14 from bottom, 
for grab ami read graliamii. 

Page 293, line 13 from bottom, for elapsoidea read elapsoidens. 

Page 295, line <i, for triangiihim read triangnlns. 

Page 309, lines 5 and (> and line 3 from bottom, for auKmus read anuvna. 

Page 349, line 3 from bottom, for A read W. 

Page 352, line If), for Icthyomorpha read Ichthyoniorpha. 

Page 353. line 4 from bottom, for Menopomidw read Cryptobranchidce . 

Page 3t)(i, line It), and page 3B7, line 14 from ho\Xon\, tor erythronoto 
read erythronotus. 

Page 31)7, line 8 from bottom, for relations read relation. 

Page 371, line 11 from bottom, for eingulata read cingatatnm. 

Page 378, line 7, dele period after prehension. S. Garman is antliority 
for last sentence of paragraph only. 

Page 385, line 4 from bottom, dele comma after its. 

Page 410, line 18 from bottom, for suhlata read suhidaia. 

Page 411, line 11, for hrmalmlata read bimaculata. 

Page 431, line Itifrom bottom, for nmtica read mnticHs. 

Page 435, line 12 froni bottom, for t/uerci read (juercHs 

Page 441, line 19, for Salamandra read salamandnt. 

Page 451, line 14 from bottom, for Anonophom read Aronopliora. 

Page 4S(), line 4, for liinahta read limbata. 

Page 494, line 2 from bottom, and page 195, lines 13 and HI, lor lineattis 
read lineata. 

*See also pp. 17s is] of Article Xl\ . 



INDEX 



abaeura, Farancia, 281. 
abacurum, Calopisma, 281. 
abacurus, Coluber, 281. 

Helicops, 281. 

Hydrops, 188, 280, 281. 
Abastor erythrogrammus, 280. 
abbreviata, Aphrophora, 495. 

Cicada, 495. 

Polyglypta, 395. 
abjectus, Philsenus, 496. 
Ablabes punctatus, 300. 

triangulum, 295. 
Abianchus alleghaniensis, 380. 
acauthaspis, Centrotus, 476. 
Acaatliodrilida?, 61, 74. 
Ac-aiithodrilus, 61, 62. 

layaidi, 62. 

ungulatus, 62 . 
accisa, Entylia, 396, 397. 
acclivata, Telamona, 424. 
achatina, Clastoptera, 499. 
Ac-ilius, 165. 

larva, 164. 

sulcatus, 164. 
Acocephalini, 11. 
Acoiiophora, 450. 

senosparsa, 452. 

caliginosa, 452. 

compressa, 452, 453. 

concolor, 452. 

conifera, 452. 

curvata, 464. 

fenioralis, 451. 

ttavipes, 453. 

gilvipes, 451. 

gladiata, 451. 

gracilicoruis, 451. 

grisescens, 450, 451. 



Aconophora— Continued. 

guttifera, 454. 

hastata, 452, 481. 

interna, 450. 

laminata, 450. 

lanceolata, 479. 

laticornis, 452. 

lineosa, 451. 

niaiginata, 451. 

mexicaua, 450. 

nigra, 452. 

pallescens, 451. 

porrecta, 454. 

prunitia, 452 (See Errata, 481), 

pugnax, 451. 

qiiadrivittata, 455. 

rubrivittata, 454. 

stabilis, 452. 

viridescens, 454, 455. 
Acraspis, 197. 

compressus, 197, 

villosus, 203. 
Acris, 339, 340. 

crepitans, 340, 343. 

gryllus, 134, 340, 342. 

var. crepitans, 340, 343. 
var. gryllus, 340, 342. 
Actinosphseriuni, 184. 
acuminata. Cicada, 413. 

Glossonotus, 414. 

Hemiptyclia, 413. 

Membracis, 413. 

Telamona, 413. 

Thelia, 412, 413, 414, 479. 
acuniinatus, Centrotus. 413. 
Acutalis, 427. 

anticonigra, 427, 428 (See Er- 
rata, 4S1). 

apicalis, 431. 



504 



INDEX. 



Aciitalis - ('outi)iued. 

binotata, 480. 

calva, 42S, 429, 479. 

dorsalis, 428, 479. 

Havipennis, 428. 

illiuoisoMsis, 429, 430. 

moesta, 431. 

uigrolineata, 431. 

occidentalis, 429, 430, 479. 

parva, 429. 

semicrema, 427, 428, 

tartarea, 427. 

trifurcata, 431. 
acutangula, Platyeotis, 454. 
acuticornis, Flatycentrus, 473. 
Adder, Cliequered, 295. 

Spreading, 262, 302. 
Adippe, 394. 

zebriiia, 394. 
adusta, Darnis, 448, 

Stictopelta, 448. 
Jilcmophora, 4t)t). 

californensis, 466. 

ferrugiuosa, 466. 
senosparsa, Aconopliora, 452. 
^schnina, 176. 
sestivus. Coluber, 283. 

Cyclophis, 284. 

Herpetodryas, 284. 

Leptophis, 283. 

Pliyllophilophis, 283, 284. 
^thalion, 478. 

dilatatum, 478. 

gratus, 478. 

nervoso-punctatus, 478. 
affinis, Darnis, 448. 

Stictopelta, 448. 
Agallia siccilolia, 34. 
Agama uudulata, 250. 
Agassiz, Louis, 233. 

on Chryseniys belli, 224. 

on distribution of Pseudemys 
concinna, 185. 
Agkistrodon, 313. 

contortrix, 314. 

piscivorus, 187. 
agricola, Lumbricus, 73. 



Agrion raniburii, 17t). 
Agrionina, 17t). 

nymph, 176, 177. 
alatus, I'nio, 151. 
albidosparsa, Ceresa, 404, 405. 
albiniarginata, Gypona, 30, 31. 
albofasciatus, Sphongophorus, 467. 
Aldrich, Chas , 291. 
Algse. 152, 338. 

filamentous, 130, 167, 317. 
alienus, Lasius, 208, 209, 210. 
alleglianiensis, Abranchus, 380. 

Cryptobranclius, 380. 

Meuopoma, 380. 

Salamandra, 380. 
Allen, J. A., on the Box Turtle, 220. 

on the Piping Tree-frog, 349. 
Alligator Snapper, 133, 243. 
Allolobophora, 58, 63, 67, 69, 70, 71. 

bceckii, 71. 

chlorotica, 71. 

foetida, 72. 

mucosa, 72. 

nordenskioldii, 73. 

parva, 73. 

riparia, 71. 

subrubicunda, 72. 

tenuis, 73. 

tumida, 73. 

turgida, 72 
Allygus, 11. 

irroratus, 34. 
alternata, Corisa, 174. 
amabilis, Diadophis, 300, 301. 
Amara as food of toads, 338. 
Amastris, 481. 

Iseta, 441, 479 (See Errata, 481). 
amazili, Umbonia, 460. 
amblops, Hybopsis, 135, 142. 
Amblystoma, 369, 371. 

cingulata, 371. 

copianum, 215. 

fuscum, 372. 

jeffersonianum, 215, 369, 372. 
var. fuscum, 372, 373. 
var. jeffersonianum, 372. 
373. 



INDEX. 



505 



Amblystoma jeffersouianum — Cont. 

var. laterale, 372, 373. 

var. platiiieum, 372, 373. 
laterale, 372. 

microstonmin, 11*0, 36'.>, 370. 
opacum, 370, 378, 370. 

eggs of, 379. 
platiiieimi. 372. 
porphyritifuni, 370. 
punctatum, 1"J0, 215, 370, 377. 

eggs of, 378. 
synopsis of Illinois species of, 

talpoideum, 370, 379. 

tigrinum, 190, 215. 370. 371, 
373, 377, 378. 
eggs of, 190. 
larva, 375. 
Aniblystomitlse. 353, 3t59. 
Ameinrus mela;^, 146. 

natalis, 146. 

nebulosus, 146. 
Ameiva, 255. 

sexlineata, 255. 
American Journal of Science cited, 
121. 

Naturalist cited, 4, 79, 108, 119, 
291. 

Toad, 334. 
americana, Tropidoscyta, 469. 
aniericanum. Ouiopluou. 162. 
americauus, Bufo, 190. 334, 336, 337. 

Clinoceutrus, 43. 

Lumbricus, 70. 
Aniia calva, 146. 
Aniiidse, 146. 
Amnicola iiniosa, 152. 
Amoeba, 184. 
ainoena, Cari)liopliis, 308, 309, 310. 

Celuta, 301). 
amceiius, Rracliyorrhos, 309. 

Carphopliiops, 309, 310. 

Coluber, 309. 
ampelopsidis, Menibracis, 4U"i. 417. 

Telamona, 41(5, 417, 479. 
Ampelopsis (luiniiucfolia. 3. 
Auipliibia (Caudata) 352. 



Amphibia — Continued. 

(Ecaudata) 317. 
Amphibians and Reptiles, including 
several Species not before 
recorded from the Northern 
States. Notes on Illinois, 
185-190. 

and Reptiles of Illinois, A Syno]»- 
sis of. 215-385. 

of the Mississippi Bottoms near 
Quincy, Illinois, 133. 
Amphibolips cookii, 202. 
Amphizoidfe, 161. 
Amyda, 246, 247. 

mutica, 133. 247. 
analis, Gyrinus, 165, 166. 
Anax Junius, 178. 
ancillaria, Physa, 150. 
Ancistrodon, 310, 313. 

contortrix, 313, 314, 

piscivorus, 313, 315. 
var. pugnax, 316. 
Andricus flocci, 198. 
Anguidae, 249, 252. 
Anguis ventralis, 253. 
angulala, Eumela, 414. 

Thelia, 414. 
angulifera, Lepyronia, 490. 
angusta, Moneepiiora, 487. 
Annals and Magazine of Natural 

History cited, 107. 
anuexus, Cyrtolobus, 441, 
annularis, Pumoxys. 140. 
annulipes, Limueria, 41. 
Anodonta grandis, 153. 

imbecilis, 154. 
Ant, Common Brown, formicaries of, 

20S. 
Aniens, 60. 

anticonigra, Acutalis, 427, 428 (See 
Errata, 481). 

^lembracis,427 (See Errata, 4S1). 
Antistrophus, 192. 

bicolor, 197. 

laciniatus, 194. 

minor, 19«). 

rufus, 195. 



50(5 



INDEX 



Aiitistrophus — Continued. 

silpliii, 192, 194, 195. 
autonina, Enchenopa, 4fi4. 
Auts as food ol' Conmion Tree-toad, 
352. 
as food of toads, 338. 
Auuia, 317, 
food of, 317. 

synopsis of families represented 
in Illinois, 317. 
Apanteles cacoeciae as parasite of 
Teras minnta, 5, 44. 
congregatus, 6. 

notes on life history, 3. 
var. orobense, 4, 5. 
crambi, description of cocoon 
and imago, 8. 
parasite of Root Web- 
worm, 8. 
militaris, as parasite of Army 

Worm, 5. 
ornigis, description of cocoon 
and imago, 7. 
parasite of Ornix geminatel- 
la, 7. 
orobense, parasite of Mesograplie 

rimosalis, 4. 
sarrotliripiB, description of im- 
ago, 6. 
parasite of Sarrothripa lint- 
neriana, B. 
smerinthi, (k 
Aphididge as food of Cricket-frog, 342. 
as food of toads, 338, 339. 
Sixth Cojitribution to a Know- 
ledge of the Life History of 
certain Little-known, 207- 
214. See under Corn Root 
Aphis. 
Apliis, Corn Root, 207-214. See un- 
der Corn Root Apliis. 
uiaidis, 207-214. See under Corn 
Root Aphis. 
Aphrophora, 484, 491. 
abbreviata, 495. 
apicalis, 497. 
bifasciata, 497. 



Aphrophora — Continued. 

diminuta, 494. 

fascialis, 493. 

fasciata, 498. 

gelidus, 493. 

leucophthalma, 497. 

lineata. 495, 497. 

marginella, 497. 

obtusa, 499. 

occidentis, 494. 

cenotherse, 497. 

parallela, 492. 

permutata. 492. 

quadrangularis. 489, 490. 

quadrinotata, 491, 492. 

saratogensis, 493. 

siccifolia, 494. 

signoretii, 494. 

spumaria, 498. 
Aphrophorina?, 483, 484, 489. 
apicalis, Acutalis, 431. 

Aphrophora, 497. 

Ceresa, 441. 

Enchenopa, 41)2. 

Tridaetylus, 175. 

Vanduzea, 441. 
apii, Lumbricus, 70. 
Aplodinotus grunniens, 135, 136. 
Apple Leaf-roller, l^eras minuta 
(Robs.), On the Parasites of 
the Lesser, 39-44. 
apriformis, Hemiptycha, 447. 
Arachnida, 181. 

as food of toads, 339. 
Arcella discoides, 184. 
Archasia, 425. 

belfragei, 425. 

canadensis, 425. 

conica, 42t). 

galeata, 425, 479, 481. 

pallida, 425. 
Archiv f iir ^likroskopische Anatomie 

cited, 112. 
arcuata, Caranota, 440. 
areolata, Entylia, 398. 

Rana, 215, 319, 320. 
arethusa, Plumatella, 182. 



INDEX. 



507 



arizonensis, Evashmeadea, 437 (See 

Errata, 481). 
armata. Meiiibraeis, 459. 
Army Worm, parasitism of, 5. 
arnyi, Diadophis, 301, 302. 
Aromochelys, 238, 240. 

carinatiis, 240. 

odoratus, 240, 241. 
aniuata. Cariueta, 440. 

Caryiiota, 440. 

Cyrtosia, 433. 

Membracis, 440. 

Ophiderma, 440. 

Vanduzea. 440, 479. 
arquatus, Cyrtolobus, 433. 
Arreimrus, 181. 
Arthrogastra, 79. 
Arthropods, 69. 

as food of toads, 338. 
Asellus stygius, 108. 
Aslimead, W. H., 392. 
asodalis, Platyeotis, 454. 

Potuia, 454. 
asphaltina, Hemiptycha, 44t5, 447. 

Hyphinoe, 446, 447. 
Aspidonectes, 246. 

ferox, 215. 

spiuifer, 133. 246. 
aspro, Etheostoma, 138. 
assimilis, Cyelinus, 166. 

Dineutes, 166. 

Sphenorhina, 488. 
Atherinidse, 141. 

atheriuoides, Notropis, 135, 142, 143. 
atlas, Centrodonotus, 474. 

Gargara. 474. 
Atymna, 434. 

castanea, 435. 

eiiiereura, 436 (See Errata, 481). 

discoidalis. 436 (See Errata, 481). 

inermis. 43t). 

inornata, 434, 435, 479. 

maciilifrontis, 436 (See Errata, 
4S1). 

pallidifrontis, 436 (See Errata, 
481). 

(inerci, 435, 479. 



Atymna — Continued. 

viridis, 435, 479 (See Errata, 481). 
Aulacizes, 18. 

irrorata, 19. 

mollipes, 24. 

noveboraceiisis, 24. 
Aulastoma, 121. 
Aulax, 201. 

bicolor, 201. 
aulicus, Hydroporus, 163. 
aureola, Moxostoma, 144. 
auriculata, Desmoguathus, 359. 

Smilia, 425. 
aurifascia, Centrotus, 476. 
auriflua, Ennya, 424. 



B 



bactriana, Entylia, 397, 398, 479. 
bajula, Evashmeadea, 437 (See Er- 
rata, 481). 
Ballard Slough, 125, 130. 
ballista, Hypsauclienia, 467. 

Sphougophorus, 467, 
Bandirte schaumcicade, 497. 
Bartlett. S. P., 138, 139. 
basalis, Ceresa, 404, 479. 

Monecphora, 487. 
Bascanion, 284. 

constrictor, 285. 
Bascanium constrictor, 285. 
basilaris, Thermonectes, 164. 
basivitta, Ptyelus, 491. 
Bass, Calico, 140. 

Large-mouthed Black, 138. 

Rock, 137. 

Small-moutlied Bhick, 139. 

Striped, 136. 

Wliite, 137. 

Yellow, 136. 
Batrachia. 317. 
Bear Creek, 125. 130. 
Beetles, 161. 

click, as food of Common Tree- 
toad, 352 

predaceous, as food of toads, 33s, 
339. 



5<lS 



INDEX. 



Beetles, predaceous — Confd. 
ground, lt)2. 
water, 1(53. 

eggs of, lt)3. 
food habits, 103. 

rove, 108. 

whirligig, lt>5. 
eggs of, lt)5. 
food of, ir)5, lOt). 
Beddard, F. E., paper cited, 107, 112, 

ll»i. 
belfragei, Archasia, 425. 
belli, Chrysemys, 132, 185, 223. 

Emys, 223. 
belligera, Membracis, 453, 454. 

Thelia, 454. 
bellona, Churchillia, 287. 

Pituophis, 287. 

Pityophis, 287, 288, 289. 
Belostoma, 172. 

eggs of, 172. 
Belostomatidae, 173. 
Bembidium, 1(52. 
Benacus griseus, 173. 
Benhani, W. B.. paper cited, 60, 62. 

on the subueural blood vessel of 
earthworms, 62. 
berlandieri. Rana,321, 324. 
Berosus pantherinus, 167. 

striatus, 167. 
bicincta, Cercopis, 487. 

Monecphora, 487. 

Tomaspis, 487. 

Triecphora, 487. 
bicinctura, Pnblilia, 399, 479. 
bicolor, Antistrophus, 197. 

Aulax, 201. 

Tachycineta, 132. 
Bidessus lacustris, 163. 
bifascia, Monecphora, 487. 
bifasciata, Aphrophora, 497. 

Cercopis. 497. 
bifasciatns, Ptyelus, 498. 
bifida, Tettigonia, 20, 21, 22, 27. 
bifusifera, Enclienopa. 463. 
bigutta, Hemiptycha, 447. 

Hyphinoe, 447. 



biguttata, Cercopis, 497. 
biguttatus, Centrotus, 470. 
bilineata. Bolitoglossa, 3f)4. 

Hexagenia, ISO. 

Salaniandra, 364. 
bilineatus, Pliilajnus, 4'.t6. 

Spelerpes, 361, 364. 
bimaculata, Enchenopa, 46)4. 

Gypoua, 30, 32. 

Thelia, 411, 412, 414. 479. 
binotata, Acutalis, 430. 

Enchenopa, 462, 463, 479. 

Membracis, 462. 

Thelia, 462. 
binolatum, Enchophyllum, 462, 463. 
bipunctata, Darnis. 447, 448. 

Stictopelta, 447, 448. 
bipunctulata, Gypona, 29, 30. 
Bird, Emma, 392. 

Birds and mammals of the Missis- 
sippi Bottoms near Quincy, 
Illinois, 131. 

as food of Colnbrida3, 262, 286, 
291. 
bisignata. Mesovelia, 173. 
bislineata, Salamaudra, 364. 
bispinifera, Bolbonota. 470. 
bivitta, Sphenorhina, 488. 
bivittata, Enchenopa, 462. 
Black Bass. Large-mouthed, 138. 
Small-mouthed, 139. 

Fly. 155. 

Salamander, 357. 
eggs of, 358. 

-sided Darter, 138. 
Top Minnow, 141. 

Snake, 187. 285, 290. 
food of, 286. 
blandingii, Cistudo, 221. 
Blanding's Tortoise, 221. 
Blowing Viper, 302. 
Blue Racer. 1S7, 285. 
food of, 28(). 

-spotted Sun fish, 140. 
-tailed Lizard, 249, 257. 
Blunt-nosed Minnow, 143. 
Boas, 261. 



INDEX. 



509 



bceckii, Allolobophora, 71. 

Dendrobcena, 71. 
Bolbonota, 469. 

bispinifera, 470. 

cariaata, 469. 

pictipennis, 469. 

tubercnlata, 470. 
Bolitoglossa, bilineata, 364. 

rubra, 361. 
Boocerus, 473. 

gilvipes, 473. 
borealis, Ceresa, 401. 
Boston Society of Natural History, 

Proceedings, cited, 4. 
Bourne, A. G., 122. 
Box Turtle, 219, 222. 
food of, 220. 
Boyer, E. R., 314. 
Brachybelus, 473. 

cruralis, 473. 
Brachyorrhos amcenu8, 309. 
Branchiopoda as food of salaman- 
ders, 352, 357. 
Bream, 142. 

Red-eyed, 140. 
Brendel F.. 314. 
brevicornis, Ceresa, 403. 
brevis, Ceresa, 403, 406. 

Cryptoptera, 449. 

Darnis, 449. 

Enchenopa, 463, 479. 
Broad Lake, 129, 130. 
Bronn, H. G., Tliier-Reich cited, 254. 
Brown Ant, Common, formicaries of, 
208. 

Swift, 2.50. 

food of, 252, 
bubalus, Centrotus, 401. 

Ceresa, 401, 402. 479, 480. 

Ictiobus, 144. 

Membracis, 401. 
Buffalo Gnat, 155. 

Mongrel, 145. 

Quill-back, 144. 

Red-mouth, 145. 
Bufo, 333. 

americanus, 334. 



Bufo — Continued. 

lentiginosus, 189, 334, 386, 337. 
var. americanus, 190, 334, 

336, 337. 
var. lentiginosus, 190, 334, 
336, 337. 
musicus, 334. 
Bufonidse, 318, 333. 
Bugs, crazy, 172. 

true, 172. 
Bulletin of the Illinois State Labora- 
tory of Natural History 
cited, 44. 277. 
of the Ohio Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station cited, 207. 
of the U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture, Division of Ento- 
mology, cited, 44. 
Bullfrog, 324, 328, 346. 

food of, 329. 
Bullhead, 146. 
Bullpout, 146, 156. 

item in food of, 156. 
Bull Snake, 286. 
Burrill, T. J., 186. 
Butler, A. W., 215. 
Butler, C. W., 316. 



Cabot, Louis, 178. 
cacoecise, Apanteles, 5, 44. 
Csenis luctuosa, 181. 

nymphs, 181. 
Calamaria elapsoidea, 299. 

striatula, 306, 
Calamita cinerea, 346. 
calcar, Liobunum, 82, 90. 

Phalaugium, 90. 
Calico Bass, 140. 
californeusis, yl^k-mopliora, 466. 
caliginosa, Aconophora. 452. 
Callicentrus, 477. 

flavivitta, 477. 

ignipes. 477. 
calligaster, Coluber. 293. 

Lampntpeltis, 293. 

Ophibolus. 293. 



510 



INDEX. 



Calocoris rapidus as food of Cricket- 
frog, 342. 
Calophrynus, 334. 
Calopisma abacunim, 281. 

erythrogrammus, 280. 
calva, Acutalis. 428, 429, 479. 

Aniia, 14(5. 

Ceresa, 428, 429. 

Membracis, 428, 429. 
C'iiiubariis, 68. 

propinquus as food of Hell- 
bender, 381. 
camelus, Darnis, 446. 

Hemlptycha. 446. 

Hyphiiioe, 414, 446. 

Membracis, 426. 

Smilia, 426. 427, 479. 

Thelia, 426. 
Campelouia decisum, 151. 
Campyleucliia. 464. 

curvata, 464, 465, 479. 

minans, 464. 
Campylocentrus, 472. 

curvidens, 472, 473. 

hamifer, 472. 

obscuripennis, 472. 

subspinosus, 473. 
canadense, Stizostedion, 137. 
canadensis, Archasia, 425. 
Canadian Entomologist cited, 79. 
capito, Rana. 319, 320. 
caprodes, Etheostoma, 138. 
Caranota arcnata, 440. 
Carabidse, 134, 162. 

as food of toads, 338, 339. 
carinata, Bolbonota, 469. 

Cyrtosia, 433. 

Darnoides. 445. 

Entylia, 397. 

Smilia, 433. 
carinatns, Aromochelys, 240. 

Cyrtolobns, 433. 
Carineta arqnata, 440. 
Carolina, Cistudo, 219. 

Phlegethontius, 3. 

Testudo, 219. 
carolinense, Engystoma, 331. 



carolinensis, Hyla, 346. 
Carp. 144. 

German, 143. 
food of, 144. 

River, 144. 
Carphophiops amoenus, 309. 

helense 308. 

vermis. 309. 
Carphophis, 261, 308. 

amoena, 308, 309. 

var. amoenus, 309, 310. 
var. vermis, 309, 310. 

helense, 308. 
carpio, Cyprinus, 143. 
Carter, T. P., 80. 
caryse, Centrotus. 475. 

Microcentrus, 474. 475, 479. 

Uroxiphus, 474, 475. 
Carynota, 442, 444, 445. 

arqnata, 440. 

marmorata, 442, 443, 444, 445, 
479, 481. 

mera, 443, 444. 

muskonensis, 444, 479. 

picta, 442, 444. 

strombergi, 443. 
Case-flies, 170. 

eggs of, 170. 

larvse, 170, 171. 
food of, 170. 

pupfe, 171. 
castanea, Atymna, 435. 

Smilia, 435. 

Thelia, 435. 
Castanet Tree-frog, 348. 
eastaneus, Petromyzon, 148. 
catenatus, Crotalinus, 312. 

Crotalus, 312. 

Sistrurus, 312. 
catenifer, Coluber, 286. 

Pituophis, 286. 

Pityophis, 286. 
catesbiana, Rana, 134, 319, 328. 
Catfish, 145. 

Channel, 146. 

item in food of, 151). 

Morgan, 145. 



INDEX. 



511 



Catfish— Continued. 
White Fulton, 146. 
Willow, 146. 
Yellow, 145, 146. 
Catostomidse, 144. 
Catostomus teres, 144. 
Caudata, 352. 
Caudisona, 312. 
horrida, 311. 
tergemina, 312. 
Cave Salamander, 363. 
cayuga, Notropis, 143. 
Cedar Creek, 129. 
celeus, Phlegethontius, 3. 
Celuta amoena, 309. 
helen®, 308. 
vermis, 309. 
centralis, Smilia, 426. 
Centrarchidse, 138. 
Centrodontus, 474. 

atlas, 474. 
Centropyxis, 184. 
Centrotinse, 392, 470, 478. 
Centrotus, 475. 

acanthaspis, 476. 

acuminatus, 413. 

aurifascia, 476. 

2-guttatus, 470. 

bubalus, 401. 

caryse, 475. 

cribratus, 476. 

curvidens, 472, 473. 

tasciatus, 470. 

flavidus, 471. 

flavivitta. 477. 

hamifer, 472. 

havanensis, 475. 

ignipes, 477. 

inermis, 408. 

jucuudns, 476. 

megaceros, 475. 

mnticus, 431. 

niveiplaga, 472. 

opponens, 478. 

oppugnans, 476. 

pal lens, 405. 

platycerus, 476. 



Centrotus — Continued. 
poeyi, 476. 
pusillus, 475, 476. 
rupicapra, 477. 
serricornis, 476. 
spinosus, 459. 
subspinosus, 473. 
taurus, 477. 
urus, 475'. 
vittatus, 455. 
vitulus, 405. 
Centruchus, 471. 

liebecki, 471, 479. 
cepedianuni, Dorosoma, 141. 
Cephisus, 484, 494. 
siccifolius, 494. 
ceratomise, Microplitis, 1, 3. 
Ceratomia quadricornis, parasite 

of, 1. 
Ceratopogon, larva, 161. 
Cercopidse, 9. 

Synopsis of the Subfamilies and 
Genera of the North American, 
with a Bibliographical and 
Synonymical Catalogue of the 
Described Species of North 
America, 483-501. 
Cercopinse, 483. 
Cercopis, 9. 

bicincta, 487. 
bifasciata, 497. 
biguttata, 497. 
coccinea, 489. 
costalis, 17. 
fasciata, 497. 
gigas, 494. 
ignipecta, 487. 
inca, 486. 
lateralis, 17, 497. 
leucocephala, 497. 
leucophthalnia, 497. 
lineata, 494, 495, 497. 
marginella, 17, 497. 
obtusa, 499. 
parallela. 492. 
populi, 497. 
praeusta, 497. 



512 



INDEX. 



Cercopis - Coittiinicil. 

quadrangularis, iH9, 4ltO. 

scliacli, 48t). 

spmnaria, 497, 498. 

vittata, 455, 497. 
Ceresa, 400. 

albidospaii^a, 404, 405. 

ai)iealis, 441. 

basalis, 404, 479. 

borealis, 401. 

brevicornis, 403. 

brevis, 403, 40(i. 

bubalus, 401, 402, 479, 480. 

calva, 428, 429. 

coucava, 398. 

coustans, 404. 

curvilinea, 405. 

(iicerea, 400. 

diceros, 400, 401, 479. 

excisa, 405. 

ffiinorata, 406. 

festiva, 409. 

franciscaua. 410 

goniphora, 408. 

illinoiseiLsis, 404. 

iusignis, 40(3. 

patruelis, 405. 

postfasciata, 400, 480. 

puueticeps, 406, 479. 

sallei, 40(). 

semicienia, 427, 429. 

semiciirva, 428. 

spinifera, 405. 

still ii, 406. 

tartarea, 42.7. 

taurina, 403, 406, 480. 

testacea, 405. 

turbida, 406. 

uniformis, 406, 409. 

vitulus, 405. 
Cercoptes, 201. 
cenis, Quercus, 200. 
Cbsenobryttus gulosus, 140. 
Chain Snake, 297. 
Channel Catfish, 146. 

item in food of, 156. 
Cheloneura serpentina, 244. 



Chelonenra Coutiuued. 

temniiufkii. 243. 
Chelonia, 132, 216. 

synopsis of families of, repre- 
sented in Illinois, 217. • 
Chelopns gnttatus, 215. 
Chelydra, 212, 243. 

lacertina, 243. 

serpentina, 133, 243, 244. 
Chelydridaj, 218, 242. 
Chequered Adder, 295. 
Chicken Snake, 295. 
Chilaspis ferrugiueus, 2(K). 

nitida. 200. 
Chinquepin, Water, 129. 
Chironomidse, 155, 156, 158. 

eggs of, 156. 
Chironomus, 158. 

larvse, 158, 159. 160. 
food of, 156, 158. 
Chlsenius, 162. 

Chlorops as food of Cricket-frog, 342. 
Chlorosoma, 282. 

vernalis, 282. 
chlorotica, Allolohophora, 71. 
Chorophilus, 339, 343. 

triseriatus, 189, 343. 
var. triseriatus, 343. 
Chrysemys, 219, 222. 

belli, 132, 185, 223. 

marginata, 132, 185, 223, 224, 
225 (See Errata), 227. 

picta, 185, 215, 223, 225 (See 
Errata), 226. 
eggs of, 227. 
food of, 227. 
chrysochloris, Clupea, 142. 
chrysoleucus, Notemigonus, 142. 
Chrysomelidse as food of American 

Toad, 339. 
chrysops, Roceus, 137. 
Churcliillia bellona, 287. 
Cicada, 9, 10. 

abbreviata, 495. 

acuminata, 413. 

coccinea, 23. 

irrorata, 19. 



INDEX. 



5i;^ 



■Cicada — Coutiuued. 

lateralis, -t'.m, 4Vt7. 

leucoeepliala, 4itt). 

leucophthalina. 49r). 

lineata, 4i»4, 495. 

nigra, 461. 

orboua, 15. 

spinosa, 459. 

spumaria, 49(i, 497. 

tauriis, 47". 

iiiidata, 15. 
Cicadidse, 9. 
Cinderella, Teras, 5. 

Tortrix, 39. 
cinerea, Calamita. 34<). 

Gypona, 32. 

Hoplophora, 457, 458. 

Hyla, 189, 215, 34ti, 350. 

Plethodon, m). 3tl7. 

Salamandra, 36(). 
Cinereous Frog, 34(5. 
cinereum, Atynina, 43() (See Errata, 
481). 

Gargara. 43t). 

Phalaugium, 93. 
ciaereus, Plethodon, 3ti<i. 
cingulata, Amblystoma, 871. 
Cinosternidse, 218, 237. 
Cinosternon pennsylvanicum, 238. 
Cinosternum, 238. 

pennsylvanicum, 238. 
circulosa, Rana, 320. 
cirrigera, Salamandra, 3<')4. 
cissi, Membracis, 480. 

Telamona. 41t) (See Errata, 480). 
Cistudo, 218, 219, 221. 

blandingii, 221. 

Carolina, 219. 
food of. 220. 
var. Carolina, 219. 

clausa, 219. 

var. clau.sa, 219. 
var. triunguis, 219. 

odorata. 240. 

ornata, 215. 220. 

pennsylvanica. 238. 

♦fiunguis, 219. 



Cladonota, 407. 
clamata, Rana, 327, 
clamitans, Rana, 319, 327, 329. 
Clams, 152. 

as food for fishes, 153. 

food of, 152. 

river, 153. 
Clarke,S. F,, 378. 
Clastoptera. 485. 498. 

achatina, 499. 

delicata, 498. 499. 

obtnsa, 499. 

stolida, 498. 

undulata, 498. 
Claus Lake, 128. 
clausa. Cistudo, 219. 
claviger, Sphongophorus, 467. 
elavigerus. Sphongophorus, 467. 
Clepsine, 182. 
Click Beetles as food of Common 

Tree-toad, 352. 
Clinocentrus americanus, cocoon 
and imago described, 43. 
parasite of Teras minuta, 43. 
Cliola vigilax, 143. 
Clivicola riparia, 132, 
Clivina, 1<)2. 
Clonophis, 275. 
Clovia, 485. 

Clupea ehyrsochloris, 142. 
Clupeida?, 141. 
Cnemidophorus, 255. 

sexlineatus, 255. 
Cnemidotus, 162. 

12-punctatus, 162. 
coccinea, Cercopis, 489. 

Cicada. 23. 

Diedrcicephala, 28. 

Quercus. 198. 

Rhinauiax, 489. 

Salamandra. 355. 

Tettigonia, 21, 23. 

Tomaspis, 4S9. 

Triecphora, 4S9. 
coccineus. Ophibidus, 299. 
Coelenterata, ls3. 
Coleoptera, aquatic, 155, 161 



514 



INDEX, 



Coleoptera, aquatic — Continued. 
food habits, lt)3. 

as food of frogs. 324, 345, 352. 
collina, Tolamoua, 422. 

Thelia, 422. 
Coluber. 2»',3. 2S4. 

abacurus, 281. 

sestivus, 2S3. 

amoenus, 309. 

calligaster, 293. 

catenifer, 286. 

conflnis. 290, 291. 

constrictor. 187, 285, 291. 
food of, 28»). 

contortrix, 314. 

doliatus, 299. 

emoryi, 290. 

eximius, 295. 

erythrogaster, 2()9. 

erythrogrammus, 280. 

fasciatus, 269. 

getulus, 297. 

guttatus, 292. 

leberis, 272. 

lindlieimeri, 290. 

obsoletus, 290. 

var. conflnis, 290, 291. 
var. obsoletus, 290, 291. 

occipitomaculatus, 278. 

parietalis, 267. 

proximus, 264. 

punctatus, 300. 

saurita, 264. 

sayi, 287, 297. 

sinius, 304. 

sipedon, 269. 

sirtalis, 266. 

striatulus, 306. 

trianguUim, 295. 

venustus, 278. 

vernalis, 282. 

vulpinus, 292. 
Colubridse, 261. 

eggs of, 262. 

food of, 262, 268, 270, 283, 286, 
291. 

synopsis of Illinois genera, 2t')2. 



Combophora proxitna, 399. 
Common Brown Ant, formicaries of^ 
20S. 

Ringed Perch, 137. 

Sucker, 144. 

Sunflsh, 139. 

Tree-toad, 350. 
food of, 352. 
communis, Diplocardia. 47. 

Lumbricus, 72. 
compressa, Aconophora, 452, 453 

Menibracis, 461. 
compressus, Acraspis, 197. 
Comstock, J. H., Introduction to 
Entomology cited, 392. 

on characters of Membracidse, 
392. 
concava Ceresa, 398. 

Entylia, 397, 398. 

Menibracis, 398. 

Publilia. 398, 399, 479. 

Telamona, 419, 479. 
concinna, Eniys, 231. 

Evashmeadea, 437 (See Errata, 
481). 

Pseudemys, 185. 215, 228, 23 U 

Ptychemys, 231. 

Testudo, 231. 
concisa, Entylia, 396, 397. 
concolor, Aconophora, 452. 
Conferva, 170. 
conflnis. Coluber, 290, 291. 

Elaphis, 291. 
congregatus, Apanteles, 3, 6. 
conica, Archasia, 426. 
conifera, Aconophora, 452. 
Conocephalus striatulus, 306. 
Conochilus volvox, 182. 
consimilis, Hydroporus. 164. 
constans, Ceresa, 404. 

Thelia, 404. 
constrictor, Bascanion, 285. 

Bascanium, 285. 

Coluber, 187, 285, 291. 

Coryphodon, 285. 
contigua, Triecphora, 488. 
contortrix, Agkistrodon, 314. 



INDEX. 



515 



contortrix — Coutiuucd. 
Ancistrodon, 313, 314. 
Coluber, 314. 
Trigonocephalus, 314. 
cookii, Amphibolips, 202. 
Cooter, Florida 231. 
Cope, E. D., 189, 275, 302, 371. 

characterization of varieties of 

Desaiognatlius fusca, 359. 
on the distribution of Crypto- 
branelms alleghaniensis. 381. 
on Phyllophilophis sestivus, 284. 
on characters of Teidse, 255. 
Review of the Amblystomidse 
cited. 379. 
copianum, Auiblystoma, 215. 
Copperhead. 310, 314. 
Coptereucoila, 203. 

marginata, 203. 
Coptotomus interrogatus, 164. 
coquilletti, Telamona, 420, 479. 
Corbiculidae, 153. 
Corethra, 157, 158, 159. 
eggs of, 157. 
plumicornis, 157. 
Corisa, 166, 172. 
alternata, 174. 

eggs of, 174. 
signata, 174. 
Corisidse, 174. 
Corn Root Aphis, 207-214. 

breeding-eage results with, 

210. 
description, 213. 
field observations, 208. 
summary, 212. 
cornutula, Tropidoscyta, 469. 
cornntus, Corydalis, 172. 
Coronelia dolidta, 299. 
getula. 297. 
rhombomaculata, 296. 
sayi, 297. 
Corydalis cornutus, 172. 

eggs of, 172. 
coryli, Telamona, 419, 479. 
Coryphodon constrictor, 285. 
costalis, Cercopis, 17. 



costalis — Continm'd. 

Oncometopia, 15, 17. 

Tettigonia, 17. 
costata, Polyglypta, 394, 479. 
Cothonaspis, 204. 
crambi, Apanteles, 8. 
Crambus exsiccatus infesting lawns, 
8. 
parasite of, 8. 

zeellus. parasite of, 8. 
Craneflies, 79. 

as food of Cricket-frog, 342. 
Crangonyx mucronatus, 108. 
crassicornis, Physoplia, 458. 

Umbonia, 458, 479. 
crataegi, Thelia, 412, 414, 479, 480. 
Crayfish, 172. 

as food of Hellbender, 381. 
of Mud Turtle, 186. 
Crazy bugs, 172. 

Cremastogaster, as food of Common 
Tree-toad, 352. 

as food of Pine-tree Lizard, 252. 

lineolata, 352. 
Cremastus, 39. 

forbesi, cocoon and imago de- 
scribed, 42. 
parasite of Teras niinuta.42. 
crepitans, Acris, 340, 343. 
cribratus, Centrotus, 476 
Cricket, Savannah, .340. 

-frog, 340. 

food of, 342. 
Crickets, 174. 

as food of Ophisaurus ventralip, 
254. 
Criodrilus, <)1. 
cristata, HeJiria, 423, 424, 479. 

Thelia, 424. 
Cristatella magnifica, 182. 
cristifera, Cyrtosia, 433. 

Smilia, 433. 
cristiferus, Cyrtolobus, 433. 
Croppie, Dark. 140. 

Pale, 140. 
Crotalidie, 2t)l, 310. 
Crotalinus catenatus, 312. 



51i> 



INDEX. 



Crotalophorus, 312. 
kiitlaiidii. 312. 
teigeniinuia, 312. 
Crotalus, 281t, 310, 311. 
cateiiatus, 312. 
(1 missus, 311. 
liorridus, 311 
piscivorus, 315. 
tergeminus, 312. 
cruciata, Splienoiiiina, 4S8. 
cruralis, Biachybelus, 473. 
Crustacea as food of salamanders, 

352, 35fi, 370. 383. 
Cryptobranchidse, 353 (See Errata), 

380. 
Cryptobranehus, 380. 
alleglianiensis, 380. 
distribution of, 381. 
food of 381. 
Cryptoptera, 449. 

brevis, 449. 
cucullata, Hemiptycha, 442. 

Membracis, 4r)5. 
Culex, 15tj. 
Culicidse, 155, 156. 
eggs of, 156. 
food of larvae of, 156. 
cuneata, Hemiptycha, 445, 446. 

Hyphinoe, 445, 446. 
curvata, Aconophora, 464. 

Campylenchia, 464, 465, 479. 
Enchenopa, 465. 
Membracis, 464. 
curvicornis, Enchenopa, 463. 
curvidens, Campylocentrus, 472, 473. 

Centrotus, 472, 473. 
cnrvilinea, Ceresa, 405. 
cyanellus, Lepomis, 140. 
Cyclas solidula, 153. 
transversa, 153. 
Cyclinus assimilis, 166). 
Cyclophis, 263, 282. 
sestivus, 284. 
vernalis, 282, 283, 284. 
eggs of, 283. 
food of, 283. 
cydopion, Tropidonotus, 271. 



cyclopium, Nerodia. 269, 271. 

Tropidonotus. 271. 
Cydostoma tricarinta, 150. 
Cylindro.soma glutinosum, 365. 

hmgicaudatum 362. 
Cynipidje in tlie collection of the 
Illinois State Laboratory of 
Natural History, Descriptions 
. of New, 191-206. 
Cynipinse, 191. 
Cyperus phymatodes, 186, 235. 

as food of Malacoclemmys 
lesueuri, ISO, 235. 
Cyphonia, 399. 
formosa, 399. 
liirta, 399. 400. 
proxima, 399. 
rectispini. 400, 480. 
cyprinella, Ictiobus, 145. 
Cyprinidse, 142. 
Cyprinodontidse, 141. 
Cyprinus carpio, 143. 
food of, 144. 
Cyrtolobus, 431, 481. 
an nexus, 441. 
arquatns, 433. 
carinatus, 433. 

cinereum, 436 (See Errata, 481). 
cristiferus, 433. 

discoidalis, 436 (See Errata. 481). 
fenestratus, 431. 
fuliginosus, 433, 479. 
gloveri, 434. 
intermedins, 433. 
maculifrontis, 436 (See Errata, 

481). 
muticus, 431. 
ornatus, 433. 
pallidifrontis, 436 (See Errata, 

481). 
sculptus, 432. 
trilineatus, 432. 
tuberosns. 433, 479. 
tumidus, 433. 
van. 432. 479. 

viridis, 435, 479 (See Errata, 481). 
cyrtops, Telamona, 416). 



INDEX. 



517 



cyrtops — Continued. 

Thelia, 416. 
Cyrtosia arquata, 433. 

carinata, 433. 

cristifera, 433. 

feuestrata, 431. 432. 

fuliginosa. 433. 

gloveri, 434. 

intermedia, 433. 

marmorata, 442, 443. 

mutica, 431. 

ornata, 433. 

sculpta, 433. 

trilineata, 432. 

van, 432. 

D 

Daddy-long-legs. 79. 

Daphnia pulex as food of larvae of 

Tiger Salamander, 37fi. 
Dark Croppie, 140. 
Darninae, 392. 
Darnls. 449. 

adnsta, 448. 

afflnis, 448. 

bipunctata, 447, 448. 

brevis, 449. 

camelus, 446. 

dispar, 479. 

incerta, 447. 

lateralis, 449. 

lineola. 449, 481. 

prsecox, 448. 

sinuata, 396. 

strigifrons, 448. 

stupida, 450. 

transversalis, 448. 
Darnoides, 445. 

carinata, 445. 
Darter, Black-sided, 138. 

Johnny. 138. 

Sand, 138. 
Dascyllidse, 161. 
Davis, N. S., and Rice, Frank L., 265, 

299, 320, 359, 364, 367, 385. 
Dead Man's Slough, 128. 
decisa, Entylia, .396. 

Lininaea, 151. 



decisum, Canipeloma, 151. 

decorata, Umbonia, 459. 

DeKay, J. E., on food of Milk Snake, 

296. 
dekayi, Ischnognathus, 279. 
Storeria, 278, 279. 
Tropidonotus, 278. 
Delauneya, 471. 

fasciata, 471. 
delicata, Clastoptera, 498, 499. 
delicatus, Macrocentrus, 44, 
Dendroboena boeckii, 71. 
densa, Enchenopa, 464. 
Dero digitata, 182. 

intermedins, 182, 184. 
Desmids, 167, 317. 
Desmodactylus melanostictus, 368. 

scutatus, 368. 
Desmognathidse, 353, 357. 
Desmognathus, 357. 
fusca, 215, 358. 359. 

characterization of varie- 
ties of, 359. 
eggs of, 359. 
var. auriculata, 359. 
var. fusca, 359. 
niger, 357, 358. 
nigra, 357, 358. 
eggs of, 358. 
detritus, Ptyelus. 493, 
Diadophis, 263, 300. 
amabilis, 300. 
punctatus, 300. 

var. amabilis, 300, 301. 
var. arnyi. 301, 302. 
var. punctatus, 300, 301. 
var. stictogenys, 302. 
Diastrophus, 191. 

scutellaris, 191. 
Diatoms, 158, 167, 317. 
dicerea, Cereaa, 400. 
diceros, Ceresa, 40(>. 401, 479. 
Membracis, 400. 
Sniilia, 4«). 
Diedrocephala, 21. 
coccinea, 23. 
mollipes, 24. 



518 



INDEX. 



Diemyctylus, 354. 

miniatus, l!tO, 354. 
food of, 35t>. 

var, miniatus, 354, 355, 35t). 
var, viridescens, 355, 356. 
viridescens, 190. 
Difflugia, 184. 
diffusa, Ilemiptyclia, 421. 
Digaster, 61. 
digitata, Dero, 182. 
dilatatum, TEthaiion, 478. 
dimidiata, Tragopa, 393. 
diminuta, Aphrophora, 494. 
Dineiites, 165. 
assimilas, 166. 
food of, 166. 
Diplocardia, 53, 55, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 
74. 
communis, on the Anatomy and 
Histology of, 47 77. 
alimentary canal, 51. 
characters of the genus, 47. 
clitellum, 49. 
dissepiments, 51. 
dorsal pores, 49. 
form and exterior, 48. 
genital organs, 55. 

external apertures of, 50. 
nephridia, 59. 
nervous system, 58. 
notes on the histology of, 

63. 
remarks on the species, 

60-63. 
setae, 49. 

vascular system, 53. 
Diptera, 155. 

as food of toads, 339. 
discalis, Horiola, 393. 
discoidalis, Atymna, 436 (See Errata, 
481). 
Gargara, 436. 
discoides, Arcella, 184. 
dispar, Darnis, 479. 
Entilia, 479. 
Parmula, 479. 
Dogfish, 145, 146. 



dohrni. Tragopa. 393. 
doliata, Coronella, 299. 
doliatus, Coluber, 299. 

Ophibolus, 293, 295, 296, 299. 
dolomieu, ;\Iicropterus, 139. 
Dorosoma cepedianum, 141. 
dorsalis, Acutalis, 428, 479. 

Polyglypta, 394, 395, 479. 

Tragopa, 428. 

Tropidonotus, 266. 
dorsatum, Liobunum, 82, 83, 87. 

Phalangium, 83. 
Dragon-flies, 175. 

eggs of, 176. 
Dryophanta, 198. 

lanata, 198, 200. 
Ducks, young, as food of frogs, 329. 
12-punctatus, Cnemidotus, lt)2. 

Haliplus, 162. 
durissus, Crotalus, 311. 
Dusky Salamander, 358. 

eggs of, 359. 
Dytiscidse, 161, 163, 166. 

eggs of, 163. 

food habits of, 163. 
Dytlscus, interrogatus, 164. 



E 



Earle Parker, 87. 

EarthvForm (Diplocardia communis, 
gen. et sp. nov.), On the 
Anatomy and Histology of 
a New, 47-77. See under 
Diplocardia communis, 
of the Family Phreoryctidae, On 
an American, 107-117. 
bibliography, 114. 
description, 108. 
intestinal parasites, 114. 
Eaton, A. E., A Revisional Mono- 
graph of Recent Ephemeridse 
cit->d, 181. 
Ecaudata, 317. 
Eft, 354. 

food of, 356. 
Red, 354. 



INDEX. 



519 



Eggs of Amblystoma opacum, 379. 
of Amblystoma pimctatum, 378. 
of Amblystoma tigriuum, 190. 
of Belostoma, 172. 
of Black Salamander, 358. 
of Case-flies. 170. 
of Chironomidae. 156. 
of Chrysemys picta, 227. 
of Colubrldse, 262. 
of Corethra, 157. 
of Corisa, 172. 
of Corisa alternata, 174. 
of Corydalis eorniitus, 172. 
of Culicidse, 156. 
of Cyclophis vernalis, 283. 
of Dragon-flies, 176. 
of Dusky or Painted Salamander, 

359. 
of Dytiscidse, 163. 
of fishes, 172, 174. 
of gnats, 156. 
of Gyrinidse, 165. 
of horse-flies, 180. 
of Hydrophilidse, 167. 
of May-flies, 180. 
of Mud-puppy. 383. 
of Mud-tortoise, 239. 
of Notonecta undulata, 174. 
of Ophidia, 261. 
of Painted Turtle, 227. 
of Peetinatella magniflca, 183. 
of Physa lieterostropha, 150. 
of Ranatra, 172. 

of Red-backed Salamander, 367. 
of Red-bellied Horn Snake, 282. 
of Short-nosed Gar, 147. 
of Siren lacertina, 385. 
of snails, 149. 

of Snapping Turtle, 217, 245. 
of Soft-shelled Turtle, 248. 
of Spotted Salamander, 378. 
of Tabanidse, 1.56. 
of Tiger Salamander, 376. 
of toads, 338. 
of turtles, 132, 217. 
of Valvatidse, 151. 
of water beetles, 1<;3. 



Eggs — Continued. 

of whirligig beetles, 165. 

of Wood Frog, 330. 
Eisen, Gustaf, 61, 70. 
Elaphis, 263, 289. 

guttatus. 289, 292, 294. 
var. guttatus, 292. 
var. vulpinus, 292. 

obsoletus, 187, 289. 290. 
var. confinis, 291. 
var. lindheimeri, 290, 291. 
var. obsoletus, 290, 291. 
Elaphrus, 162. 
Elaps, 310. 
elapsoidea, Calamira, 299. 

Osceola, 299. 
elapsoideus, Ophibolus, 293, 299. 
elegans, Emys, 228. 

Pseudemys, 133, 228. 

Limneria, 40. 

Liobunum, 82, 89. 

Trachemys, 228. 

Virginia, 307. 
Elm seeds as food of German Carp, 

144. 
emarginata, Entilia, 397. 

Membracis, 396. 
emissarius, Phreoryctes, 108. 
emoryi, Coluber, 290. 

Scotophis, 290. 
Emydidse, 217, 218. 

synopsis of the genera repre- 
sented in Illinois, 218. 
Emys, 218, 221. 

belli, 223. 

conciuna. 231. 

elegans, 228. 

geographica, 234, 235, 236. 

hieroglyphica, 231. 

lesueurii, 234. 

meleagris, 185, 221. 

picta, 226. 

pseudogeographica, 234. 

troostii, 229. 
Emysaura serpentina, 244. 
Enchenopa, 4<)l. 

antonina, 4<)4. 



520 



INDEX. 



Enclienopa — Continued. 

apicalis, 462. 

bifusifera, 4r)3. 

biniaculata. 4(54, 

binotata, 4G2. 4H3, 479. 

bivittata, 462. 

brevis, 4(53, 479. 

curvata, 465. 

curvicornis, 463. 

densa, 464. 

frigida, 464. 

gracilis, 46(5. 

ignidorsum, 461, 4(52. 

latipes, 464. 

malaleuca, 464. 

minans, 464. 

sericea, 463. 

taurina, 403. 

uiiivittata, 412. 

venosa, 4(34. 
Enchophyllimi, 465. 

binotatum, 462, 463. 

fasciatum, 465, 466. 

latipes, 4(54. 

rileyi, 465. 

trimaculatum. 4(i5. 
Engystoma, 331. 

carolinense, 331. 
Engystomidae, 318, 331. 
Ennya auriflua, 424. 
Enterion foetidum, 72. 

herculeum, 73. 
Entilia. See under Entylia. 
Entomostraca as food of young sala- 
manders, 352. 
Entylia. 396. 

accisa, 396, 397. 

aroeolata, :;98. 

bactriana, 397, 398, 479. 

carinata, 397. 

concava, 397, 398. 

concisa, 396, 397. 

decisa, 396. 

dispar, 479. 

emarginata, 397. 

impedita, 397. 

insequalis, 398. 



Entylia— Cou tinned. 

indecisa, 397. 

niira, 398. 

modesta, 399. 

reducta, 397. 

sinuata, 39(5, 397, 479. 

torva. 397. 
Ephemeridse, 179. 

egg8 of, 180. 

food of larvae of, 180. 
ephippium, Horiola, 393. 

Tragopa, 393. 
Episeschna heros, 178. 
erythrocephalns, Plestiodon, 257. 

Scincus, 257, 258. 
erythrogaster, Coluber, 269. 

Nerodia, 2(59, 271. 

Tropidonotus, 2(59. 
erythrogrammus, Abastor, 280. 

Calopisma, 280. 

Coluber, 280. 

Helicops, 280. 

Hydrops, 280. 
erythronota, Salamandra, 366. 
erythronotus, Plethodon, 365, 366, 367. 
Esocidse, 140. 
Esox lucius, 140. 

vermiculatus, 141. 
Essex Institute, Communications of 

the, cited, 79. 
Etheostoma aspro, 138. 

caprodes, 138. 

jessiae, var. asprigene, 138. 

nigrum, 138. 

phoxocephalum, 138. 
Eucoila, 204. 

7-spinosa, 204. 
Eucoilidea, 205. 

rufipes, 205. 
Euglena, 180, 184. 

viridis, 184. 
Eumeces, 25